PRONUNCIATION RULES: Worksheet

1. Syllable-final closure /2. Neuralization/3. Resyllabification/4. Nasal Assimilation/ 5. -assimilation/
6. Tensification/7. Aspiration and
-weakening/7. Palatalization/8. Palatalization/9. Double consonant reduction/

1. Syllable-final closure: Final consonants are unreleased syllable-finally. [Txt29, Rule 2, Practice 2]

: , , , Ʈ

: , ,

[No Korean words end in ħ.]

2.Neutralization: [Txt29, Rule 2]
Because of the Syllable closure rule, some consonants cannot be realized in the syllable-final position (in isolation or before another consonant), but are neutralized into , ,

a soul
 
[]
[]
sickle
face
an individual item
 
[]
[]
[]
[]
 
flower
light
clothes
 
[]
[]
[J]
[]
mouth
leaf
knees
price tagprice
 
[]
[]
[]
[]

 

3. Resyllabification: [Txt28, Rule 1, Practice 1]

(C)VC-V(C) --> (C)V-CV(C) : A syllable final consonant (ħ) moves into the next syllable when the next syllable begins with a vowel:

[ĥ]̿?

̸[̸] ?

г[]̿?

> e [Neutralization]: /eг/

+ = /Ź/

> before [Nasalization]: []

'neck'+= [] [cf. 'mosquito']
'siecle'+= []
'day time'+=[]
'face'+= [ġ]
'flower'+= [ġ]

'mouth'+= [̺]
'leaf'+= []

no consonant cluster within a syllable. [Txt. 28, Rule 1, practice 2]

    Cf. --> []
       ƿ --> [ƿ]   Cf. ƿ --> ƿ -->

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  4. Nasal Assimilation: [Txt 29, Rule 3, practice 3]
Final consonants(ħ) become nasalized when they are followed by a nasal consonant (i.e., , ).    

, ,                 --> : Ծ [Ӱſ] , Ը[Ӹ]
, ,                  --> : г [׳] , Ծ [ Ӱſ]
, , , , , , , , --> : [] , []


  5. -assimilation [Txt 30, Rule 4, Practice 4]

[] , [] , Ŷ [Ƕ]


    --> /when it follows and precedes /i/ or /y/:

[] , ↑ []

 

6. Tensification [Txt 307, Rule 5, Practice 5, 6]:
Consonant clusters are subject to simplification:
When the following sound is a consonant, consonant clusters are neutralized into one of the 7 representative final consonant, and the following obstruent (stop, affricate, fricative) becomes tensed.

б [в] , Ĵ [Ķ] , [] , [e] ,
[]

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7. Aspiration and -weakening [Txt 31, Rule 6, Practice 7, 8]:

8. Palatalization [Txt 38, Rule 8, Practice 29]

[ġ] [cf. ƿ [Ÿ] ], [ġ]

9. Double consonant reduction: Consonant clusters are also neutralized [Txt 32, Rule 7, Practice 9]:

    /ks/ , /lk/     --> [k] : [] , []
    /nc/, /nh/       --> /n/ : ɴ [ȵ] , ƿ []
    /ps/                     --> [p] : [] , []
    /lk/, /lp/, /ls/, /lth/, /lph/, /lh/     --> /l/

д [ϵ] , д [ε] , [ߵ]
Ӵ [ҵ] or [] , [] or [] , ȴ [Ÿ]


    /lm/                     --> [m] : []

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