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Chronology 1918

Date Event Historical Background
January 8, 1918 Wilson's Fourteen Points In an address to the U.S. Congress, President Woodrow Wilson outlined a peace program which included the following points: open covenants openly arrived at; absolute freedom of navigation in peace and war; the removal of all economic barriers; the reduction of armaments consistent with domestic security; an impartial adjustment of all colonial claims with the interests of the local population equal to the claims of the government; the evacuation of Russian territory and the free determination of Russian political and national policy; the evacuation and restoration of Belgium; the evacuation and restoration of French territory and the restoration of Alsace-Lorraine to France; readjustments to the Italian border along lines of nationality; opportunity for the autonomous development of the peoples of Austria-Hungary; the evacuation and restoration of Romanian, Serbian, and Montenegrin territory, together with access to the sea for Serbia; secure sovereignty for the Turkish parts of the Ottoman Empire, but other nationalities to receive the opportunity for autonomous development, and the Dardenelles to be opened to the ships of all nations under international guaranties; an independent Poland with free and secure access to the sea; and the establishment of a general association of nations to afford mutual guaranties of political independence and territorial integrity to both great and small powers. President Wilson's Fourteen Points laid out the basis for the post-war peace and the creation of the League of Nations.
January 10, 1918 Independence of the Republic of the Don With German encouragement, the Cossacks announced their independence from Russia and the establishment of the Republic of the Don.
January 10, 1918 Defeat of Conscription in Australia Australian voters defeated conscription plans in a national referendum. The Australian government had planned to increase the army's manpower requirements through a mandatory military draft.
January 10-May 11, 1918 Soviet War with the Cossacks The revolt of the Don Cossacks, led by General Lavr Kornilov and General Alexei Kaledin, began in December 1917, and marked the beginning of the Russian Civil War. Military operations began in January 1918 and, after a defeat, General Kaledin committed suicide on February 13th. General Kornilov was killed in combat on April 13th, and command in the south was taken over by General Anton Denikin on May 11th, with the support of General Peter Krasnov, Hetman of the Don Cossacks.
January 12, 1918 Latvian Declaration of Independence The Latvians declared their independence from Russia, but remained under German occupation. The Latvian National Council was unable to assert its authority or build up a national army.
January 16, 1918 Strikes in Vienna Living conditions in Austria deteriorated as a result of the war, which resulted in major strikes and labor demands.
January 27-August 4, 1918 British Caspian Offensive A British force, under General Lionel Dunsterville, departed Baghdad on January 27th to gain control of the oil-rich Caspian region of western Persia. General Dunsterville's objectives were to stiffen the Georgian and Armenians against the Turks and block a possible German offensive from the Ukraine. The British occupied Enzeli on February 17th and Kirmanshah on February 25th. The Bolsheviks at Baku, however, threatened the British position and General Dunsterville was forced to withdraw to Hamadan in Persia. By the summer and bolstered by reinforcements, the British resumed their offensive, occupying Baku on August 4th, after the overthrow of the Bolshevik government on July 26th.
January 28, 1918 Finnish Civil War After proclaiming their complete independence from Russia, a civil war broke out in Finland between the Reds, supported by the Russian Bolsheviks, and the Whites, opponents of the Bolsheviks. At the end of January, the Red Finns seized Helsingfors (Helsinki) and overran most of southern Finland.
January 28-February 3, 1918 Strikes in Berlin The general decline in living conditions in Germany due to the total war economy and the Allied blockade resulted in a series of strikes in Berlin.
February 1, 1918 Ukrainian Independence The Central Powers recognized the independence of the Ukraine from Russia. The Ukrainians had declared their independence on November 20, 1917 and set up a Ukrainian People's Republic.
February 6, 1918 Romanian Peace Negotiations After signing the Truce of Focsani on December 6, 1917, which ended hostilities between Romania and the Central Powers, the Germans issued an ultimatum to the Romanian government to begin peace negotiations on February 6th. Premier Ion Bratianu resigned from office and was succeeded by Alexandre Averescu as Romanian prime minister and foreign minister.
February 9, 1918 Ukrainian Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The Central Powers and the Ukrainian government signed a Treaty of Peace at Brest-Litovsk.
February 10, 1918 Soviet Russian Declaration of Peace Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Leon Trotsky, declared the end of the war unilaterally, although a peace treaty had not yet been signed with the Central Powers.
February 10-March 2, 1918 Soviet Russian Offensive in the Ukraine With the declaration of independence of the Ukraine and the Ukrainian peace treaty with Germany and Austria-Hungary, the Soviets moved to regain control of the Ukraine. The Red Army seized Kiev on February 18th, but was forced to retreat on March 2nd in the face of a German offensive.
February 16, 1918 Lithuanian Independence The National Council made a formal declaration of independence from Russia, with the support of the Germans. The Bolsheviks invaded the country the same day, although the Russians would accept Lithuanian independence in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918.
February 18-March 4, 1918 German Offensive in Russia In response to the Soviet declaration of peace, the Germans resumed their offensive in Russia. The Central Powers captured Dvinsk on February 18th, Minsk on February 21st, Dubno and Dorpat on February 24th, Reval on February 25th, Pskov on February 25th, Kiev on March 1st, and Narva on March 4th. German forces advanced to within 100 miles of Petrograd.
