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Chronology 1919

Date Event Historical Background
January 1919 Czech Occupation of Teschen The Czechs occupied the resource-rich province of Teschen in January, an area in dispute with the Polish government. Clashes between Czechoslovak and Polish forces soon broke out as they fought for control of the duchy.
January 1919 Soviet Evacuation of Estonia Estonian forces succeeded in driving out the last units of the Red Army and the Estonian government was able to establish control over most of the country.
January 1919 Persian Delegation to Paris Peace Conference The Persian government sent a delegation to the Paris Peace Conference to demand the abrogation of the Agreement of 1907. Persian demands included the abolition of the capitulations and consular guards and restoration of the Transcaspia, Merv, Khiva, the Caucasus, and Derbent (including Erivan, Baku, Kurdistan, and all territory to the Euphrates River. The British succeeded in preventing the recognition of this delegation at the conference.
January-February 1919 Soviet Counter-Offensive in Eastern Russia The Red Army launched a major counter-offensive against Admiral Alexander Kolchak's White Army in January. The Bolsheviks succeeded in regaining Orenburg on January 25th and Ekaterinburg on January 27th. The Red Army advance forced Admiral Kolchak to fall back to his bases in Siberia.
January-March 1919 White Russian Offensive in Transcaucasia After the withdrawal of German and Austro-Hungarian forces from Transcaucasia, the Red Army attempted to reconquer the region. General Anton Denikin and the White Russians, however, launched an offensive in January and forced the Red Army to pull back. The White Army made a spectacular offensive into southern Russia, but the Red Army put up a determined defense and stopped General Denikin's advance.
January 3-4, 1919 Bolshevik Occupation of Latvia The Red Army invaded Latvia on January 3rd and captured the capital, Riga, on April 4th. The Bolsheviks then set up a Soviet regime to govern Latvia.
January 5, 1919 National Socialist Party Founded in Germany Organized as a reactionary political organization, the National Socialist Party was founded in Germany.
January 5, 1919 Bolshevik Occupation of Vilna The Red Army succeeded in recapturing Vilna from the Lithuanians, the major city of that country.
January 5-15, 1919 Spartacist Revolt in Berlin The Independent Socialists and the Spartacists, led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, attempted to establish a Communist government in Germany. The provisional government, with the aid of the German army, crushed the revolt in Berlin. Liebknecht and Luxemburg were killed on January 15th while under arrest.
January 10, 1919 British Occupation of Baghdad British forces occupied Baghdad in preparation for the establishment of a British mandate over Mesopotamia.
January 10-February 4, 1919 Soviet Republic of Bremen German Communists overthrew the government of Bremen and established a Soviet republic.
January 17, 1919 New Polish Government Jan Paderewski was able to form a coalition government to rule Poland, with Josef Pilsudski acting as the provisional president.
January 18-June 28, 1919 Versailles Peace Conference The Peace Conference formally opened in Paris with 70 delegates representing 27 countries. Unlike earlier international peace conferences, the defeated parties (Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Turkey) were excluded from the deliberations until the terms of the treaty were ready for submission. Although the Allied Powers had approved President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points on November 5, 1918 as the basis for the peace, the document faded into the background as contenious views and wartime agreements came to light. President Wilson, who was wildly greeted when he arrived in France in mid-December, represented the new idealism in international relations and sought to establish the League of Nations as the capstone to the peace treaty. British Prime Minister David Lloyd-George represented the interests of the British empire and was disposed to a moderate peace. Unfortunately, he would be held to recent campaign promises to bring German war criminals to justice and to make Germany pay for the war. French Premier Georges Clemenceau was the proponent of the old diplomacy; he sought provisions for the future security of France and was bent on revenge when dealing with the Germans. Both the British and French were bound to wartime agreements with Italy, Romania, Jews, and Arabs which limited their flexibility in negotiations. The Italian Premier, Vittorio Orlando, played a secondary role at the conference, but the Italians stood staunchly for their claims against Austria and Yugoslavia. The major decisions regarding the peace treaty lay with the Supreme Council, or Big Ten (the president/prime ministers and foreign ministers of the United States, Britain, France, Italy, and Japan). Russia was not represented at the peace conference, although the Russian situation was critical to the final peace. The country was in the throes of a major civil war. Although Premier Clemenceau opposed the participation of the Russian parties at Paris, the Allies did arrange for a meeting on the Prinkipo Islands. The Bolshevik representatives indicated their interest in some kind of understanding, but the White Russian delegates, representing Admiral Kolchak and General Denikin, refused to enter into negotiations and the plan collapsed. Public opinion in the U.S., Britain, and France was anti-Bolshevk and an agreement was not in the cards.
January 18, 1919 Japanese Racial Equality Statement The Japanese government supported the establishment of the League of Nations, but the Japanese delegates at the Paris Peace Conference demanded the inclusion of a racial equality statement in the League of Nations Convenant. This equality statement became a major source of tension in the drafting of the convenant.
January 19, 1919 German National Assembly Elections German voters elected representatives to the National Assembly to draft a new constitution for the German republic. The Communists refused to participate in the elections, but all of the other German political parties were represented on the ballot. The Majority Socialists took the most seats in the National Assembly (163 of 421 total seats).
Janaury 21, 1919 Sinn Fein and Irish Independence The Sinn Fein members of Parliament decided not to attend Parliament in Westminister after winning a great victory in December 1918. They instead organized a parliament in Dublin (the Dail Eireann) and declared Irish independence from Britain.
January 21, 1919 End of Allied Blockade of Turkey The Allied Powers officially ended their naval blockade of Turkey.
January 24, 1919 Catalonian Union Conference Delegates of the Catalonian Union met in Barcelona and drafted a program for home rule. The Spanish government appointed a commission to consider the proposal, but the Catalonians eventually rejected the carefully circumscribed plan as inadequate.
January 25, 1919 Creation of the League of Nations The delegates at the Second Plenary Session of the Peace Conference unanimously adopted a resolution which called for the creation of the League of Nations. The delegates appointed a committee to draft a constitution as well as other committees to deal with the reparations issue and territorial questions.
January 26, 1919 Election of Polish Constituent Assembly Polish voters elected delegates to a Polish Constituent Assembly to work out a temporary constitutional system. The Polish government focused on the conquest of territory which belonged to Poland in 1772. This effort brought the Poles into conflict with the Bolsheviks in White Russia and Lithuania.
