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Accreditation Report 2002
Core Campuses: Bloomington and Indianapolis

for the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education
and the Indiana Professional Standards Board


Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions: IUB Response

Candidates preparing to work in schools as teachers or other professional school personnel know and demonstrate the content, pedagogical, and professional knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary to help all students learn. Assessments indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and institutional standards.

Introduction

Indiana University School of Education-Bloomington (IUB) offers six initial teacher and fourteen other school professional preparation programs. Beginning in 1994, the faculty began an extensive review of each of the programs in concert with the initiative of the Indiana Professional Standards Board (IPSB) to develop standards and performance-based preparation programs. To date, the IPSB has developed and adopted performance-based standards, based on the INTASC Principles that address four developmental levels and ten content areas. The result of the IUB faculty effort was the creation of the School of Education's Six Guiding Principles that serve as the foundation of its conceptual framework. With the adoption of these guiding principles in 1996, the faculty initiated a re-design of its initial preparation programs. Over the course of the past six years, the faculty has developed eight new or revised programs, some of which began admitting candidates as early as Fall 2000. The 2002-2003 academic year is the first year in which candidates will graduate from one of the new or revised programs. Thus, it is important to note that not all of the programs described in this report have been offered in their entirety to date. There are some courses within programs that have been designed but not yet delivered. Consequently, the assessment data available are incomplete. Yet, each of the programs is designed to incorporate a full and thorough range of assessments to inform both the candidates and the faculty about candidates' performance.

Each of the IUB preparation programs is designed to address the school's Six Guiding Principles, the INTASC principles, and the respective IPSB developmental level and content area standards. The faculty review of each program, with these principles and standards in mind, incorporated a study both of the curriculum and of the candidate assessments. Efforts have been made to identify the key performance assessments within each curriculum to ensure that both the candidates and the faculty know the candidates' progress and success in meeting the expectations of the associated program. A summary of each program's curriculum and assessments in relation to the appropriate principles and standards is available on the initial license program pages. These program matrices display where in each program the respective principles and standards are addressed, the sources of evidence of the candidates' performance, and the criteria by which the evidence is evaluated by the faculty.

A review of the program matrices indicates that all of the respective principles and standards are addressed and specifically assessed through the course of the programs. The types of evidence which faculty review range from examinations and reflective papers to case studies of students and candidate-prepared lesson and unit presentations. Clearly, the faculty assesses these activities by criteria representative of the appropriate principles and standards.

In addition to the assessments identified by individual program matrices, some programs have established benchmarks that serve to communicate to the candidates the level of their progress and success through the program. Data from these benchmarks also serve to inform the faculty about the effectiveness of the courses and of the overall program design. A summary of each program's benchmarks is available within electronic program folders..

The School of Education also has adopted four benchmarks applicable to all candidates. These benchmarks occur at the point of:

  • admissions to teacher education,
  • retention in teacher education,
  • eligibility to student teach, and
  • eligibility for graduation/certification recommendation.

Across these benchmarks, the unit utilizes both internal and external data, including grade point averages (GPA's), Praxis I and II scores, and faculty recommendations. The school's assessment system also incorporates the use of a self-assessment instrument at three points during candidates' course of study at the School:

  • the point of application to teacher education (prior to professional education course work)
  • the start of student teaching (completion of professional education course work)
  • the end of student teaching
  • The intent of this longitudinal use of a self-assessment instrument is to document and to analyze candidates' professional growth over the course of their initial preparation. The full implementation of this self-assessment instrument throughout the programs will begin with the 2002-2003 applicants to teacher education.

    To complement performance data collected and reviewed during candidates' course of study, the school also has available data about the success of its graduates. In addition to the standardized examination data, Praxis II, mentioned above, the school regularly reviews evaluations received from Indiana principals who have first year teachers from IUB, as well as information about the placement of IUB graduates in professional positions. Since 1998 the self-assessment instrument has been sent to IUB graduates, serving to provide the faculty with candidates' perceptions as to their readiness for their professional careers.

    Element One: Content Knowledge for Initial Teacher Candidates

    The school's candidates' content knowledge is assessed throughout their course of study. At each of the School's benchmarks, candidates' grade point averages are reviewed to ensure that they meet standards set by the faculty. At the point of admission to teacher education, candidates must present Praxis I scores that meet the standards set by the IPSB and an overall GPA of 2.5 reflective of their general education and preliminary content study. Each semester candidates' earned GPA is monitored to assure they are maintaining a minimum 2.5 GPA in their course of study as required by the faculty. In order for candidates to be eligible to student teach, they must indicate a proficiency in their respective content as demonstrated by their GPA, both overall and in their content area(s), and success in their professional methods courses. The faculty has set the standard of a 2.0 GPA in each of five specific content areas for elementary candidates, and a standard of a 2.5 GPA in the respective teaching area for secondary and all-grade candidates. Also, candidates must have earned a minimum 2.0 in each professional education course, in which they demonstrate their content proficiency integrated with their pedagogical and professional knowledge and skills. In order to graduate from the School of Education, candidates must have maintained the respective GPA levels indicated above, along with an overall GPA of 2.5.

