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of Mathematics
October 12, 2003
Donna McLeish
mcleishhm@aol.com
Email for a copy of this presentation>Z,"&B
0M^The FEAR of Algebra6% New Content in Math Textbooks &%fAlgebra for ALL Must Begin in Kindergarten& for ALL$4%Identify, sort, and classify objects by size, number, and other attributes.
Identify objects that do not belong to a particular group.
Identify, copy, and make simple patterns with numbers and shapes. $0And continue every year& The Indiana Academic StandardsMathematics specify yearbyyear content standards and indicators for:
Number Sense
Computation
Algebra and Functions
Geometry
Measurement
Data Analysis and ProbabilityTfZbZ*< 3Grade 1/Write and solve number sentences from problem situations involving addition and subtraction.
Create word problems that match given number sentences involving addition and subtraction.
Recognize and use the relationship between addition and subtraction.
Create and extend number patterns using addition.
@0P[]E2 Grade 2?Relate problem situations to number sentences involving addition and subtraction.
Use the commutative and associative rules for addition to simplify mental calculations and to check results.
Recognize and extend a linear pattern by its rules.
Create, describe, and extend number patterns using addition and subtraction.8@ZPo2O
Grade 3Represent relationships of quantities in the form of a numeric expression or equation.
Solve problems involving numeric equations.
Choose appropriate symbols for operations and relations to make a number sentence true.
Understand and use the commutative and associative rules of multiplication.
Create, describe, and extend number patterns using multiplication.
Solve simple problems involving a functional relationship between two quantities.
Plot and label whole numbers on a number line up to 10.hZW,XLCR8Grade 4Use letters, boxes, or other symbols to represent any number in simple expressions, equations, or inequalities (i.e., demonstrate an understanding of and the use of the concept of a variable).
Use and interpret formulas to answer questions about quantities and their relationships.
Understand that multiplication and division are performed before addition and subtraction in expressions without parentheses.
Understand that an equation such as y = 3x + 5 is a rule for finding a second number when a first number is given.
Continue number patterns using multiplication and division.
Recognize and apply the relationships between addition and multiplication, between subtraction and division, and the inverse relationship between multiplication and division to solve problems.
Relate problem situations to number sentences involving multiplication and division.
Plot and label whole numbers on a number line up to 100. Estimate positions on the number line.PY~$I<UaGrade 5Use a variable to represent an unknown number.
Write simple algebraic expressions in one or two variables and evaluate them by substitution.
Use the distributive property in numerical expressions and equations.
Identify and graph ordered pairs of positive numbers.
Find ordered pairs (positive numbers only) that fit a linear equation, graph the ordered pairs, and draw the line they determine.
Understand that the length of a horizontal line segment on a coordinate plane equals the difference between the xcoordinates and that the length of a vertical line segment on a coordinate plane equals the difference between the ycoordinates.
Use information taken from a graph or equation to answer questions about a problem situation.P/^F6pt^
Grade 6Write and solve onestep linear equations and inequalities in one variable and check the answers.
Write and use formulas with up to three variables to solve problems.
Interpret and evaluate mathematical expressions that use grouping symbols such as parentheses.
Use parentheses to indicate which operation to perform first when writing expressions containing more than two terms and different operations.
Use variables in expressions describing geometric quantities.
Apply the correct order of operations and the properties of real numbers (e.g., identity, inverse, commutative, associative, and distributive properties) to evaluate numerical expressions. Justify each step in the process.
Identify and graph ordered pairs in the four quadrants of the coordinate plane.
Solve problems involving linear functions with integer values. Write the equation and graph the resulting ordered pairs of integers on a grid.
Investigate how a change in one variable relates to a change in a second variable.PbE]<NS Grade 7Use variables and appropriate operations to write an expression, a formula, an equation, or an inequality that represents a verbal description.
Write and solve twostep linear equations and inequalities in one variable and check the answers.
Use correct algebraic terminology, such as variable, equation, term, coefficient, inequality, expression, and constant.
Evaluate numerical expressions and simplify algebraic expressions by applying the correct order of operations and the properties of rational numbers (e.g., identity, inverse, commutative, associative, and distributive properties). Justify each step in the process.
Solve an equation or formula with two variables for a particular variable.
Define slope as vertical change per unit of horizontal change and recognize that a straight line has constant slope or rate of change.
Find the slope of a line from its graph.
Draw the graph of a line given the slope and one point on the line, or two points on the line.
Identify functions as linear or nonlinear and examine their characteristics in tables, graphs, and equations.
Identify and describe situation with constant or varying rates of change and know that a constant rate of change describes a linear function.PbvK)_n
Grade 8Write and solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, interpret the solution or solutions in their context, and verify the reasonableness of the results.
Solve systems of two linear equations using the substitution method and identify approximate solutions graphically.
Interpret positive integer powers as repeated multiplication and negative integer powers as repeated division or multiplication by the multiplicative inverse.