February-March 1919 Communist Uprisings in Germany German Communists staged a series of uprisings in Berlin, Munich, and other German cities. Gustav Noske, acting on behalf of the provisional government, took the lead in suppressing the revolts.
February 3-14, 1919 League Covenant Commission A commission, led by President Woodrow Wilson, started work on the League of Nations Covenant on February 3rd. This commission introduced the draft, based on the work of David Hunter Miller and Lord Robert Cecil, to the Plenary Session on February 14th.
February 3-April 8, 1919 Soviet Offensive in the Ukraine The Bolsheviks resumed their offensive against the Ukrainians under General Simon Petluira in February, capturing Kiev on February 3rd. The Red Army continued its advance and forced the Allies to evacuate from Odessa on April 8th.
February 4, 1919 French Citizenship Extended to Algerians The French government extended French citizenship to all Algerians who served in World War I as well as to Algerians who owned land or were literate.
February 5, 1919 Polish-Czechoslovak Armistice The Polish and Czechoslovak governments agreed to an armistice which ended the fighting for control over Teschen. Teschen remained under Czechoslovak control, but the armistice allowed General Josef Pilsudski to focus on Polish military operations on the southern and eastern fronts.
February 6, 1919 Meeting of German National Assembly at Weimar The delegates of the German National Assembly met at Weimar to draft a new constitution for the German republic. The assembly was controlled by a coalition of Majority Socialist, Center Party, and Democrats, under Philipp Scheidemann.
February 16, 1919 Election of Austrian Constituent Assembly Austrian voters elected delegates to the Constituent Assembly. The Socialists won 72 seats, three more than the Christian Socialists, while the German Nationalists took 26 seats.
February 19, 1919 Assassination of Amir Habibullah of Afghanistan Amir Habibullah, leader of Afghanistan, was assassinated near Jelalbad because of his perceived subservience to the British. Although the conservative religious parties declared the dead amir's brother, Nasrullah, the new amir, Habibullah's son, Amanullah, controlled Kabul and enjoyed the support of the Afghan army. Amanullah became the new amir and immediately took advantage of the wave of anti-British sentiment in the country and war-weariness in India. In May, Amir Amanullah declared a jihad and called on Indian Muslims to rise up against the British, which led to a war with Britain.
February 24, 1919 Return of Wilson to the U.S. President Woodrow Wilson departed France and arrived in Boston on February 24th to face detractors who opposed the peace negotiations. The president addressed the American public on the status of the talks and dealt with critics in the Senate. It was clear that a number of Republican Senators strongly opposed the treaty. British Prime Minsiter David Lloyd-George also returned to London to address the British public and the members of Parliament.
March 1919 German-Latvian Offensive in Latvia With the approval of the Allied Powers, German and Latvian forces mounted an offensive and drove the Bolsheviks out of Latvia.
March-April 1919 Soviet Counter-Offensive in Southern Russia Having halted the White Army offensive, under General Anton Denikin, the Red Army mounted a counter-offensive and forced General Denikin to retreat to the Black Sea coast. His army regrouped for another offensive in the autumn.
March 1, 1919 New Uruguayan Constitution The Uruguayan government ratified a new constitution which curtailed the powers of the president and established a national council of administration. The new constitution also disestablished the Roman Catholic Church in Uruguay.
March 1, 1919 Establishment of Upper Volta The French government reorganized French West Africa, establishing Upper Volta as a separate colony.
March 2, 1919 Establishment of the Third International Nicholai Lenin moved for the establishment of the Third International, an organization designed to propagate Communist doctrine overseas and bring on the inevitable world revolution. Upon the conclusion of the Russian Civil War, Lenin and other Communist leaders expected workers to embrace the proletarian revolution and wipe out the bourgeois of all classes.
March 2, 1919 U.S. Senate Round-Robin on Versailles Treaty The U.S. Senate conducted a round-robin in which 39 Senators declared that the peace treaty should be completed before the peace negotiators considered the formation of the League of Nations. Senators Henry Cabot Lodge (Massachusetts) and Frank B. Brandegee (Connecticut) proposed the round-robin and Senator Philander Knox drafted the document which rejected the League of Nations in its current form and opposed further consideration until the final peace treaty was settled.
March 6, 1919 Extended Use of Spanish in the Philippines The Philippine government approved the continued use of Spanish in the court system until 1930.
March 8, 1919 British Deportation of Egyptian Nationalists The British government deported Saad Zaghlul Pasha and other Egyptian nationalist leaders to Malta to prevent their participation in the Paris Peace Conference. The Nationalist (Wafd) Party grew tremendously during World War I in response to British policies such as forced labor conscription and materials requisitions. The Wafd demanded independence for Egypt from British rule but the British had a vested interest in the state. The deportation of these Wafd leaders resulted in a national insurrection which the British army had to suppress.
March 12, 1919 Austrian Union with Germany The Austrian Constituent Assembly adopted the new constitution and voted for union with Germany. Dr. Karl Renner, the leader of the Socialists, became the first chancellor of the republic.
March 13, 1919 Return of Wilson to France President Woodrow Wilson returned to Brest on March 13th and received a list of French demands from Marshal Ferdinand Foch. The French wanted included in the peace treaty heavy, but undefined, reparations from Germany for the destruction of French property and either the Allied occupation of Germany to the Rhein or the establishment of a Rheinland buffer zone. A bitter political battle erupted over these demands, compounded by President Wilson's contraction of influenza on April 3rd.
March 21, 1919 Resignation of Hungarian President Hungarian President Count Michael Karolyi resigned in protest over the Allied decision to assign Transylvania to Romania.
March 21, 1919 Rowlatts Acts in India The British government introduced two anti-sedition laws which enabled the state to intern agitators without trial and gave judges the power to try cases without juries. These acts brought Indian discontent to a head as Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs united in opposition to the government. Mohandas Gandhi proclaimed a campaign of passive resistance and non-cooperation. The Indians responded with a series of work stoppages, demonstrations, and riots. The Punjab was soon in open rebellion against British rule.