February 19, 1918 Mexican National Oil Decree The Mexican government declared petroleum an inalienable national resource by decree and levied a tax on oil lands and contracts made before May 1, 1917. The government decreed that titles to oil lands had to be transformed into concessions. American and British petroleum companies, with the support of their governments, immediately protested the decree. The issue was temporarily settled by compromise, but the policy was Mexican's government first step in a long campaign to break the power and wealth of the foreign oil companies operating in Mexico.
February 24, 1918 Estonian Independence Although the Estonians first declared their independence from Russia in November 1917, the Soviets quickly regained control of this strategic region. Under German protection, the Estonians again proclaimed their independence on February 24th. Konstantine Paets formed a provisional government to rule the country.
February 28, 1918 Russian Renewal of Peace Negotiations By the order of Nicholai Lenin, Leon Trotsky and the Russian delegation renewed their negotiations for peace with the Central Power representatives.
March 2, 1918 German Occupation of the Aaland Islands At the request of the Finnish government, the Germans occupied the Aaland Islands in the Baltic Sea.
March 3, 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The Russians signed a peace treaty with the German, Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian, and Turkish governments at Brest-Litovsk which took the Russians out of World War I. The Russians agreed to abandon Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Ukraine, Finland, and Transcaucasia, significantly reducing the size of pre-war Russia. With the Russian peace treaty, the Germans were able to transfer troops from the Eastern Front to support their major offensive in France. The Allied Powers viewed the Bolshevik regime as an enemy which had significantly undermined their war effort and sought ways to reestablish a front in the east to prevent the transfer of German forces to France.
March 3-May 1, 1918 German Ukrainian Offensive To clear the Bolsheviks out of the Ukraine, the Germans and Austrians dispatched an expeditionary force into the Ukraine. They seized Kiev on March 3rd, Odessa on March 13th, Nicolaiev on March 17th, Kharkov and Rostov on April 8th, and invaded the Crimea, capturing Sevastopol on May 1st. The Ukraine became a critical granary for the Central Powers, which faced severe food shortages due to the Allied blockade.
March 5, 1918 Preliminary Romanian Peace Treaty The Romanian government signed a preliminary peace treaty with the Central Powers with specific terms spelled out in the Treaty of Bucharest of May 1918.
March 7, 1918 Finnish-German Treaty The German and White Finnish governments signed a treaty whereby the German government agreed to send military assistance to the White Finns in the Finnish Civil War.
March 10, 1918 Dissolution of the Central American Court After the Nicaraguan government denounced the court and the members failed to renew the organization's arrangements, the Central American Court was dissolved.
March 12, 1918 Soviet Russian Transfer to Moscow With German forces closing in on Petrograd and nationalist and counter-revolutionary governments emerging in the border regions, the Bolshevik government decided to move the capital to Moscow.
March 21-July 15, 1918 German Spring Offensive in France In a last ditch effort to win the war, the German army mounted a series of massive offensives on the Western Front. The Germans began their advance with the Great March Offensive against British lines at St. Quentin on March 21st. The British lines broke and the Germans advanced 40 miles within a few days, capturing Peronne, Ham, Bapaume, Chauny, Noyon, and Montdidier by April 14th. In a second major offensive, the Germans stormed the Messines Ridge south of Ypres on April 9th and took Armentieres, opening a wide gap in the British lines. The lack of reinforcements prevented the Germans from exploiting their success in the Battle of the Lys. The Germans then turned against the French and launched a major offensive against Chemin des Dames on May 27th, which marked the beginning of the Third Battle of the Aisne. The attack surprised the French and they were thrown back 13 miles. The Germans captured Soissons on May 29th and reached the Marne River on May 30th, only 37 miles from Paris. On June 4th, American forces arrived at Chateau-Thierry and helped slow the German advance.
March 23, 1918 German Recognition of Lithuania The German government recognized the independence of Lithuania from Russia.
March 23, 1918 Costa Rican War Declaration against Germany The Costa Rican government declared war against Germany.
March 25, 1918 Sino-Japanese Notes on Siberia The Chinese and Japanese governments were concerned about the Bolshevik Revolution and resulting Russian Civil War. The two governments began negotiations for a defensive alliance to build up defenses against Soviet Russian expansion in Siberia.
April 3-May 7, 1918 German Finnish Offensive The Germans landed troops in Finland on April 3rd to help the Whites defeat the Red forces. The White Finns were led by Baron Karl Gustav Mannerheim, who sought to drive the Reds out of Finland. The Germans captured Helsingfors (Helsinki) on April 13th and Viborg on April 30th. After a major battle at Lahti, the Finnish Whites and Germans defeated the Reds, ending the Finnish Civil War on May 7th. As a result of this victory, Finland remained under strong German influence.
April 5, 1918 U.S. War Finance Commission The Wilson administration established the War Finance Commission with a fund of $500 million to finance essential industries for the American war effort.
April 5, 1918 Allied Intervention in Siberia The British and Japanese marines landed forces at Vladivostok on April 5th, followed later by American and French forces.
April 9, 1918 Moldavian Union with Romania The Moldavian Republic, which declared its independence from Russia on December 23, 1917, proclaimed its union with Romania. The Russian government opposed this union on April 23rd, but the Central Powers recognized the proclamation in the Treaty of Bucharest.