Use the correct order of operations to find the values of algebraic expressions involving powers.
Identify and graph linear functions and identify lines with positive and negative slope.
Find the slope of a linear function given the equation and write the equation of a line given the slope and any point on the line.
Demonstrate an understanding of rate as a measure of one quantity with respect to another quantity.
Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship among tables, equations, verbal expressions, and graphs of linear functions.
Represent simple quadratic functions using verbal descriptions, tables, graphs, and formulas and translate among these representations.
Graph functions of the form y=nx2 and y=nx3 and describe the similarities and differences in the graphs.PtbWd~?.So& How do we teach it?Textbook exercises not fun
Workbook pages not fun
Worksheets not fun
Games FUN But do they teach algebra topics?
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"Let s try a few & JKindergarten What s My Rule? Fishing
Grade 1 Guess the Rule; Magic Bag
Grade 2 What s My Attribute Rule?
Grade 3 What s My Rule? Function Machine
Grade 4 Credits/Debits
Grade 5 Top It: Positive/Negative Numbers
Grade 6 What s My Rule? Formulas
Grade 7 Solution Search
&%%$Now ask yourself & (Did you have fun&
Did you learn more about&
attributes
patterns
positive and negative numbers
equations
inequalities
Did you learn some algebra???@,I ,K RIf you can answer Yes then you can say+I learned some algebra and it was painless!,,HZLet s give our students the same opportunity.VLife isn t all fun and games, and neither is the learning of algebra.
But fun and games can and should be an important part of how we teach algebra at every grade level.
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Resource Teacher s Guide to Games
Grades K6
from
Everyday Mathematics
Wright Group
The McGrawHill Companies
(wrightgroup.com)Nw(f:What s My Rule? Fishing K181Object: To identify a sorting rule
Directions
The teacher fishes for a few students using some obvious attribute. The teacher fishes out a few people wearing brown, for example, without explaining what he is fishing for.
The teacher asks What sort of a fish am I going to catch next? or What s my rule?
Students guess until someone says Students wearing brown.
The teacher asks Who are the students NOT in my net?
Students identify those students.
Repeat steps 15 using other obvious attributes
P/n/Magic Bag 1109Object: To Identify the Rule
Directions:
The teacher tells the class that they are going to play a guessing game using a magic bag. The teacher puts 1 stick in the bag, says a magic word, and takes 2 sticks out of the bag. Next, the teacher puts 2 sticks in the bag and pulls out 3 sticks.
The teacher repeats the activity several times by always taking out 1 more stick than is put into the bag. The class describes a rule for the magic bag s action (add 1, 1 more, next number& ).
Teacher (or student volunteer) repeats the activity for other rules. The rest of the class guesses the rule.6**n**BWhat s My Attribute Rule? 2180"(p Object: To be the first player to identify a rule used to sort a set of attribute blocks.
Directions:
Players label one sheet of paper: These fit the rule.
Players label another sheet: These do NOT fit the rule.
Players take turns. Each player rolls the die once The player with the lowest number is the first Rule Maker.
The Rule Maker mixes the Attribute Rule cards and then stacks them facedown.
The Rule Maker turns over the top card but does not show it to the other players or tell them what the rule is.
The Rule Maker chooses 3 or 4 attribute blocks that fit the rule on the card, then places the blocks on the sheet labeled These fit the rule.
(continued on next page)
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The Rule Maker chooses 3 or 4 attribute blocks that do NOT fit the rule on the card, then places the blocks on the sheet labeled These do NOT fit the rule.
The other players are the Guessers. The Guessers take turns. Each one chooses a block that he or she thinks might fit the rule.
The Rule Maker tells each Guesser Yes or No. The Guesser puts the block on the correct sheet. The Guesser suggests what the rule might be. The Rule Maker tells the Guesser if his or her rule is correct.
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Bremen Bd BTTimes New RomanBlendsMicrosoft Graph ChartAlgebra for ALLThe FEAR of Algebra4Algebra for ALL Must Begin in Kindergartenfor ALLAnd continue every yearGrade 1Grade 2Grade 3Grade 4Grade 5Grade 6Grade 7Grade 8So How do we teach it?Lets try a few Now ask yourself *If you can answer Yes then you can say.Lets give our students the same opportunity.Resource Whats My Rule? Fishing K181Magic Bag 1109"Whats My Attribute Rule? 2180 Fonts UsedDesign TemplateEmbedded OLE Servers
Slide Titles 8@_PID_HLINKSAlmailto:mcleishhm@aol.com%_>
eDonna McLeishDonna McLeish
!"#$%&'()*+,./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{}~Root EntrydO)PicturesCurrent UserSummaryInformation(_GPowerPoint Document(bDocumentSummaryInformation8Root EntrydO)̹VPicturesCurrent UserPSummaryInformation(_G(_>N. Kathryn EssexN. Kathryn Essex