March 22, 1919 Bolshevik Government in Hungary Alexander Garbai, as president, and Bela Kun, as minister of foreign affairs, established a Socialist-Communist government in Hungary. The Socialists were quickly crowded out of the cabinet and Bela Kun established a Communist dicatorship. President Kun had worked with Nicholai Lenin in Russia and arrived in Hungary in November 1918, but Hungarian authorities imprisoned him for Communist agitation. This government became involved in a war with most of its neighbors who attempted to claim the Hungarian territory assigned to them in the final peace terms.
March 23, 1919 Formation of First Facsio di Combattimento Benito Mussolini formed the first Fascio di Combattimento in Italy, which marked the initial step towards the establishment of the Fascist Party. Mussolini was a radical socialist and editor of "Avanti." He became a violent interventionist and nationalist, and called for a stronger Italy.
March 25, 1919 Establishment of the Council of Four President Woodrow Wilson and British Prime Minister David Lloyd-George returned to France to focus on drafting the German peace treaty. They agreed to replace the Council of Ten with a more manageable Coucil of Four, which included President Wilson, Prime Minister Lloyd-George, Premier Clemenceau, and Premier Orlando.
March 28, 1919 Hungarian War Declaration against Czechoslovakia The Hungarian government declared war against Czechoslovakia and Hungarian forces invaded Slovakia.
April 1919 South African Independence Proposal General James Hertzog and a delegation of Nationalist Party members traveled to the Paris Peace Conference and asked for international recognition for the complete independence of South Africa. During the war the Nationalist Party became increasingly secessionist and republican in outlook. Because General Hertzog represented a minority party in South Africa, no action was taken at the peace conference.
April 1919 Korean Independence Riots The Japanese government mercilessly suppressed rioting and open rebellion in Korea. The Japanese responded to the rebellion by revising the Korean government, substituting civil for military control and promising the self-government if the Koreans abandonned their independence movement.
April 3, 1919 Hapsburgs Exiled from Austria The Austrian republican government exiled the Hapsburg dynasty from the country.
April 4-May 1, 1919 Soviet Republic of Bavaria Communists overthrew the Bavarian government on April 4th and established a Soviet republic. The German army, under the command of the federal government, invaded Bavaria and overthrew the Communist regime on May 1st.
April 7, 1919 Wilson's Threat to Depart the Peace Conference Deliberations among the Council of Four were far from harmonious. Premier Georges Clemenceau demanded that France annex the left bank of the Rhine and the Saar Basin from Germany. Both President Woodrow Wilson and British Prime Minister David Lloyd-George vigorously opposed these demands. Prime Minister Lloyd-George did join with Premier Clemenceau in demanding that Germany pay for the British and French costs of the war, which President Wilson also rejected. The Polish claims, supported by the French, the Japanese claims in Shantung, and the Italian claims in Dalmatia also led to animosity with President Wilson. The president threatened to leave the peace conference and return to the United States on April 7th, but all of these questions were finally settled by compromise. The French yielded to President Wilson's threats; in return for a temporary occupation of German territory, President Wilson agreed to support a treaty in which the United States and Britain were bound to the defense of France against a future unprovoked German attack.
April 8, 1919 Soviet Republic of the Ukraine The Red Army's success in driving the Allied forces out of Odessa resulted in the establishment of the Soviet Republic of the Ukraine.
April 10, 1919 Hungarian Counter-Revolution The Hungarians set up a provisional government at Szeged, under French control, to counter the Bolshevik regime. Count Julius Karolyi (brother of the former president), Count Stephen Bethlen, Admiral Horthy, and Archduke Joseph formed the nucleus of the provisional government.
April 10-December 10, 1919 Romanian Invasion of Hungary The Romanian army began an invasion of Hungary to forestall a Hungarian offensive against Transylvania. The Romanians captured Budapest in August and finally withdrew from Hungary, under Allied pressure, on December 10th.
April 11, 1919 Geneva Selected for League of Nations The delegates at the Paris Peace Conference selected Geneva to serve as the seat of the League of Nations. The Swiss government, however, was eager to maintain the country's neutrality and sought to avoid dangerous commitments.
April 11, 1919 Voralberg Plebiscite The citizens of Voralberg, part of Austria, voted by a large majority for union with Switzerland. The Swiss federal government decided to ignore the vote and the opportunity to extend the Swiss Confederation because the union could have threatened Switzerland's future neutrality.
April 11, 1919 Equality Clause Defeated in Covenant The delegates at the Paris Peace Conference rejected the Japanese proposal to include a race equality clause in the League of Nations Covenant.
April 13, 1919 Amristar Massacre in India British General Reginald Dyer, trying to impress the Indians with the strength of the British government, ordered troops to fire into an unarmed assembly of Indians. The attack resulted in the death of 379 people and another 1,200 wounded. This atroscity led to great indignation across India. A British army investigation dismissed General Dyer's action as an error of judgement but a House of Commons committee condemned the attack.
April 14, 1919 Wilson's Rejection of Fiume Demands President Woodrow Wilson rejected Italian demands for Fiume and the coast south of the city. In response, the Italians abruptly left the peace conference on April 23rd.
April 16, 1919 Czechoslovak Land Reform Bill The Czechoslovak government passed a Land Reform Bill which confiscated large estates and distributed the land to peasants in 25 acre plots. While the owners of the estates were compensated by the Czechoslovak government, the confiscations led to problems with Austrian land owners who used to hold title to the estates.
April 16, 1919 Attempted German Coup in Latvia General von der Gotz, commander of the German forces in Latvia, attempted to seize control of the government through a coup. The Germans finally seized control of Riga on May 22nd, but fighting continued across the country.
April 19, 1919 Polish Occupation of Vilna General Josef Pilsudski and the Polish army regained control of Vilna from the Bolsheviks and claimed the territory for Poland. The Polish army continued their advance into White Russia. The Lithuanians also claimed the province and this led to tensions between the two states.
April 23-May 6, 1919 Italian Delegation Departure from Peace Conference When President Woodrow Wilson appealed directly to the Italian people and refused to budge on the Italian demands for the annexation of Dalmatia, the Italian delegation returned home, hoping to force the president's hand. When an invitation calling for the return of the Italians did not arrive, the Italian delegation returned to Paris and agreed to major concessions on their original demands.