April 10, 1918 Congress of Oppressed Austrian Nationalities Czech, Polish, Romanian, and Yugoslav representatives met in Rome for the Congress of Oppressed Austrian Nationalities to proclaim the right of self-determination for their peoples, denounce the Hapsburg monarchy as an obstacle to the free development of nations, and to recognize the need to fight against the Hapsburg government.
April 10, 1918 Webb-Pomerne Act The U.S. government passed the Webb-Pomerne Act which was designed to encourage American exports by exempting export associations from restraints due to anti-trust laws.
April 17, 1918 Irish Conscription The British government introduced conscription in Ireland to help fill the ranks of the British army. The policy was very unpopular and the Irish Nationalists withdrew from Parliament in Westminster in protest.
April 21, 1918 Italian Recognition of the Czechoslovak National Council The Italian government recognized the Czechoslovak National Council as the de facto government of Czechoslovakia.
April 22, 1918 Independence of Transcaucasia With the support of the Germans, nationalists in Transcaucasia united to declare their independence from Russia and to establish a government. The Tran Caucasian Republic dissolved on May 26th into the separate states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
April 23, 1918 Guatemalan War Declaration against Germany
May 1918 Cape to Cairo Railway Construction The Cape to Cairo Railway reached Bukama on the Lualaba River which now made it possible for passengers to travel from the Cape to Cairo by rail and water, with two short breaks from Tabora to Mwanza and from Nimule to Rejaf.
May 7, 1918 Treaty of Bucharest The Romanian government signed a definitive peace with the Central Powers. The Romanians ceded Dobrudja to Bulgaria and turned over the Carpathian passes to Austria-Hungary. The Germans received a 90-year lease of Romania's oil fields.
May 8, 1918 Nicaraguan War Declaration against Germany The Nicaraguan government declared war against Germany.
May 14, 1918 German-Lithuanian Treaty of Alliance The German and Lithuanian governments signed a Treaty of Alliance, which effectively placed Lithuania under German control.
May 16, 1918 Sino-Japanese Treaty of Alliance The Chinese and Japanese governments signed a defensive Treaty of Alliance against a Soviet Russian threat, which included Japanese training of Chinese troops who would serve in Siberia under Japanese officers. The Japanese government provided 250 million yen in loans for Manchurian development projects (most of the loans went through Premier Tuan Ch'i-jui and his An-Fu (Anhui-Fukien) Club.
May 16, 1918 U.S. Sedition Act The U.S. government passed the Sedition Act as an amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917. The Sedition Act imposed severe penalties on anyone found guilty of making or conveying false statements which interfered with the prosecution of the war; willfully employed disloyal, profane, or abusive language about the American form of government, the flag, the Constitution, or military or naval forces; urged the curtailed production of necessary war materials; or advocated, taught, defended, or suggested any such acts. The law was aimed primarily at Socialists and pacifists.
May 24-August 2, 1918 Anglo-American Occupation of Northern Russia British General Frederick Poole arrived in Murmansk on May 24th to prepare the way for an Allied Expeditionary Force, which landed on June 23rd. The Allies landed in North Russia to force the Germans to maintain troops on the Eastern Front and to protect Allied stores from falling into Bolshevik hands. On August 2nd, an Anglo-French force landed in Archangel, following a pro-Entente revolution in the city. The Allies supported the puppet government of northern Russia. An American contingent joined the British forces in Murmansk on September 4th, and they seized the railway from the port. The occupation of Northern Russia resulted in a virtual state of war between the Allies and the Bolshevik government.
May 26, 1918 Czech Legion Offensive in Russia In an attempt to leave Russia and to continue fighting on the Western Front, the Czech Legion seized the Trans-Siberian Railway and took control of Samara, Simbirsk, Kazan, Omsk, and Irkutsk. This 100,000 man force was composed primarily of deserters from the Austro-Hungarian army who joined the Russians to fight the Central Powers. By March 1918, they were one of the few organized military forces in Russia. When the Bolshevik authorities attempted to disarm the Czech Legion, they took over the country's primary railway system and fought the Red Army.
May 26, 1918 Georgian Independence The Georgian government declared its independence from Russia.
May 26, 1918 Azerbaijani Independence The Azerbaijani government declared its independence from Russia.
May 26, 1918 Armenian Independence The Armenian government declared its independence from Russia.
May 29, 1918 U.S. Sympathy for the Czechoslovaks and Yugoslavs U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing expressed official U.S. sympathy for the Czechoslovaks and Yugoslavs in their fight for national sovereignty.
June 3, 1918 Allied Recognition of Czechoslovaks, Poles, and Yugoslavs The Allied governments declared their support for the national aspirations of the Czechoslovak, Polish, and Yugoslav peoples.
June 4, 1918 Lithuanian Royal Appointment The Lithuanian Assembly elected Duke William of Wuerttemberg as the new King of Lithuania.
June 8, 1918 Georgian Peace Treaty The Georgian government negotiated a Treaty of Peace with Germany and Turkey.
June 8, 1918 Armenian Peace Treaty The Armenian government negotiated a Treaty of Peace with Germany and Turkey.
June 15-24, 1918 Austrian Offensive in Italy/Battle of the Piave In an effort to prevent the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austrian forces crossed the Piave River against the Italians but were unable to maintain their positions. As a result, the Austrians lost over 100,000 men, which resulted in a steady demoralization of the Austro-Hungarian army.