    In addition to these performance data, candidates' content knowledge is assessed by practitioners in the schools and externally on the Praxis II examination.

    Student Teaching Content Knowledge Assessment: As a part of the student teaching evaluation, teachers evaluate candidates' content knowledge. Their content knowledge has been measured by their supervising teachers on an 8-point Likert scale. Scores of 6 -- 8 indicate excellent knowledge; scores of 3 -- 5 indicate good knowledge; and scores of 0 -- 2 indicate needs improvement. The average content knowledge scores for the past 4 semesters indicated excellent performance.

    Chart 1: Student Teaching: Content Knowledge Assessment
    Likert Scale 0-8 (8 high)
    Fall 2000 Spring 2001 Fall 2001 Spring2002
    Number: 278 430 246 283
    Avg. Score: 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.9

    Additional data are available (see document room - Student Teaching Evaluation Analyses) in histograms analyzed in three ways: scores for all candidates by semester; scores for all candidates by licensure area and semester; scores by secondary content area and semester. The average for all candidates by semester is noted above. Scores for all licensure areas were very good. All 99.7% of the candidates score in the good or excellent performance categories. Scores for secondary candidates by content areas were all very positive. 328/329 secondary candidate scores were in the good or excellent performance categories with most scores in the "excellent content knowledge" category.

    Praxis II Data: Results by content area across four years of testing (1997-2001) are available in bar graph format, comparing the scores of IUB candidates to the national testing pool (see Praxis Report Four Year Summary). The data indicate that IUB teacher education candidates routinely achieve higher passing rates in each content area compared to the national average, and an overwhelming majority of IUB candidates pass these subject area exams.

    Additional Faculty Efforts: In addition to unit-wide assessments, there are two more individualized faculty efforts to ascertain candidates' proficiency in their respect content. One is the 21st Century Teachers Project, a university collaborative effort between the College of Arts and Sciences (COAS) and the School of Education. This Project involves faculty from these two units along with school educators who have been meeting to discuss the strengthening of the content course work for all university students, but particularly for School of Education candidates. This Project has brought together faculty and educators to discuss six academic areas: mathematics, science, literature and speech, visual and performing arts, civics, and globalization. These discussions have centered around identifying the most appropriate COAS courses for education candidates to ensure their content proficiencies both in terms of P-12 Indiana curriculum standards and IPSB content standards. See the 21st Century Teachers Project Report 2001-2002 for a summary of the actions and deliberations of these collaborative groups.

    The second effort has involved the faculty in the individual initial preparation programs. In the design of each of these programs, the faculty has addressed where the candidates meet the respective content knowledge standards and how the candidates' proficiency is assessed. A review of the program matrices referenced earlier indicates that across the programs, the faculty evaluates candidates' knowledge using various means.

    New Graduate Self-Assessment Results: Content Knowledge: The self-assessment instrument, Teaching Abilities Self-Assessment Instrument, has been completed by new graduates for three years includes information about their perceived proficiency in their content knowledge. The table below shows the mean scores by licensure area for the past three academic years. The scoring range is 1 to 5; with 5 indicating excellent content knowledge.

    Table 5: First Year Teacher Self-Assessment Results: Content Knowledge
    Likert Scale 1-5 (5 high)

    AGGREGATION

    ACCORDINGTO ACADEMIC MAJOR

    Year N Content Knowledge
    Special Education
    1998-1999 14 4.43
    2000-2001 25 4.28
    2001-2002 1 3.00
    Total 40 4.30
    ECE/K-3
    1998-1999 53 4.21
    2000-2001 30 4.28
    2001-2002 6 4.00
    Total 89 4.22
    Elementary
    1998-1999 172 4.43
    2000-2001 140 4.36
    2001-2002 51 4.37
    Total 363 4.40
    Secondary
    1998-1999 139 4.30
    2000-2001 107 4.24
    2001-2002 22 4.55
    Total 268 4.30
    All Grades
    1998-1999 27 4.44
    2000-2001 25 4.64
    2001-2002 8 4.75
    Total 60 4.57

    Element One: Content Knowledge for Advanced Teacher Candidates

    The school takes a strong stand in supporting the need for all of its candidates having a thorough grounding in content knowledge. Admission to a Graduate Education program in the School of Education is competitive and selective. Candidates may apply for advanced programs in language education, social studies education, art education, elementary education, secondary education and special education. Most departments in the school have admissions committees to review applications and all require either an undergraduate grade point average of 3.0 or a score of 1300 on the Graduate Record Exam.