April 28, 1919 Presentation of the Covenant of the League of Nations After approval by the drafting committee, the delegates received the final draft of the Covenant of the League of Nations. The League would consist of the signatory states and other countries admitted by a two-thirds vote. The members agreed to extend mutual protection against aggression (collective security), to submit disputes to arbitration or inquiry, and to abstain from war for at least three months after an arbitration award. All treaties with terms incompatible with these terms became abrograted and all subsequent treaties had to be registered with the League. The League would focus on the problems of disarmament, labor legislation, health problems, international administration, and other global issues. A permanent Secretariat would be located in Geneva (Sir Eric Drummond became the first Secretary-General). All members received one vote in the General Assembly, while the Council, composed of the five great powers (Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the U.S.) and four others selected by the General Assembly, would fill the executive position (the Assembly appointed Belgium, Brazil, Greece, and Spain to the first Council). The Covenant of the League of Nations, which was an integral part of the peace treaty, became effective in January 1920.
April 28, 1919 Qingdao Assigned to Japan The Allies decided to assign the former German sphere of influence at Qingdao (Shantung) to the Japanese, rather than restoring the territory to China. The Japanese insisted on their rights to Shantung in light of wartime agreements with Allies, Chinese, and Americans, but President Woodrow Wilson opposed the transfer on the basis of national self-determination. On April 28th, President Wilson relented and allowed Shantung to transfer to the Japanese. He did receive, however, a promise from the Japanese that they would eventually return the province to China and only maintain economic concessions. This decision led to rioting in China in protest to the Allied decision.
April 29, 1919 Dodecanese Plebiscite The inhabitants of the Dodecanese Islands voted for union with Greece in a plebiscite.
April 29, 1919 Italian Occupation of Adalia Italian troops landed at Adalia in Anatolia as a first step in establishing an Italian sphere of influence in southwestern Turkey.
May 1919 Czechslovak-Polish Clashes in Teschen Polish and Czechoslovak forces began fighting for control of Teschen. The Allied Supreme Council decided to intervene and hold a plebiscite to determine the future of the province.
May 1919 Nejd Victory over Hejaz Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud, leader of the Wahabis of Nejd, defeated the Hejaz forces. Nejd forces had conquered most of eastern Arabia by 1913 and their claims were in direct competition with King Hussein. King Hussein was supported by the British and French and recognized as the head of the Arab people.
May 1919 Philippine Independence Delegation to the U.S. A delegation of forty prominent Filipinos, led by Manuel Quezon, arrived in the United States and asked the Wilson administration to fulfill the American promise of independence for the islands.
May 4, 1919 May Fourth Riots in China When the news that the Allied delegates at the Paris Peace Conference had awarded Qingdao (Shantung) to the Japanese, student riots erupted across China in protest against the Japanese and the Chinese government. This protest became the basis of the May Fourth Movement and the Chinese Communist Party.
May 6, 1919 Portuguese Mandate over Kionga The Allied Supreme Council assigned the Kionga Triangle as a mandate to Portugal. The Kionga region had been part of German East Africa before World War I.
May 6, 1919 Anglo-French Mandates over Cameroon and Togoland The Allied Supreme Council assigned the former German colonies of Kamerun and Togoland as mandates to Britain and France. The two European powers divided the colonies into separate administrative units.
May 7, 1919 Presentation of the Versailles Treaty to the Germans The German delegation, led by Count Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, arrived in Paris on April 29th and received the terms of the peace treaty on May 7th. The German delegation protested vigorously against the terms of the treaty, arguing that the document did not reflect the conditions upon which the Germans accepted the armistice and that the treaty had terms which were impossible to fulfill. Despite the German protests, the Allies made only a few minor modifications to the document. The Germans, facing a severe domestic crisis, realized that they could not resume the war and had no choice but to sign the peace treaty.
May 7, 1919 British Mandate over German East Africa The Allied Supreme Council assigned German East Africa to Britain as a mandate.
May 7, 1919 South African Mandate over Southwest Africa The Allied Supreme Council assigned German Southwest Africa to South Africa as a mandate. General Louis Botha, South African prime minister and leader of the majority South African Party, worked hard to convince the Allies to cede Southwest Africa outright to the South Africans without success.
May 7, 1919 Australian Mandate over German New Guinea The Allied Supreme Council assigned German New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago to Australia as a mandate.
May 7, 1919 British Empire Mandate over Nauru The Allied Supreme Council assigned Nauru to the British Empire as a mandate; by agreement, the British, Australian, and New Zealand governments divided the administration of the phosphate rich island.
May 7, 1919 Japanese Mandate of German Northern Pacific Islands The Allied Supreme Council assigned the German islands north of the Equator (the Marshall, Marianas, and Caroline Islands) to Japan as mandates.
May 7, 1919 New Zealand Mandate over Samoa The Allied Supreme Council assigned German Samoa to New Zealand as a mandate. Many New Zealanders would have preferred Britain assume the administration of the Samoan mandate to avoid the racism problem.
May 10-August 8, 1919 Afghan War The new leader of Afghanistan, Amir Amanullah, declared a jihad and called on Indian Muslims to rise up against the British. The Afghans launched an invasion of India, but after some early successes the British threw the Afghans back and threatened to invade Afghanistan. Amir Amanullah completed underestimated the British situation in India and the Afghans were quickly defeated. Neither the British nor the Afghans were prepared for a long war, so they decided to negotiate a settlement.
May 14, 1919 Greek Occupation of Smyrna With the support of the Allied governments, the Greeks landed military forces at Smyrna in Asia Minor. The Italians landed forces in southwestern Anatolia in April in preparation of establishing their own sphere of influence in Turkish territory.
May 17, 1919 Libyan Civil Government Reestablished The Italian government reestablished civil government in Libya, which was divided into Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. By August, the Italians granted the native peoples citizenship as well as a system of self-government with elected assemblies.
May 18, 1919 Soviet Russian War Declaration against Romania Due to the dispute over Bessarabia, the Soviet Russian government declared war against Romania.
May 19, 1919 Kemal Organizes Turkish Resistance General Mustapha Kemal, an ardent Turkish nationalist and hero of the Battle of Gallipoli, began to organize a Turkish resistance movement to prevent the further dismemberment of Turkey by the Allies. He was appointed the Inspector of the Third Army, which became the basis of his movement.
May 28,1919 Armenian Declaration of Independence The Armenian government declared its independence from Russian rule.
May 30, 1919 Free City of Fiume Proposal The French delegation proposed a compromise to settle the Fiume question. The French recommended the creation of a buffer state of Fiume, which the Serb-Croat-Slovene delegates rejected.