June 25, 1918 Abandonment of Irish Conscription The British government ended their conscription program in Ireland.
June 30, 1918 Czechoslovak Independence The French and Italian governments officially recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia.
July 3, 1918 Death of Sultan Mohammed V The Turkish sultan, Mohammed V, died and was succeeded by Sultan Mohammed VI.
July 6, 1918 Allied Command of Vladivostok The Allied commanders in Vladivostok officially took over the administration of the city.
July 6, 1918 Assassination of German Ambassador in Moscow A Social Revolutionary murdered the German ambassador to Russia, Count Wilhelm von Mirbach. As a result of his assassination, the German government made increased demands on the Soviet Russians, and ended all hope for cordial relations between the German and Soviet governments.
July 10, 1918 Promulgation of the Soviet Constitution The Fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets promulgated the Soviet constitution. Under the new law, local soviets elected representatives to the provincial congresses of soviets, which then sent delegates to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets. The All-Russian Congress of Soviets elected the Executive Committee, a permanent organization which acted between sessions of the Congress. The All-Russian Congress of Soviets also elected the Council of People's Commissars. Elections were now held on the basis of occupation, and not on a geographic basis. Factory workers received more representation than peasants, while the bourgeois class (including the clergy) were disenfranchised. Secret ballots were no longer permitted and all elections were open. This "soviet democracy" was dominated, in theory, by a dictatorship of the proletariat, exercised by the Communist Party. No other political parties were permitted in Russia and the press and other forms of communication were placed under government control. The Communist Party was governed by a Central Committee, which included a smaller elite group known as the Political Bureau. The latter was the real governing body of the country. Nicholai Lenin reigned supreme in both party and government politics until his death in January 1924.
July 12, 1918 Haitian War Declaration against Germany The government of Haiti declared war against Germany.
July 15-August 7, 1918 Second Battle of the Marne The Germans launched their last major offensive on the Western Front on July 15th, near Rheims. Weary German troops succeeded in crossing the Marne River but could not make much headway against strong French and American forces. General Ferdinand Foch, Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies in France, ordered a counter-attack on July 18th, which forced the Germans to retreat back over the Marne to the Vesle River and allowed the French to regain Soissons on August 2nd. The Allied counter-offensive upset the German plan for an offensive in Flanders and set up the Allied Fall Offensive.
July 16, 1918 Assassination of Tsar Nicholas II Fearful of White Russian liberation of Tsar Nicholas II, the local Bolsheviks murdered the former emperor and his family at Ekaterinberg and disposed of the bodies.
July 19, 1918 Honduran War Declaration against Germany The government of Honduras declared war against Germany.
July 26-September 5, 1918 Japanese Intervention in Siberia The Japanese government accepted a proposal from the Wilson administration requesting Japanese intervention in Siberia in support of the Czech Legion. The Japanese landed troops at Vladivostok on August 11th and seized Khabarovsk on September 5th.
August 3-October 14, 1918 Allied Intervention Declaration in Siberia The Allied governments announced their intervention plans in Siberia in the Russian Civil War. The British force advanced west, reaching Irkutsk on October 14th, while Japanese and Chinese forces marched into Siberia. There they established contact with the Czech Legion, which controlled the railway system in western Siberia.
August 8-October 15, 1918 Allied Summer Offensive on the Western Front After the Allies stopped the German Spring Offensive at the Second Battle of the Marne, the Allies went on the offensive and forced the Germans back. The British launched the Battle of Amiens on August 8th, utilizing 450 tanks. British and French troops maintained the offensive during the Second Battles of the Somme and of Arras, from August 21st to September 3rd. The Allies regained Roye (August 27th), Bapaume and Noyon (August 28th), and Peronne (August 31st), forcing the Germans to retreat to the Hindenburg Line. American forces, captured a large number of Germans on September 13th at the St. Mihiel salient. The Allied Commander-in-Chief, French General Ferdinand Foch, ordered a major pincher movement to cut off the main German railway lines with an American attack through the Argonne and a British offensive towards Cambrai and Lille. The Battles of the Argonne and of Ypres lasted from September 28th until October 2nd. The Americans moved through the Argonne and the British captured St. Quentin, Lens, and Armentieres by October 2nd. Hearing the news of the Bulgarian surrender, German General Erich von Ludendorff called on the German government to initiate armistice terms on September 29th.
August 13, 1918 Czech War Declaration against Germany The leaders of the Czech Legion declared war on the Central Powers and the British government recognized Czechoslovakia as a nation.
August 26-September 14, 1918 Turkish Offensive against Baku The Turks mounted a vigorous attack against the British occupying forces in Baku, beginning on August 26th. The British had to evacuate the city on September 14th to the Turks.
August 30, 1918 Attempted Assassination of Lenin A Social Revolutionary attempted to assassinate Nicholai Lenin. Since the Soviet regime was in severe crisis, the attack created a panic and resulted in a systematic reign of terror by the Bolsheviks. A large number of Russian intellectuals and bourgeois were eliminated in the purge.
September 3, 1918 U.S. Recognition of Czechoslovakia The Wilson administration recognized Czechoslovakia as a nation in support of the Czech Legion's operations in Russia.
September 15, 1918 Austrian Peace Conference Proposal The Austrian government appealed to President Woodrow Wilson to call an informal peace conference to discuss terms. President Wilson rejected the Austrian overture on September 20th..