    It is noteworthy that during the past year there were 1,231 applications for admission to all of the school's graduate programs and 580 of them were accepted. All advanced teaching candidates must hold an education professional license and usually they have completed three successful years of teaching. Further, all advanced teaching candidates have already mastered entry level skills including student teaching. Additionally, they have achieved a qualifying score of the state mandated competency exams that include an assessment of basic skills and a second exam that assesses the content knowledge of the individual. The qualifying scores for the state of Indiana rank among the highest in the country.

    As a rule, all advanced programs require a minimum of 36 credit hours. Advanced candidates complete 15-18 graduate hours in their major area, 3-6 hours of Foundations courses, 9-18 hours of electives, and either a thesis or a practicum, each amounting to 6 hours. The following paragraphs describe the advanced programs.

    The Master's Degree Program in Art Education may be used to help experienced teachers improve their competencies and to prepare students to teach art at all levels of education. This program offers courses in curriculum theory and development, computer graphics and other technology, art education history and literature, art instruction for atypical populations, development and applications of testing in art education, museum education, and other aspects of art education. The program content focuses on subject-matter-centered (comprehensive art education), child-centered (artistic development), society-centered (community-based), and international-centered orientations. Our program also includes a strong emphasis on new media, technologies and popular culture that relate to art education theory and practice, and on art talent development.

    The Master's Degree in Elementary Education offers an advanced degree for experienced teachers seeking to enhance their knowledge and skills as teachers. Core courses in the major include opportunities for students to explore current theories of learning and instruction, to engage in inquiry and reflection on teaching practice, to examine the social and cultural contexts of contemporary schools, and to analyze the nature and purposes of current perspectives on curriculum. Candidates also select courses in the advanced study of content areas relevant to elementary education. The program encourages candidates to pursue individual interests in depth through elective courses. Since most of the students in the program are practicing teachers, no additional formal field experience is required. Candidates, however, often use course assignments as opportunities to integrate current curriculum theory and teaching methods into their own classroom practices. As a culminating experience, candidates elect to write a thesis or to complete a practicum project. The practicum option is most often selected by students and is carried out as an action research project in their own classroom or school.

    The Master's Degree Program in Language Education is available at both Bloomington and Indianapolis. It prepares classroom teachers of English, Bilingual Education, English as a New Language, English as a Foreign Language or foreign languages, and reading for positions of leadership in their fields, particularly in the development of improved instructional procedures and curricula. Language Education applicants require a strong academic record in a program broadly based in the language arts and children's or adolescent literature and two years of teaching (or alternative experience). Graduates may assume positions as teachers, language education or reading specialists, instructional leaders in language education, or writers and editors of instructional materials. Language education courses focus upon the improvement of instruction through an understanding of language and literacy processes in cultural contexts, the integration of formal and informal assessment with instruction, and the application of research knowledge to practice and internship opportunities. Course work involves experiences with children, high school and college youth, and adults. Opportunities to apply current technology to teaching and learning are abundant.

    The Advanced Program for Certification as Teacher of Library Media is a graduate level educational experience usually resulting in a Master's Degree in Library and Information Science. The Teacher of Library and Media provides leadership in the integration of information literacy skills across the curriculum and manages library, media and technology services that enhance and increase access to information resources needed by students, teachers, administrators and parents.

    The Secondary Education Master's Program is available at Bloomington and Indianapolis campuses. This program may be used to help experienced teachers improve their knowledge and skills. The program prepares candidates for positions in middle schools, junior high schools, and high schools as professional classroom teachers, supervising teachers, or department chairpersons. In addition to general curriculum studies of secondary education, tracks are available in Mathematics Education or Science Education.

    The Social Studies Education Master's Program, available only at Bloomington, provides an opportunity for specialization within the social studies education field. It prepares students for positions in schools as professional classroom teachers, supervising teachers, and department chairpersons. Students seeking these positions must also meet the licensure requirements.