May 30, 1919 Belgian Mandate over Ruanda and Urundi Under an agreement with the British government, the Belgians received a mandate over the provinces of Ruanda and Urundi (without the district of Kisaka), which had been part of German East Africa before World War I. The League of Nations later confirmed this mandate.
June 1, 1919 Proclamation of the Rheinland Republic With the active support of the French government, separatists established the Rheinland Republic and declared their independence from Germany. The movement collapsed after a few months due to the hostility of the inhabitants.
June 4, 1919 U.S. Occupation of Costa Rica When the Costa Rican government was overthrown in a coup by the Flores party, the U.S. government landed Marines to protect American interests in the republic.
June 6, 1919-October 14, 1920 Russo-Finnish War The Finnish government went to war with the Russian Soviet government over control of Karelia.
June 13, 1919 Division of the Banat of Temesvar The delegates at the Paris Peace Conference decided to divide the Banat of Temesvar between Romania and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
June 15, 1919 Estonian Constitution The Estonian National Assembly adopted a new constitution which established Estonia as a democratic republic. Reval became the capital of the republic.
June 20, 1919 Resignation of German Government The German government under Philipp Scheidemann resigned rather than sign the Treaty of Versailles as dictated by the Allied Powers.
June 21, 1919 Scuttling of the German Fleet The crews of the German High Seas fleet scuttled their warships, interned by the British at Scapa Flow, to deny the warships future use by the Allies.
June 23, 1919 German Acceptance of Versailles Terms The new German government, under Gustav Bauer, accepted the Allies' peace terms unconditionally after the Weimar Assembly voted 237 to 138 for conditional acceptance to avoid an Allied invasion of Germany. The Majority Socialists and the Liberals, who controlled the National Assembly, assumed the odium for signing the treaty.
June 24, 1919 Hungarian Soviet Constitution The Soviet government in Hungary adopted a new constitution which officially established a Communist form of government.
June 28, 1919 Treaty of Versailles The German delegates signed the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors. This treaty called for the establishment of the League of Nations, and a number of German territorial concessions. The Germans ceded Alsace and Lorraine to France; Moresnet, Eupen, and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium; the Saar would remain under international administration for 15 years, followed by a plebiscite; northern and central Schleswig would determine their future in a plebiscite; most of Posen and West Prussia went to Poland; a plebiscite would be held in Upper Silesia; Danzig would become a free state within the Polish customs union; plebiscites would be held in Allenstein and Marienwerder in East Prussia; and Memel was ceded to the Allies. The Germans surrendered their colonies as mandates under the League of Nations. Under Article 231, the Germans accepted sole responsibility for causing the war. Regarding security, Germany was limited to an army not exceeding 100,000 men, no large guns, a navy limited to six major warships and some smaller units, no submarines or military aircraft, the dismantling of the fortifications on Heligoland, and the Allies were to occupy the Rheinland for 15 years with a 30-mile wide demilitarization belt on the east bank of the Rhein. The Kiel Canal was opened to the warships and merchant ships of all nations and the major German rivers were internationalized. The former German emperor and other war criminals were to be tried. The Germans had to pay for all civilian damage caused during the war, with the final bill presented by the Allies on May 1, 1921. In the meantime, the German government had to pay $5 billion with the remainder paid over 30 years. The Germans had to transfer all merchant ships over 1,600 tons, half of those between 800 and 1,600 tons, and one-quarter of the fishing fleet. The Germans would also build 200,000 tons of shipping for the Allies over five years. The Germans would have to ship large qua ntities of coal to Belgium, France, and Italy for ten years. They also agreed to bear the cost of the Allied occupation armies in Germany and agree to the sale of German property in Allied countries to help defray their financial commitment.
June 28, 1919 Allied Defensive Treaty of Alliance In order to gain French concessions in the final version of the peace treaty by addressing French security concerns, President Woodrow Wilson and British Prime Minister David Lloyd-George signed a Treaty of Alliance with Premier Georges Clemenceau. The U.S. and British governments agreed to come to the aid of France in the event of German aggression. From the American Senate's perspective, this treaty, while allaying French security concerns, forced to embroil the United States in future European political problems.
June 28, 1919 Chinese Refusal to Sign the Treaty of Versailles The Allies decision not to return the former German concessions at Qingdao (Shantung) back to China forced the Chinese delegates at the Paris Peace Conference to refuse to sign the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty engendered a great deal of animosity in China and the Chinese launched an ineffective boycott of Japanese goods in protest.
June 28, 1919 Perpetual Swiss Neutrality The Allied Powers recognized the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland in the Treaty of Versailles. In return, the Swiss surrendered their right to occupy northern Savoy in the event of war (a right the Swiss never exercised). The intricate problems of the free zones of Upper Savoy and Gex, critical for the defense of Geneva, were left to direct Franco-Swiss negotiations.
July 2, 1919 Syrian Request for Independence A national congress, meeting in Damascus, rejected French mandate status and requested complete independence for Syria. If independence was denied, the Syrians asked for mandate status under British or American control.
July 2, 1919 Nauru Island Administration The British, New Zealand, and Australian governments agreed to jointly administer Nauru as a mandate.
July 3, 1919 Dissolution of Supreme War Command The Allied Powers officially dissolved the Allied Supreme War Command with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
July 7, 1919 German Ratification of the Treaty of Versailles Facing no other options, the German government ratified the Treaty of Versailles, if only to end the Allied blockade of the German coast.
July 8, 1919 Dismissal of Kemal Sultan Mohammed VI dismissed General Mustapha Kemal as the Inspector of the Third Army in an attempt to quell the Turkish nationalist movement. The Sultan officially outlawed General Kemal on July 11th.
July 10, 1919 Introduction of Versailles Treaty to U.S. Senate President Woodrow Wilson introduced the Treaty of Versailles to the U.S. Senate for formal ratification. A number of Senators voiced strong objections regarding the treaty and introduced a number of reservations and amendments to the document. The Senate was divided into three groups on the Versailles issue: Democrats who supported President Wilson and favored immediate ratification of the treaty; moderates, who favorede participation in the League with reservations to protect U.S. interests (led by Henry Cabot Lodge); and "irreconcilables," who demanded complete rejection of the Covenant (Hiram Johnson, William Borah, and Robert La Follette). President Wilson steadfastly refused to accept the revisions to the treaty.