September 15-24, 1918 Battle of Dobropolje/Monastir-Doiran By June 1918, the Allies had landed over 29 divisions (over 700,000) at Saloniki in Greece and the Allies ordered French General Franchet d'Esperey to launch an offensive against the Bulgarians. On September 15th, the Allies attacked from Albania to the Struma River and drove a wedge between the German and Bulgarian forces. The Bulgarian government sued for peace in response to the Allied offensive.
September 15-October 26, 1918 British Offensive in Syria The British army launched a major offensive out of Palestine, beginning on September 15th with the Battle of Megiddo. The British broke through the Turkish lines near the Mediterranean coast and forced the Germans to retreat through Trans-Jordania and Damascus to Aleppo. With the support of the Arabs, under Colonel Lawrence, the British advanced into Syria. The Anglo-Arab army captured Damascus on October 2nd while the French navy seized Beirut on October 7th. The Anglo-Arab force continued north, taking Homs on October 15th and Aleppo on October 18th, while the French gained Alexandretta on October 18th. The advance helped persuade the Turkish government to sue for an armistice.
September 30, 1918 Saloniki/Bulgarian Armistice The Bulgarian government signed an armistice with the Allies at Saloniki. Under the terms of the agreement, the Bulgarian army was immediately demobilized and its equipment was transferred to the Allies. The Bulgarians agreed to evacuate all Greek and Serbian territory under their control and turn over all of their transportation assets to the Allies. In addition, the Bulgarians had to open their territory to Allied military operations.
October 1-November 10, 1918 Allied Occupation of Bulgaria Allied forces immediately began the occupation of Bulgaria after the signing of the Saloniki Armistice. Allied forces advanced into Thrace, in an effort to force the Turks to open the Straits, and reached the Maritza River on October 30th. Another Allied force advanced north through Bulgaria and crossed the Danube River at Rutschuk on November 10th in Austro-Hungarian territory.
October 4, 1918 Prince Max New German Chancellor In response to General Erich von Ludendorff's assessment on the Western Front, the German government under Count George von Hertling resigned and Prince Max of Baden became the new German Chancellor and Foreign Minister.
October 4, 1918 German and Austrian Armistice Appeals The German and Austrian governments sent appeals to President Woodrow Wilson for an armistice based on his Fourteen Points. Over the next few weeks, there was an exchange of diplomatic notes between Berlin and Washington. President Wilson demanded the evacuation of all occupied territories and insisted that the Allies could only negotiate with a democratic government.
October 4, 1918 Abdication of Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria The collapse of the Bulgarian defenses outside Saloniki forced Tsar Ferdinand to abdicate from the Bulgarian throne in favor of his son, Boris III.
October 4, 1918 Austro-German Armistice Proposal The Austrian government joined the German government in an appeal for a general armistice. Close to victory, the Allies refused to consider the proposal.
October 5, 1918 French Occupation of Beirut The French navy seized Beirut from the Turks and British forces occupied the city. Emir Faisal declared the establishment of the Syrian State.
October 5-November 30, 1918 Serbian Offensive in Serbia After the Bulgarian collapse, Serbian forces reentered their homeland, capturing Vranje on October 5th, Nish on October 11th, and liberating Belgrade on November 1st. The Serbian army crossed the Danube River and advanced into the Banat of Temesvar, occupying the province by the end of November.
October 7-November 4, 1918 Italian Offensive in Albania With the Bulgarian armistice, Italian forces advanced into Albania, over which Italy had proclaimed a protectorate in June 1917. The Italian army captured Elbasan on October 7th; Durazzo, Ipek, and Novi Bazar on October 14th; San Giovanni on October 29th; Scutari on October 31st; and Antivari on November 4th.
October 12, 1918 Polish Regency Council The Regency Council took over Polish affairs on October 12th. This government was formed by the Germans in October 1917 in preparation of an independent Polish kingdom.
October 13-14, 1918 Turkish Government Reorganization The new Turkish sultan, Mohammed VI, dismissed the Young Turk ministers (Talaat Pasha and Enver Bey) and appointed Izzet Pasha as the new Grand Vizier on October 13th in light of the Bulgarian armistice and the Turkish military collapse in Syria. The new government then appealed to President Woodrow Wilson to arrange an armistice with the Allies the next day. When President Wilson failed to reply, the Turks released British General Charles Townsend to serve as an emissary to the British naval commander in the Aegean, Admiral Sir Somerset Calthorpe, to negotiate an end to the fighting.
October 14, 1918 U.S. Demand for Suspension of Submarine Warfare President Woodrow Wilson demanded that the German government suspend submarine warfare against Allied shipping as one of the pre-requisites for an armistice.
October 14, 1918 Provisional Czechoslovak Government The Czechoslovak National Council in Paris organized a provisional government with Thomas Masaryk as president and Eduard Benes as foreign minister.
October 16, 1918 Reorganization of Austria as a Federation Kaiser Karl proclaimed the reorganization of Austria into a federal state which would provide complete self-government for the subject nationalities. The reorganization did not extend to Hungary and was too late to thwart the nationalist movements.
October 17, 1918 Hungarian Independence under the Hapsburg Crown The Hungarian parliament, in reply to Kaiser Karl's reorganization of Austria, declared the kingdom's complete independence from Austria, except for ties of personal union through the emperor.