    The Special Education Master's Degree Program Both the Bloomington and Indianapolis campuses offer, for regular and special education teachers, special education licensing and master's degree programs in the areas of learning disabilities, emotional handicaps, and mild mental handicaps. Master's degree programs in severe disabilities and transition planning are available only at IUPUI. Only the Bloomington campus offers an option for special education teachers to earn an endorsement in the area of early childhood special education. Master's programs may be tailored to meet students' specific needs and interests.

    Element Two: Content Knowledge for Other Professional School Personnel (Advanced Only)

    The school is committed to excellence in the content knowledge of advanced education professionals. School social work (IUPUI), school counseling, educational leadership, school psychology, school media services, and speech and hearing clinicians are offered exclusively at the graduate level to assure strong content preparation. Admission to all advanced programs requires the successful completion of a bachelor's degree and the demonstration of a strong academic record.

    Graduate study in the school is known for its rigor and high standards. Admission is very competitive with some programs of study expecting a GRE combined score of 1300 or higher, a 3.0 minimum undergraduate grade point average for consideration for admission, and at least two letters of recommendation. The programs that prepare candidates for educational positions outside the traditional classroom setting require rigorous coursework that prepares candidates in the concepts and modes of inquiry central to their field of study. Virtually, all programs offering training for these candidates are affiliated with national professional organizations whose standards guide all aspects of their programs. Graduate study with its close, collaborative work between faculty and candidates assures that candidate performance is continuously monitored and assessed.

    The School Psychology Program (EdS.) at Indiana University espouses the scientist-practitioner model in which the graduate is prepared to solve problems associated with the personal, social, and educational development of children and youth from diverse cultural, economic, ethnic, and racial backgrounds. Emphasis is placed on the integration of research and practice with the goal to instill in the students the belief that the professional psychologist should use the current knowledge to address the myriad of factors that may affect children's development. Scientist-practitioners also contribute to the knowledge base of psychology. School psychologists address needs of individual students, but also emphasize advocacy for change within systems and organizations that serve children. This program is accredited by the National Association of School Psychologists and the American Psychological Association.

    The Educational Leadership program is available at both Bloomington and Indianapolis. The educational leadership master's degree program is combined with a program to obtain the Initial Administration License for building administrators. This program is available only to those who hold a standard or proficient practitioner teaching license. A minimum of two years of teaching experience is required for admission to the master's program.

    The specialist degree or the doctoral degree in educational leadership is required for the superintendent's license. The program prepares leaders for public and nonpublic schools, state departments of education, education service centers, and national and state professional associations. Most graduates are employed as school superintendents, assistant superintendents of schools, school principals, administrators of special education, directors of personnel, directors of curriculum instruction and business managers of school systems. The faculty maintains many close links with international, national, and state professional associations, with the Indiana Department of Education, with the Indiana Professional Standards Board, with federal agencies, and with business firms. Faculty-directed research and field studies in school districts afford opportunities for students to participate in the application of theory and knowledge to solving practical problems.

    The major tenet of the School Counseling program is to develop counselors with exceptional clinical skills who will work in a school environment. Graduates will be reflective practitioners who will continue the process of self-critique and self-improvement throughout their professional lives. These reflective practitioners are committed learners who will continue to build their knowledge base. These learners know and can apply ethical counseling principles. Furthermore, these learners can understand and apply research findings with a commitment to instituting empirically supported interventions and programs. This program is available at the Bloomington and Indianapolis campuses and requires a minimum of 48 semester hours of credit. The program provides knowledge and skills for entry-level school counselors in accordance with the requirements of the Indiana Professional Standards Board and the standards of the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Other Related Programs (CACREP).

    The Master of Arts Degree in Speech-Language Pathology provides exposure to all areas of the field, while giving students the opportunity to specialize in areas of particular interest. To be awarded the M.A. degree, students must complete at least 36 credit hours of graduate course work. In speech-language pathology, this coursework will include five required courses designed to establish the theoretical and research foundations for clinical coursework, together with elective courses focusing on assessment and treatment of speech, voice, and language disorders, across the age span. Coursework will be accompanied by clinical practicum each semester. In addition to clinical experience in diagnosis and treatment of childhood and adult communication disorders, the practicum includes a weekly seminar in which important clinical issues are presented and discussed. There are a number of prerequisites for graduate study and for achieving the Certificate of Clinical Competence in compliance with ASHA regulations.

    At this time, there are state mandated Praxis II Exams only for program completers in Library/Media. The graduates of the Library program have a 100 percent pass rate on this exam and have enjoyed that level of performance since testing was initiated in 1988. In January 2003, the program completers in the area of Educational Leadership will be required to successfully complete the school leaders licensure assessment exam (ETS) prior to receiving an administrative license. Within the next two years we expect that both Speech and Hearing graduates and School Counseling graduates will be required to achieve qualifying scores on state mandated exams although the effective date for this requirement has not been established.