July 10, 1919 Anglo-French Division of Cameroon The British and French governments agreed on the frontier of the their mandates in the Cameroons.
July 11, 1919 Moroccan Insurrection against the Spanish Ahmed Raisuli, leader of the Moroccan nationalists, began his attacks on Spanish possessions in Morocco which marked the beginning of an Arab resistance movement.
July 12, 1919 Lifting of Allied Blockade of Germany The Allies finally lifted the naval blockade of the German coast after most of the German population had been reduced to the verge of starvation.
July 17, 1919 New Finnish Constitution The Finnish government adopted a new democratic constitution for the republic.
July 20, 1919 Presentation of the Treaty of St. Germain to the Austrians The Treaty of St. Germain registered the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian empire and penalized the new Austrian republic as a representative of the Hapsburg regime. The Austrian government recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. These new states were required to provide guarantees of protection of minorities within their borders. Austria ceded Eastern Galacia to Poland and the Trentino, South Tyrol, Trieste, and Istria to Italy. The Austrian army was limited to 30,000 men and the Austrian government had to pay reparations to the Allies for 30 years. The treaty expressly forbid the union of Germany and Austria, except with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations.
July 22, 1919 British East African Government Reorganization The British East African legislative council was enlarged to include eleven elected members representing the Europeans, two nominated members for the Asians (Anglo-Indians), and one member for the Arabs. The governor was assured a majority by the appointment of a sufficient number of official members.
July 23-August 6, 1919 Turkish National Congress at Sivas Nationalist leaders met at Sivas, under the leadership of General Mustapha Kemal, to prevent the loss of additional Turkish territory and to organize a resistance movement against the Allied Powers. The conference led to the Declaration of Sivas on September 9th.
July 29, 1919 Italo-Greek Treaty/Venizelos-Tittoni Agreement The Italian and Greek governments signed a treaty over the future division of Turkey. The Italians agreed to support Greek claims in Thrace and Epirus, while the Greeks agreed to support an Italian protectorate over Albania and Italian claims in Anatolia. The Italians received control of Rhodes for 15 years and ceded the Dodecanese Islands to Greece after the Treaty of Sevres went into effect.
July 30, 1919 French Introduction of Conscription in West Africa The French government introduced military conscription in French West Africa.
July 31, 1919 Adoption of the Weimar Constitution The German National Assembly accepted the final draft of the Weimar Constitution. Under the new constitution, the president would be elected for a seven-year term and would choose the chancellor who formed a cabinet composed of members from the majority party in the Reichstag. Under Articles 25 and 48, the president had the power to supend constitutional guaranties and to dissolve the Reichstag in repsonse to a national emergency. The Reichsrat, which consisted of representatives from 18 states (of which no one state could have more than two-fifths of the total seats), could delay legislation, but not prevent its passage. The Reichstag was the chief legislative body and members were elected from national party lists, rather than running as individuals or representing specific districts. The constitution called for proportional representation which insured the representation of minority parties in the Reichstag, but also resulted in coalition governments.
August-December 1919 White Russian Offensive in the Ukraine Having regrouped his forces, General Anton Denikin led a White Russian army against the Red Army forces in the Ukraine. General Denikin succeeded in regaining control of the Ukraine, capturing Odessa on August 18th and Kiev on September 2nd.
August 1, 1919 Overthrow of Communist Government in Hungary Faced with invasion, Hungarian monarchist forces overthrew the Communist government of Bela Kun. Bela Kun fled to Vienna to escape the Romanian army.
August 4, 1919-February 25, 1920 Romanian Invasion of Hungary The Romanian army renewed its offensive against Hungary and captured Budapest on August 4th. The Allies pressured the Romanians to withdraw from Hungarian territory. The Romanians ended their occupation of Budapest on November 14th and the last Romanian forces left Hungary on February 25, 1920, but only after they had carried away most Hungarian property which was moveable.
August 5, 1919 Kemal Independent of Constantinople General Mustapha Kemal, leader of the Turkish nationalities, declared himself independent of the Sultan's sovereignty in Constantinople.
August 6, 1919 Archduke Joseph Appointed State Governor of Hungary The new Hungarian government appointed Archduke Joseph, a member of the Hapsburg dynasty, as state governor. The Allies, however, forced the archduke to resign.
August 8, 1919 Treaty of Rawalpindi The British and Afghan governments negotiated an end to the Afghan War. For the first time, the British government acknowledged the complete independence of Afghanistan and the Afghans' right to conduct negotiations with other powers. The British also stopped providing subsidies to the Afghan government.
August 8, 1919 Imperial Preference Provisions Act The British government extended preferential tariff rates to goods imported from colonies and dominions in the British Empire.
August 9, 1919 Anglo-Persian Agreement In this treaty, the British reaffirmed the independence and integrity of Persia and agreed to provide advisers, officers, and munitions for a force to maintain order. The British granted the Persians a loan as well as aid for railroad and road construction. The British also agreed to a revision of the tariff. The British sought to seal their ascendancy in Persia, and for this reason a strong opposition arose in opposition to the treaty. The Persian Assembly (Majlis) refused to convene to ratify the agreement.
August 11, 1919 Weimar Constitution Signed German representatives officially signed the Weimar constitution, making the republic's new basic laws the law of the land.
August 15, 1919 Colombian Oil Concession The Colombian government signed a contract with the Tropical Oil Company for the exploitation of Colombian oil fields. Petroleum soon became one of the most important sources of national revenue for the republic.
August 17, 1919 Bulgarian Elections The Peasant Party won a great victory in the national elections in Bulgaria.
August 18, 1919 Polish Uprising in Upper Silesia The Polish government supported an uprising in Upper Silesia which resulted in Polish seizure of the mineral rich areas of the disputed plebiscite region.
August 19, 1919 Wilson's Acceptance of Treaty Revisions At a Senate luncheon, President Woodrow Wilson agreed to accept interpretative reservations which did not require consent from the other parties to the Treaty of Versailles. This compromise did not satisfy the Irreconcilables, who launched a national campaign against ratification of the treaty.