October 18-November 10, 1918 Allied Fall Offensive on the Western Front The British began a major offensive in the north, taking Ostend, Zeebrugge, Roubaix, Lille, and Douai by October 18th, Bruges on October 19th, and Valenciennes on November 1st. The Americans also resumed their offensive and by November 10th the Americans had reached Sedan. The Allies began to make plans for a Spring 1919 offensive, which called for an offensive against Metz on the Western Front combined with an Allied offensive through Austria and into Bavaria.
October 19, 1918 Independence of Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia The National Council at Zagreb declared its political authority and declared for union between Croatia and Serbia.
October 20, 1918 Suspension of Submarine Warfare The German government suspended all U-boot operations against Allied shipping in response to President Woodrow Wilson's demand. The Germans sank 14.5 million gross tons of Allied shipping during the war.
October 24-November 4, 1918 Italian Offensive in Northern Italy The Italians began the Battle of Vittorio Veneto on October 24th when Italian troops opened a major offensive from the Trentino to the Adriatic. Although the Austrians mounted a stiff defense at Monte Grappa, the Austrian position on the lower Piave collapsed. The Italians captured Vittorio Veneto on October 30th and the Austro-Hungarian army dissolved, resulting in the capture of hundreds of thousands of war prisoners. The Italians continued their advance, capturing Trieste on November 3rd and Fiume on November 5th.
October 25, 1918 Wilson Peace Appeal to the American Public President Woodrow Wilson decided to make the upcoming congressional elections a test of confidence in his politics and he urged American voters to elect Democratic majorities in the House of Representatives and the Senate. He was anxious that the American position not be weakened in the peace conference. The Republicans condemned the appeal as a violation of President Wilson's wartime truce on domestic politics. On November 5th, the Democrats lost the House by 21 seats and the Senate by two seats.
October 27, 1918 Austrian Peace Proposal The new Austrian foreign minister, Julius Andrassy, notified the Wilson administration that Austria was willing to recognize the rights of the subject nationalities and sought a separate peace with the Allies.
October 28, 1918 German Democratic Reforms Kaiser Wilhelm II issued a major reform of the German constitution to provide for a democratic form of government. The reforms are considered too late to save the empire.
October 28, 1918 Czechoslovak Independence The Czechoslovak National Council declared the nation's independence from Austria and established a government in Prague.
October 28, 1918 Mutiny on SMS Markgraf While preparing for a final raid against the British, the crew of the German warship SMS Markgraf mutinied and refused to go to sea. The mutiny soon spread to other German warships.
October 29, 1918 Austrian Unconditional Surrender to Italy The Austrians offered to surrender unconditionally to the Italians as the Dual Monarchy collapsed into political chaos.
October 30, 1918 Mudros/Turkish Armistice The Turkish government signed an armistice with the Allies at Mudros, which went into effect the next day. The Turks agreed to open the Straits, repatriate all of their Allied prisoners-of-war, sever diplomatic relations with the Central Powers, and open Turkish territory to the Allies for military operations.
October 30, 1918 German National Council in Vienna Revolution broke out in Vienna as the German National Council emerged as the new government for the German provinces of Austria.
October 30, 1918 Slovak Union with the Czechs The Slovak National Council voted for union with the Czechs, establishing the republic of Czechoslovakia.
October 31, 1918 Hungarian Revolution A revolution broke out in Hungary and Premier Kalman Tisza was assassinated. Count Michael Karolyi, an extreme liberal and republican with pacifist views, became the new Hungarian prime minister. The Hungarians hoped to receive satisfactory peace terms from the Allies and to maintain the unity of the kingdom.
November 1, 1918 Hungarian Independence Count Michael Karolyi established an independent Hungarian government in Budapest.
November 1, 1918 Polish War Declaration on the Ukraine The Polish Regency Council declared war on the Ukraine and reconquered Galacia for the new Polish state. The Poles took Lemberg on November 23rd.
November 2-14, 1918 German Invasion of Rhodesia German General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck began an invasion of Rhodesia from Lake Nyasa on November 2nd. They continued fighting British colonial forces until the establishment of an armistice on November 14th and were the last German forces in the field in World War I.
November 3, 1918 Kiel Mutiny Upon hearing news that the German Navy planned one last naval raid, sailors at Kiel mutinied and refused to go to sea. The mutiny quickly spread to Hamburg, Bremen, and Luebeck and engulfed northwestern Germany. The revolutionaries formed councils of workers and soldiers to take over control of local government.
November 3, 1918 Proclamation of Polish Republic The Poles announced the establishment of the Polish Republic in Warsaw on November 3rd and the new government fell under the control of General Joseph Pilsudski, who returned from prison in Germany on November 10th. The Regency Council granted General Pilsudski full military powers on November 14th and resigned.
November 3, 1918 Austro-Hungarian Armistice The Austro-Hungarian government negotiated an armistice with the Allied powers. The Dual Monarchy agreed to complete demobilization of Austro-Hungarian forces and the withdrawal of their troops from German forces; surrender of half of the empire's military equipment; the evacuation of territories occupied by Austro-Hungarian forces as well as territory under dispute between Austrians, Italians, and Slavs; Allied occupation of strategic points in the empire; and the surrender of the Austro-Hungarian fleet.