    Element Three: Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teacher Candidates

    As mentioned above, each of the initial preparation programs incorporates curricula that integrate the pedagogical content set forth in the INTASC principles and the IPSB developmental and content standards. The program matrices on the program pages provide information about where pedagogical content is addressed, evidence of candidates' performance, and the criteria by which the faculty assess the candidates' performance. Each program specifically integrates the use of instructional technology both in the faculty delivery of the program and in the program curriculum. An analysis of these program matrices indicates the range and depth of the candidates' exposure to instructional technology and their use of it during the course of their programs.

    In addition to individual program evaluations of candidates' pedagogical content knowledge, evidence also is provided by teachers who work with the candidates as student teachers and administrators who assess the graduates during their first year of teaching. The data from these external sources are provided below.

    Student Teaching Instructional Competency Assessment: Supervising teachers evaluate candidates in the following eight areas: curriculum development, classroom management, planning, stimulates thinking, methods, resources and materials, critical reflection skills, and knowledge of student development. Ratings of candidates were completed on an 8-point Likert scale. Scores of 6 -- 8 indicate excellent performance; scores of 3 -- 5 indicate good performance; and scores of 0 -- 2 indicate a need for improvement. The scores for all eight categories were combined to obtain a single score for instructional competency.

    The average scores for instructional competency for the past four semesters indicated excellent performance:

    Chart 2: Student Teaching: Instructional Competency Assessment
    Likert Scale 0-8 (8 high)
    Fall 2000 Spring 2001 Fall 2001 Spring2002
    Number: 2213 3419 1955 2258
    Avg. Score: 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.8

    Additional data are available at (Student Teaching Evaluation Analysis:.) in histograms analyzed in three ways: scores for all candidates by semester; scores by licensure area by semester; scores by secondary content area and semester. The mean scores for all candidates by semester are noted above. Scores for all licensure areas were very good with 99.5% of the scores indicating good or excellent performance. 2,593/2,617 (99%) of secondary candidate scores by content area were in the good or excellent performance categories for instructional competency with most candidates rated as excellent.

    New Graduate Self-Assessment: Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Furthermore, graduates provide evidence of their pedagogical content knowledge on the self-assessment instrument sent to them. These data for the past three years are presented below.

    Table 6: Graduate Self-Assessment Data Re:
    Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    AGGREGATION

    ACCORDING TO ACADEMIC MAJOR

    Year N Pedagogical Content
    Special Education
    1998-1999 14 4.49
    2000-2001 25 4.39
    2001-2002 1 2.76
    Total 40 4.38
    ECE/K-3
    1998-1999 53 4.24
    2000-2001 30 4.40
    2001-2002 6 4.14
    Total 89 4.29
    Elementary
    1998-1999 172 4.30
    2000-2001 140 4.31
    2001-2002 51 4.31
    Total 363 4.31
    Secondary
    1998-1999 139 4.17
    2000-2001 107 4.13
    2001-2002 22 4.28
    Total 268 4.16
    All Grades
    1998-1999 27 4.25
    2000-2001 25 4.43
    2001-2002 8 4.18
    Total 60 4.32

    Element Three: Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Advanced Teacher Candidates

    Pedagogical content knowledge comprises specialized knowledge of the interaction of content and effective teaching strategies to help students learn the subject matter. It requires a thorough understanding of subject matter content to teach it in multiple ways, drawing on the cultural backgrounds and prior knowledge and experiences of students. Thus, the advanced teacher candidates are expected to develop competence in their subject matter as appropriate for the developmental level to which the candidate is assigned.

    All advanced programs in teaching and learning provide multiple opportunities for the in-service educator to engage students in the classroom and practice their pedagogical content knowledge with the diversity of learners in the teacher's own classroom. By understanding content, candidates are able to apply the research of effective teaching and best practices to their own context. A comprehensive knowledge base in subject matter allows candidates the important option of teaching content in a variety of ways using multiple instructional strategies depending on the needs of the individual learners.

    Programs for advanced candidates generally include a course in inquiry or research. Candidates are expected to develop an understanding of the connections among pedagogy, content, and assessment. Advanced teacher candidates bring a well-defined knowledge of instructional strategies learned during their initial preparation program and refined through experience and further study of the knowledge, skills and dispositions that help all students learn. Some advanced programs require candidates to develop portfolios that are intended to promote reflection on the practice of teaching, including the intent of their lessons, the actual event, its outcomes, and what the teacher would do differently the next time. Further, some courses require candidates to link their daily experiences with the ethical and social issues explored in their foundations courses.