September-October 22, 1919 White Russian Offensive in the Baltic Region General Nikolay Yudenitch led a White Russian army through the Baltic states against Petrograd, and was close to capturing the city by October 19th. The Red Army, however, mounted a vigorous defense and defeated the White Russians on October 22nd. The Bolshevik victory forced the White Russian forces to withdraw.
September 4-25, 1919 Wilson's Treaty Tour To gain public support for the Treaty of Versailles, President Woodrow Wilson began a 9,500 mile tour of the West, delivering 37 speeches in 29 cities. On September 10th, two major Irreconcilable Senators (Owen Johnson and William Borah) began their own tour opposing the treaty and the League of Nations. On September 25th, President Wilson broke down at Pueblo, Colorado and was rushed back to Washington, DC.
September 9, 1919 Declaration of Sivas Turkish nationalists meeting at the National Conference in Sivas issued the Declaration of Sivas which affirmed the unity of Turkish territory and protested the Allied occupation and creation of an Armenian state.
September 10, 1919 Treaty of St. Germain The Austrian government signed the Treaty of St. Germain which outlined the terms of peace for the Austrians. The Austrian government recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The Austrians also ceded Eastern Galacia to Poland and the Trentino, South Tyrol, Trieste, and Istria to Italy. The Austrian army was limited to 30,000 men and the Austrian government agreed to pay reparations to the Allies for 30 years. Under the treaty, Austrian union with Germany was prohibited, except with the consent of the Concil of the League of Nations. The Austrians had to change the name of their country from German Austria to the Republic of Austria.
September 10, 1919 Senate Reservations to Versailles Treaty The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations proposed 45 amendments and four reservations to the Treaty of Versailles designed to protect U.S. foreign policy. Six of the ten members of the committee were Irreconcilables.
September 11, 1919 U.S. Occupation of Honduras Rafael Lopez Gutierrez led an insurrection in August which forced President Francisco Bertrand to flee Honduras. The U.S. government landed Marines on September 11th to restore order. Through American mediation, the Hondurans avoided a civil war.
September 12, 1919 Italian Filibustering Expedition in Fiume The Italian poet and nationalist Gabriele D'Annunzio led a filibustering expedition of volunteers and seized control of Fiume. The Italian government disavowed any support of the expedition. D'Annunzio set up a visionary government, forcing the Italians and Serbs-Croats-Slovenes to reach a compromise on the city.
September 12, 1919 British Suppression of the Irish Dail The British government sent forces to suppress the Dail Eireann and to raid the headquarters of the Sinn Fein in Ireland.
September 12, 1919 Franco-Italian Agreement on Tunisia The French and Italian governments concluded an agreement regarding the cessation of several strategic oases in southeastern Tunisia to Italian control. Under this treaty, Italian nationals received the same status as French citizens in Tunisia.
September 13, 1919 National Pact of Turkey Turkish nationalists introduced the National Pact, a declaration based on six basic principles, including self-determination of Turkish territories, the opening of the Straits, the rights of minorities, and abolition of the capitulations.
September 15, 1919 Sino-German Peace Treaty The German and Chinese governments signed a peace treaty, ending hostilities between the two countries. The Chinese refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles because the Allied Powers had assigned Qingdao (Shantung) to the Japanese rather than restoring the region to Chinese sovereignty.
September 15, 1919 French Assumption of Control of Syria The British government turned over control of the Syrian mandate to the French. The French appointed General Gourand as High Commissioner of Syria on October 9th.
September 22, 1919 German Rejection of Austrian Representation The Allied governments forced the German government to strike out the provision for Austrian representation in the Weimar Constitution and to promise to respect Austrian independence.
September 25, 1919 Norwegian Sovereignty over Spitzbergen The Allied Supreme Council awarded the Spitzbergen islands in the Arctic Ocean to Norway.
September 27, 1919 Teschen Plebiscite The Allied Supreme Command decided to hold a plebiscite in Teschen to determine whether the region would become part of Poland or part of Czechoslovakia. Disorders continued to plague the province despite the plebiscite plans.
September 30-October 12, 1919 Allied Withdrawal from North Russia By the Spring of 1919, serious fighting had broken out in northern Russia between the Allied forces and the Red Army. Although the French government was the most ardent proponent of military engagement against the Bolsheviks, the American and British governments were not willing to go beyond financial and material support for the White Russians after the signing of the Armistice with Germany. On September 30th, the Allies withdrew their troops from Archangel and the remaining Allied forces departed Murmansk on October 12th. The Bolsheviks quickly seized control of these ports after the Allied evacuation.
October 1919 African Liquor Ban/Arms Control Agreement Delegates met at an international conference and drafted an agreement which prohibited the manufacture and importation of liquor into Africa, and established controls on the African arms and ammunition trade.
October 1919 Turkish National Elections The Turkish Nationalists won a major victory in the national legislative elections.
October 2, 1919 Wilson's Stroke President Woodrow Wilson suffered a debilitating stroke which left him unable to continue his fight in support of the League of Nations.
October 5-8, 1919 Italian Adherance to Third International The Socialist Congress, meeting in Bologna, voted to adhere to the Third International, marking Italian support for the Bolshevik revolution.
October 6, 1919 Samboliski Appointed Bulgarian Premier Alexander Stamboliski, leader of the Peasant Party, became the new premier of Bulgaria. He opposed Bulgaria's entry into World War I in support of Germany and was imprisoned. As the new premier, he took his revenge against his opponents. All of the members of the Bulgarian war cabinet were tried and convicted, receiving heavy fines and prison sentences. Premier Stamboliski then introduced major economic reforms, designed to break up all of the crown lands and estates over 75 acres for distribution to the peasants. He imposed a heavy income tax on everyone except the peasants. Premier Stamboliski shut down the university and abolished freedom of the press. In foreign policy, Premier Stamboliski strove to fulfill the terms of the peace treaty and conducted a policy of reconciliation with the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. He also broke up the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO).
October 8, 1919 German Recall from Latvia Although the Allied Powers had permitted German forces in the Baltic states to continue operations against the Bolsheviks after the Armistice, the Allies ordered the German government to evacuate the German forces in Latvia under General von der Goltz on October 8th. The Germans had succeeded in driving out most of the Red Army from Latvia and had turned on the Latvians by attacking Riga.
October 10, 1919 Estonian Agrarian Law The Estonian government passed an agrarian law which broke up the large estates, held by German Baltic barons, and distributed the land to the peasants.