November 4-December 27, 1918 British Occupation of Armenia After the armistice with Turkey, British forces occupied Mosul on November 4th and advanced into Azerbaijan, reoccupying Batum on November 17th. The British then seized control of Georgia, entering Batum on December 27th.
November 5, 1918 Allied Acceptance of the Fourteen Points With the approaching collapse of Germany, the British and French governments became reluctant to embrace President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points as the basis for the peace settlement. President Wilson responded by threatening to negotiate a separate peace with the Germans. The British and French governments accepted the Fourteen Points on November 5th with two key reservations: the Allies reserved the unqualified right to discuss freedom of the seas in the peace conference; and demanded that German restoration of evacuated territory include war reparations for damages to the civilian population. President Wilson accepted these provisions and transmitted them to the German government. French General Ferdinand Foch became responsible for the negotiation of the final truce.
November 7-8, 1918 Munich Revolution/Bavarian Republic Revolutionary forces, led by Kurt Eisner, an independent Socialist, took over the government in Munich and the King of Bavaria abdicated his throne. The revolutionaries proclaimed the Bavarian Republic and similar outbreaks spread to other German cities. Political tensions spread to Berlin and the German government concluded that it was imperative for Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate if the monarchy was to be preserved. Kaiser Wilhelm, who was at the military headquarters in Spa, was reluctant to give up his throne.
November 7, 1918 Serb-Croat-Slovene Union Representatives in Geneva decided to unite Croatia and Slovenia with Serbia and Montenegro and form a new unified kingdom.
November 8, 1918 Compiegne/German Armistice Mathias Erzberger, leader of the Center Party, led the German armistice commission and met with French General Ferdinand Foch in a railway car near Compiegne. The Allies submitted harsh terms designed to cripple the Germans and make them accept the final peace terms. The armistice required the Germans to evacuate all occupied territory on the Western Front and west of the Rhein River, which would be occupied by Allied forces. Allied troops would also occupy three bridgeheads over the Rhein (Coblenz, Cologne, and Mainz). The Germans had to renounce the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the Treaty of Bucharest and German forces had to retreat from Austria-Hungary, Romania, Turkey, and, eventually, Russia. The Germans had to surrender 5,000 locomotives, 5,000 trucks, and 150,000 freight cars as well as 160 submarines and a large number of warships. In addition, the Germans had to destroy aircraft, tanks, and heavy artillery. The Allies would maintain a naval blockade of the German coastline until the conclusion of a peace and reserved the right to make claims for damages. The terms were non-negotiable and lasted for 30 days, subject to periodic renewal until the final peace was signed.
November 9, 1918 Abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany The German Chancellor, Prince Max of Baden, announced the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. Philipp Scheidemann, the leader of the Socialists, announced the establishment of the German Republic. Prince Max turned over the government to the Majority Socialists, led by Friedrich Ebert and Philipp Schiedemann. The next day, upon learning from General Paul von Hindenburg that he could not guarantee the loyalty of the German army, Kaiser Wilhelm fled across the border into the Netherlands in his special train and eventual internment.
November 10, 1918 Romanian War Declaration against Germany With the entry of Allied forces into Romania, the new pro-Allied government under General Constantine Coanda, which took power on November 8th, declared war on Germany.
November 10, 1918 New Government in Berlin Independent and Majority Socialists formed a joint ministry in Berlin under the Council of People's Delegates. This marked the beginning of a struggle for power between the Spartacists, led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (who favored a Communist regime), and the Social Democrats (Majority Socialists), who supported a gradual abandonment of capitalism.
November 10, 1918 Act of Union and Icelandic Sovereignty By the Act of Union, the Danish government recognized Iceland as a sovereign state, united with Denmark through the Danish crown. Until 1944, certain affairs were handled jointly by the Danish and Icelandic governments.
November 11, 1918 Western Front Armistice Fighting ended at 11:00 AM on the Western Front and the Allies dispatched troops to take over the occupied territories and western Germany. The last German troops departed France on November 18th and Belgium on November 26th. French troops occupied Strassbourg on November 25th, while British and American forces began the occupation of Germany on December 1st.
November 11, 1918 Lithuanian National Government With the collapse of Germany, King William stepped down from the Lithuanian throne and Augustine Voldemaras formed a new national government. The Germans had to evacuate from Lithuania and the Bolsheviks again invaded the country.
November 12, 1918 Abdication of Kaiser Karl of Austria Kaiser Karl abdicated this thrones in Austria and Hungary and the Austrians established a provisional government in Vienna.
November 12, 1918 Passage of Allied Fleet through the Dardenelles In keeping with the terms of the Turkish armistice, the Allied fleet passed through the Dardenelles on November 12th and arrived at Constantinople the next day.
November 12, 1918 Austrian Union with Germany The provisional government in Austria, now composed solely of German provinces, proclaimed its union with Germany.
November 13, 1918 Proclamation of the Austrian Republic With the abdication of Kaiser Karl, the government proclaimed the establishment of the Austrian Republic.
November 13, 1918 Abdication of King Karl of Hungary After having surrendered his imperial title in Vienna, King Karl abdicated from the Hungarian throne.
November 13, 1918 Russian Cancellation of Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The Soviet Russian government cancelled its peace treaty with the Central Powers which allowed the Bolsheviks to undertake policies designed to restore former Russian lands.
November 14, 1918 Czechoslovak National Assembly The Czechoslovak National Assembly met in Prague to confirm the establishment of the republic and the presidency of Thomas Masaryk.