    See listing of courses and course syllabi on the advanced programs pages.

    Element Four: Professional and Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills for Teacher Candidates

    The design of each initial preparation program is grounded in the INTASC and School's Six Guiding Principles. As exhibited in the program matrices, these principles as well as the appropriate IPSB developmental and content standards are addressed and assessed in each program. Specific reference to the candidates' knowledge and use of instructional technology is made in the matrices.

    The evidence cited above from the student teaching evaluations and graduate self-assessments affirm the candidates' professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills. Each of the preparation programs has a range of field experiences, from two to three in the secondary and all-grade programs to four in the elementary programs. As appropriate to the level of field experience, candidates are evaluated on their professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills by either the teachers and/or university instructors involved. The field experiences provide candidates opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge and skills, as well as opportunities for constructive assessments of their abilities. A summary of the field experiences in each program and the respective expectations of each field experience is available.

    Element Four: Professional and Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills for Advanced Teacher Candidates

    Pedagogical knowledge includes those general concepts, theories, and research about effective teaching that are irrespective of the content area. Professional knowledge includes the historical, economic, sociological, philosophical, and psychological understandings of schooling and education. Further, it includes knowledge about learning, diversity, technology, professional ethics, legal and policy issues, pedagogy, and the roles and responsibilities of the profession of teaching.

    Advanced candidates have already been introduced to this content during their initial preparation programs. Thus, during their advanced program teaching candidates will take additional coursework concerned with teaching all learners, infusion of technology in their teaching, foundations of education graduate level coursework, and coursework on how students learn. Programs in the school employ multiple means to assess advanced candidates' professional and pedagogical knowledge and skills. The advanced conceptual framework requires candidates to reflect on their practice as they master the principles included in the framework.

    The art of reflection on performance is a skill that is valued by the school, and candidates are expected to reflect on their teaching and make appropriate changes in their instructional strategies to facilitate student learning. Through structured activities during courses and opportunities in the field, candidates learn and practice skills of reflection by keeping logs, daily journals, and focused analysis of students (case studies).

    See advanced program pages and course syllabi for specific examples.

    Element Five: Professional Knowledge and Skills for Other School Personnel

    Given the divergence in foci across programs preparing education professionals other than teachers, it is not surprising that there is little commonality in the professional knowledge and skills expected of their candidates. With each of these program areas either accredited by a national professional organization or meeting the standards developed by a licensure consortium, the range of expectations is diverse.

    Yet there is less divergence in modes of assessing these knowledge expectations and skills. Some programs evaluate candidate performance on activities drawn from national professional standards, or employ role-play, simulation, reflective journals, and evaluation of classroom discussions. Other program areas use extensive internships and practicum experiences to assess candidate performance. Generally, all program areas rely on performance results of course assignments, projects, exams and products along with the traditional modes of assessment embedded in graduate education.

    See advanced program pages for information on nationally accredited programs.

    Element Six: Dispositions for all Candidates

    The School's Six Guiding Principles reflect the dispositions that the IUB education faculty believes are important for teaching professionals. As indicated earlier, each of the programs incorporates these principles, and thus model and integrate these dispositions in the delivery of the curriculum and in the evaluation of candidates. Candidates are advised of these professional expectations in materials distributed upon admission to teacher education. Over the course of the candidates' preparation, both faculty and teachers provide an assessment of their professional dispositions.

    Student Teaching Professional Attribute Assessment Data: Professional attributes were measured by supervising teachers on an 8-point Likert scale using five evaluation categories: motivation, relationship with students, relationship with faculty and staff, relationship with parents and community, and communication skills. Scores of 6 -- 8 indicate excellent performance; scores of 3 -- 5 indicate good performance; and scores of 0 -- 2 indicated a need for improvement. The scores for all five categories were combined for a single professional attribute score.

    The average professional attribute scores for the past four semesters indicate excellent performance.

    Chart 3: Student Teaching: Professional Attributes Assessment
    Likert Scale 0-8 (8 high)
    Fall 2000 Spring 2001 Fall 2001 Spring2002
    Number: 1375 2118 1218 1391
    Avg. Score: 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.1

    Additional data are available (see document room - Student Teaching Evaluation Analysis) in histograms that are presented in three ways: scores for all candidates by semester; scores by licensure area by semester; scores by secondary content area and semester. The mean scores for all candidates by semester are noted above. Scores for all licensure areas were very good with 99.7% of the scores indicating good or excellent performance. Scores for all content areas were very positive. 1,582/1,591 (99.4%) of the secondary candidate scores were in the good or excellent performance categories for professional attributes, with most rated in the excellent range.