October 17, 1919 Austrian Ratification of Treaty of St. Germain The Austrian government ratified the Treaty of St. Germain which marked the official end of World War I for Austria.
October 13-30, 1919 Allied Ratifications of the Treaty of Versailles The French government ratified the Treaty of Versailles on October 13th, followed by the British government on October 15th, the Italian government on October 18th, and the Japanese government on October 30th. The U.S. government never ratified the treaty because the Senate introduced too many reservations and amendments, and the treaty failed to gain the necessary votes. The Senate also refused to sign the Treaty of Alliance with Britain and France of June 1919 which helped undermine the foundation of the post-war world.
October 29, 1919-January 27, 1920 First Session of the International Labor Organization Conference Delegates to the International Labor Organization (BIT) met at a conference in Washington, DC, under the chairmanship of William B. Wilson, to start developing policies on international labor issues. Issues included limits on industrial work hours, unemployment, child birth, night work for women, minimum age for industrial workers, and juvenile night work.
November 1919 Soviet Offensive in Siberia Having regained control of eastern Russia, the Red Army advanced into the Ukraine. The Bolsheviks captured Omsk on November 14th, which forced Admiral Alexander Kolchak and his White Army to fall back to Irkutsk.
November 6, 1919 Lodge's Reservations to the Treaty Senator Henry Cabot Lodge reported a resolution of ratifications, which included 14 reservations, to the Treaty of Versailles. While these revisions did circumscribe some American obligations under the Covenant of the League of Nations, the revisions did not seriously impair the League. On November 18th, President Wilson sent a letter to his supporters rejecting the Lodge amendments, arguing that the revisions did not provide for ratification of the treaty, but would in practice nullify the League.
November 11, 1919 End of Papal Sanctions against Italian Politics Pope Benedict XV lifted the papal prohibition against Roman Catholic participation in Italian politics. Since the Italian government's seizure of Rome and the Roman States, the Vatican refused to allow Catholics participate in Italian politics.
November 14, 1919 Dissolution of Yudenitch White Army The failure of General Nikolay Yudenitch to capture Petrograd forced the White Russian forces in the Baltic region to retreat. General Yudenitch decided to disband his forces and withdraw from the Russian Civil War.
November 16, 1919 Resumption of Chinese Sovereignty over Outer Mongolia The Hutuktu of Mongolia again placed Outer Mongolia under Chinese suzerainty by recognizing the new Chinese garrison.
November 17, 1919 Belgian-Dutch Scheldt Agreement The Belgian and Dutch governments signed a treaty which settled outstanding issues regarding access and navigation of the Scheldt.
November 19, 1919 U.S. Senate Rejection of Versailles Treaty The U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles, with and without reservations, and the Allied Defensive Treaty of Alliance, which effectively killed the cornerstones of the international peace settlement negotiated in Paris. Unconditional acceptance of the original treaty draft was defeated by a 38 to 53 vote. A group of Democrats joined with the Irreconcilables to defeat the Lodge amendments. If the Democratic Senators had supported the Lodge version of the treaty, the League of Nations and Treaty of Versailles would have passed by a vote of 81-13.
November 19, 1919 Swiss Join the League of Nations The Swiss parliament voted to join the League of Nations, after the Swiss federal government secured guaranties from the League Council.
November 20, 1919 Evacuation of Germans from Latvia The last German military units departed from Latvia, leaving the Latvians to mop up the remaining Red Army troops.
November 26, 1919-December 6, 1921 Irish Civil War The British government's attempt to suppress the Sinn Fein movement led to the outbreak of war between the Irish nationalists and the British forces.
November 27, 1919 Treaty of Neuilly The Bulgarian delegates signed the Treaty of Neuilly, which deprived the kingdom of an Aegean coastline and provided the Bulgarians only an economic outlet to the Mediterranean. The Bulgarian government recognized the independence of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes and agreed to pay $445 million in reparations. The Bulgarian army was reduced to 20,000 men and the Bulgarian armed forces had to surrender most of their war materials.
December 1919 Soviet Counter-Offensive in the Ukraine The Red Army turned its attention at regaining control of the Ukraine and mounted a counter-offensive against General Anton Denikin's White Army. The Red Army overran most of the Ukraine in December and reestablished a Communist government which remained in power until May 1920.
December 1919 Franco-Syrian Fighting Fighting erupted in Syria between Syrian nationalists, seeking independence, and the French army. Franco-Syrian relations would deteriorate over the next two decades.
December 7, 1919 Paderewski Resignation in Poland Jan Paderewski resigned as premier and Josef Pilsudski, now Marshal of Poland, remained as chief of state.
December 8, 1919 Curzon Line and Polish Borders The Allies sent Lord George Curzon to determine the eastern border of Poland, based on demographic information. Lord Curzon presented his findings on December 8th, which deprived Poland of Vilna. In response, the Poles rejected the Curzon Line as the republic's eastern frontier.
December 9, 1919 Costa Rican Elections Julio Acosta was elected president by the Costa Ricans and the U.S. government extended official recognition to the new government.
December 16, 1919 German Evacuatio of Lithuania German forces, which had continued military operations against Red Army forces, evacuated Lithuania.
December 17, 1919 New Siberian Government under Semenov After his retreat from eastern Russia, Admiral Alexander Kolchak was forced to step down as the Supreme Ruler of Russia and turned over control of the White Russian government in Siberia to General Nicolai Semenov. Admiral Kolchak was later captured by the Bolsheviks and executed on February 7, 1920.
December 23, 1919 Government of India Act The British government passed the Government of India Act which included the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and established a "dyarchy" in power. The Indian legislature would consist of a viceroy, a council of state (composed of 60 members, of which 26 were officials), and a legislative assembly (composed of 140 members, of whom 100 were elected). The provincial governments had Indian ministers as well as British ministers. Important issues were "reserved" for the governor and his executive council; less important issues (santitation, education, and agriculture) were "transferred" to the Indian ministers. Provincial legislatures were 70 percent elective, with a franchise rigidly limited by property qualifications. The Indian National Congress rejected the new system immediately, but less radical elements withdrew from the Congress and established the National Liberal Federation, whose members cooperated with the British government. In many places the National Liberal Federation worked the new system with considerable success, after the Indian Parliament opened for the first time in February 1921 in New Delhi.


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