November 14, 1918 German Fleet Surrender The German fleet surrendered at sea to the Royal Navy. The German warships then steamed to internment at Scapa Flow.
November 15, 1918 New Ukrainian Government under Petliura The pro-German General Pavel Skoropadski was overthrown by the Ukrainian Socialists, led by General Simon Petliura. He continued to fight the Bolsheviks to maintain an independent Ukraine.
November 16, 1918 Proclamation of the Hungarian Republic Following the abdication of King Karl, the National Council proclaimed the establishment of the Hungarian Republic.
November 17, 1918 Latvian People's Council Established The Latvian People's Council appointed Karlis Ulmanis the new prime minister. The next day, the council proclaimed the independence of the State of Latvia.
November 18, 1918 Kolchak Government in Russia Admiral Alexander Kolchak overthrew the All-Russian Government (an anti-Bolshevik, liberal regime composed of conservative military and political leaders) in Omsk and became the Dictator of All Russia. The Kolchak government controlled most of Siberia and part of eastern Russia.
November 18, 1918 Wilson Attendance at Peace Conference President Woodrow Wilson announced that he planned to attend the peace conference in Paris, which resulted in a storm of criticism by the Republicans. Their ire was exacerbated by President Wilson's choice of members of the U.S. Peace Commission, which included only one Republican (Henry White) and no senators.
November 18-December 24, 1918 Siberian White Russian Offensive in Eastern Russia White Russian forces under Admiral Alexander Kolchak began an offensive into eastern Russia, capturing Perm and Ufa on December 24th.
November 20, 1918 Philippine Division in U.S. Army The Wilson administration federalized the first Filipino division for service with the U.S. Army.
November 22, 1918 Soviet Invasion of Estonia The withdrawal of German troops from Estonia led to an invasion of the country by Soviet forces. The Estonians mounted valiant resistance, with the support of the Royal Navy.
November 24, 1918 Proclamation of Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom The government proclaimed the establishment of the United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes at Zagreb. King Peter of Serbia became the new king, with Prince Alexander serving as regent for the aged king.
November 25, 1918 German National Constituent Assembly Representatives of the new German state governments met for a conference in Berlin to plan for the election of a National Constituent Assembly.
November 26, 1918 Montenegran Union with Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom Because King Nicolas of Montenegro opposed the union of Montenegro with the new United Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, the Montenegran parliament deposed King Nicolas and voted for union with the new kingdom.
November 27, 1918 Bessarabian Union with Romania The National Council of Bessarabia voted for unconditional union with Romania. The Russian government refused to recognize the union and the Bessarabian Question plagued relations between the two countries until 1944.
November 28, 1918 Official Abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II Although already in exile in the Netherlands, Kaiser Wilhelm II did not official abdicate the imperial German throne until April 28th.
November 28, 1918 Bukovinan Union with Romania The Bukovina National Council voted for union with Romania.
December 1, 1918 Transylvanian Union with Romania A national assembly of Romanians in Transylvania and the Banat at Alba Julia voted for union with Romania.
December 1, 1918 Anglo-American Occupation of Germany British and American forces began their occupation of Germany west of the Rhein River and three Rhein bridgeheads. The Allies occupy Cologne on December 6th and Mainz on December 9th.
December 5, 1918 Allied Blockade of the Baltic The Allied Powers extended their naval blockade of Germany to extend to the Baltic coastline.
December 8, 1918 Swiss Severance of Relations with Soviet Russia In light of evidence of Bolshevik subversive propaganda, the Swiss government broke off diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia.
December 8, 1918 Allied Military Administration in Constantinople The Allied powers established a military administration in Constantinople to supervise the governance of Turkey until the conclusion of a peace treaty.
December 11, 1918 New Finnish Government With the defeat of Germany, General Baron Karl Gustav Mannerheim became the new Finnish head of state.
December 13, 1918 Arrival of Wilson in France President Woodrow Wilson, accompanied by the U.S. Peace Commission (Colonel Edward House, Secretary of State Robert Lansing, General Tasker Bliss, and Henry White), arrived in France to participate in the Paris Peace Conference.
December 16, 1918 Spartacist Opposition to the National Assembly A congress of workers' and soldiers' councils in Berlin refused to invite Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg to participate in the deliberations. This demonstrated the councils' support for the moderate policy of the Social Democrats. The Spartacists opposed the plan for a National Assembly.
December 18, 1918 French Occupation of Odessa The French seized control of the Ukrainian port of Odessa to help support the White Russian forces fighting the Red Army in the Russian Civil War. The Allies eventually landed troops and equipment to support military campaigns in the Ukraine and southern Russia.
December 25, 1918 Albanian National Assembly The Albanian National Assembly elected Turkhan Pasha the new president. The Albanian government had to deal with Serbian-Croat incursions in the northern part of the country as well as the Italians on the coast.
December 27-28, 1918 Polish Occupation of Posen General Joseph Pilsudski sought to mark out Poland's western border and sent Polish troops to occupy Poznania (Posen). General Pilsudski began the process of reaching agreements with provisional governments in Cracow and Paris in an effort to form a provisional national government.
December 31, 1918 Abdication of King Frederick Charles of Finland With the departure of German troops and influence in Finland, King Frederick Charles gave up the Finnish throne.

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