    Graduate Self-Assessment: Professional Dispositions: Graduates provide self-assessments of their professional attributes on the self-assessment instrument sent to them. These data are presented below.

    Table 7: Graduate Self-Assessment Data Re:Professional Dispositions

    AGGREGATION ACCORDING TO ACADEMIC MAJOR
    Year N Dispositions
    Special Education
    1998-1999 14 4.36
    2000-2001 25 4.49
    2001-2002 1 2.75
    Total 40 4.40
    ECE/K-3
    1998-1999 53 4.41
    2000-2001 30 4.53
    2001-2002 6 4.25
    Total 89 4.44
    Elementary
    1998-1999 172 4.41
    2000-2001 140 4.34
    2001-2002 51 4.46
    Total 363 4.39
    Secondary
    1998-1999 139 4.28
    2000-2001 107 4.16
    2001-2002 22 4.38
    Total 268 4.24
    All Grades
    1998-1999 27 4.43
    2000-2001 25 4.45
    2001-2002 8 4.38
    Total 60 4.43

    First Year (New) Graduate Assessment

    First year teachers in the state of Indiana are assessed by their respective school principals as a part of the state's Beginning Teacher Internship Program (see document room - Beginning Teacher Internship Program). The assessment is completed using a YES/NO response for eight criteria. The first year teachers receive either a PASS for a YES response on all eight criteria or receive a FAIL for any NO responses for the eight criteria. The criteria include:

    1. The beginning teacher manages instructional time effectively. Three different measures are used to assess time management.
    2. The beginning teacher manages student behavior effectively. Four different measures are used to assess classroom management.
    3. Instructional strategies and activities of the beginning teacher are effective. Twelve different measures are used to assess instructional strategies and activities employed.
    4. The beginning teacher actively monitors student performance. Four different measures are used to assess monitoring of student performance.
    5. The beginning teacher provides effective instructional feedback. Four different measures are used to assess effective use of feedback.
    6. The beginning teacher facilitates instruction. Seven different measures are used to assess facilitating instruction.
    7. The beginning teacher exhibits effective human relations skills within the educational environment. Four different measures are used to assess human relations skills.
    8. The beginning teacher performs non-instructional activities adequately. Three different measures are used to assess non-instructional activity performance.

    This external assessment of graduates working in Indiana schools summarizes the quality of IUB candidates' knowledge, skills and dispositions. The criteria noted above reflect content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, pedagogical and professional knowledge/skills, and professional dispositions.

  • 1999 -- 2000 Results: A total of 403 IUB beginning teachers were assessed. 400 / 403 or 99.3% of the teachers passed the assessment.
  • 2000 -- 2001 Results: A total of 419 IUB beginning teachers were assessed. 417 / 419 or 99.5% of the teachers passed the assessment.
  • Element Six: Dispositions for Advanced Candidates

    Professional educators inevitably have developed skills, but one of the attributes that sets them apart from other skilled workers is dispositional. Education professionals often refer to dispositions as habits of mind, habits of the heart, or habits of behavior over time. Regardless of the definition one prefers, advanced candidates' attitudes, value orientations, and beliefs inform, influence and guide their relationships with one another and with others whom they come into professional contact.

    The faculty values and seeks ways to nurture the professional dispositions of candidates in graduate level education programs. The faculty considers the following set of shared values or dispositions as those that influence our work as educators and those that we expect of experienced practitioners:

  • Achieving excellence in teaching, research and service
  • Appreciation of disciplinary knowledge
  • Encouraging reflection and problem solving about education issues
  • Establishing partnerships with a variety of constituents
  • Making optimal use of technological resources
  • Embracing the value of diversity and equity
  • Supporting the belief that all students can learn
  • The school promotes these dispositions through a variety of ways. First, its faculty models the dispositions in its daily interactions with advanced candidates, with experienced education professionals, with mentors of advanced candidates, and with one another. Second, through its emphasis on strong scholarship in content knowledge the school expects candidates to gain positive attitudes toward ideas and intellectual rigor. Third, many of the school's courses explicitly embed specific dispositions, particularly those related to diversity, democracy, professionalism, and attention to the contexts of educational activity. Some of the dispositions are found in courses infused with diversity content, in foundations of education courses, and some in curriculum and instruction courses and in language education courses.

    Assessing candidate dispositions has been more problematic than identifying them, not only in the school but throughout the history of teacher education. Our programs are generally good at identifying those candidates with habits of behavior that are not conducive to continued success in the classroom or in school related positions. Since all of the advanced candidates are either practicing educators or are in advanced programs leading to a license, the faculty is able to serve as mentors and advisors when behaviors are noted that warrant attention. There is much sensitivity to the issue of legal and ethical issues as they may apply to assessing dispositions. Therefore, we focus on behavior as the trait for assessment rather than personal beliefs, values and attitudes of our advanced candidates.

    See the conceptual framework for advanced programs for more information.

    Element Seven: Student Learning for Initial Teacher Candidates

    Among the unit's Six Guiding Principles is a focus on the principles of personalized learning and knowledge. Embedded in these principles are the concepts of developing instructional activities for all learners, as well as activities and assessments that address students' ability levels, interests and learning styles. In each of the program matrices (reference INTASC Principle 3 and the two Guiding Principles noted above), the faculty have identified the course(s) and activities that candidates complete to demonstrate their abilities to teach and to assess all learners. Much of the candidates' work is completed in the field experience component(s) within each program. A part of the lesson planning and instruction that candidates are required to complete in their field experiences is the assessment of students' learning. The programs that require portfolios, (e.g., early childhood education) incorporate documentation of candidates' impact on student learning. Examples of candidates' work will be available for review on campus.

    The new student teaching evaluation process includes specific reference to candidates' skills associated with personalized learning and knowledge (see Student Teaching Handbook ). Student teachers will be assessed on their abilities to:

  • develop lessons that reflect individual ability levels
  • develop instructional activities that address multiple learning styles
  • demonstrate an understanding of a variety of assessment strategies
  • utilize lesson plans that reflect student development, content knowledge and assessment strategies
  • Thus, the new student teaching evaluation process will provide evidence as to the candidates' abilities to have a positive effect on student learning.

    At this time, evidence of candidates' positive impact on students' learning is limited, given that this represents a relatively new criterion of assessment. As mentioned above, the effect of candidates' teaching and assessment on student learning is reviewed and assessed in each program's field experience component, but to date, there has not been systematic compilation of such evaluative data. Our updated programs, and particularly those that include some type of candidate portfolio assessment, are working to integrate this form of evaluation into their individual assessment process. Similarly, the new student teaching evaluation process will be reviewed to ensure that the school compiles informative data about student teachers' impact on student learning.

    Element Seven: Student Learning for Advanced Teacher Candidates

    Student learning represents the impetus for why we do what we do in teacher education. The development of the conceptual framework, the alignment of our courses with standards, and the implementation of the unit assessment system for advanced programs are all major components designed to prepare our candidates to have a positive impact on student learning. Our programs are designed to provide candidates with content knowledge, skills in pedagogy, and a professional framework to analyze student learning through formal and informal assessment strategies. The advent of the new NCATE Standards has challenged the school to reflect on our strategies of measuring the performance of candidates in the area of student learning. We are in the initial stages of having advanced candidates gather student work samples and having them consider ways to document that students are learning. A focus on student learning will be a significant component of our revised advanced master's program for experienced teachers.

    See document room for examples of student work samples from experienced educators.

    Element Eight: Student Learning for Other Professional School Personnel (Advanced Only)

    Other professional school personnel are further removed from student learning than classroom teachers. However, most programs expect that all education professionals have responsibility for enhancing the learning experience of students through the service each renders to the education enterprise. As with other aspects of these programs, assessment occurs in practica and internships.

    Student learning is becoming more of a critical focus in other professional school programs as we begin to explore the impact of candidate performance on student learning. These program areas also engage in many of the same activities as candidates pursuing advanced studies in teaching and learning. For example, in the school counseling program, candidates often videotape portions of their work with clients, analyze their skills, and of greatest importance, demonstrate change in their client's behavior from the point of initial intake to a counseling decision-making point. Candidates analyze their professional skills as related to the progress that clients are demonstrating over time.

    In the field of education leadership, new standards based upon leadership to enhance teaching and learning require a new way of thinking about the impact of candidates' performance on student learning. As candidates work to develop and demonstrate competencies deemed necessary to be successful educational leaders, the focus is ultimately on student learning, but at a more systemic level. Candidates invest their time in developing knowledge and skill to evaluate programs, understand educational policy and school law, develop community relations, and manage school finances to have a positive impact on student learning. Of equal importance for educational leaders is the school accountability movement that requires building principals to demonstrate that students are learning as evidenced by a variety of testing measures.


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    Comments: iuncate@indiana.edu
    This file was last updated on September 30, 2002 by Melissa Pinkney
    Copyright 2002, Trustees of Indiana University