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Chronology 1922
   

Date Event Historical Background
January 4-13, 1922 Conference of Cannes The Allied governments agreed to temporarily postpone German reparations payments due to the German economic crisis.
January 8, 1922 Vilna Plebiscite Polish General Zeligowski, who led the Polish filibustering expedition into Vilna, held a plebiscite to determine the future of the province. A majority of inhabitants voted to remain part of Poland and the Vilna Diet voted for union with the Poles. The Lithuanian government rejected the results of the vote and cut off economic ties with Poland.
January 10-14, 1922 Sixteenth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its sixteenth session in Geneva.
January 22, 1922 Death of Pope Benedict XV Pope Benedict XV died. The pontiff held office from September 1914 to January 1922.
January 29, 1922 Federation of Central America Dissolved A revolution in Guatemala unraveled the Federation of Central America, which would lead to constant friction over borders and threats of war between the Central American republics.
February 1, 1922 Return of Wei-hai-wei to China The British government announced during the Washington Conference that Britain would return of Wei-hai-wei to China in eight years.
February 4, 1922 Shantung Treaty The Japanese government agreed to withdraw troops from Shantung and restore all former German interests in Tsingdao and the railway in Tsinan to China. This treaty was negotiated at the Washington Conference.
February 6, 1922 Nine-Power Treaties Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Portugal, and the U.S. signed two treaties which guaranteed the territorial integrity and administrative independence of China and promised to uphold the Open Door regarding trade with China at the Washington Conference.
February 6, 1922 Naval Armaments Treaty Representatives of Britain, the U.S., Japan, France, and Italy agreed to a ten-year capital ship building holiday and established a capital ship tonnage ratio of 5-5-3-1.67-1.67 for each respective power. This agreement was concluded at the Washington Conference.
February 6, 1922 Lapse of Anglo-Japanese Alliance Under the terms of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902, the two governments agreed not to renew their alliance in the Far East.
February 6, 1922 Election of Pope Pius XI Pope Pius XI (Achille Ratti) was elected pope by the College of Cardinals.
February 11, 1922 Yap Treaty The United States gained equal access with Japan and other countries to the use of cable and radio stations on Yap and other Japanese mandates.
February 14-May 22, 1922 German-Polish Conference on Upper Silesia The League of Nations hosted a second conference on the future of Upper Silesia with representatives of the German and Polish governments.
February 15, 1922 Permanent Court of International Justice Opens The Permanent Court of International Justice officially began operations at the Hague.
February 28, 1922 Egyptian Independence Britain ended its protectorate over Egypt by unilateral declaration, but issues regarding security, communications, defense, the protection of foreigners, and the future of Sudan remain unresolved.
March 3, 1922 Fiume Coup Fascists staged a coup in Fiume and overthrew the Free State government.
March 13-17, 1922 Warsaw Conference Delegates from Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland met in Warsaw to create a defensive league and provide for arbitration of disputes.
March 15, 1922 British Recognition of King Fuad The British government officially recognized the independence of Egypt under the rule of King Fuad.
March 17, 1922 Italian Occupation of Fiume Italian troops occupied the free city of Fiume in response to the coup, incorporating the territory under Italian sovereignty.
March 20-28, 1922 European Health Conference The League of Nations hosted a meeting in Warsaw to determine optimal strategies to deal with epidemics in Europe.
March 24, 1922 Colombian-Venezuelan Border Settlement The Swiss Federal Council awarded a long-standing border dispute between Venezuela and Colombia to the Colombian government.
March 24-28, 1922 Seventeenth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its seventh session in Paris.
March 25, 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Military Agreement Iraq and Britain signed a military agreement, which gave the British control over Iraqi defenses.
March 26, 1922 Greco-Turkish Armistice Failure The Allied Powers agreed to revise some of the terms of the Sevres Treaty to end the Greco-Turkish War. The Turkisn Nationalists refused to end hostilities until the Greeks evacuated all of their forces from Anatolia.
April 1922 Civilian Rule in Pacific Mandates The Japanese government established civil government in their Pacific mandates with the capital established on Korror Island (Palau group).
April 10-May 19, 1922 Genoa Conference Representatives from Britain, France, Italy, Germany, and Russia met in Genoa to discuss the Russian problem and address world economic problems. The talks collapsed when the French government insisted that Russia repay its pre-war debts.
April 15-August 15, 1922 First Session of Permanent Court of International Justice The Permanent Court of International Justice conducted its first session of hearings in the Hague.
April 16, 1922 Treaty of Rapallo German and Russian delegates signed a treaty of alliance by which both countries renounced reparations and laid the ground work for economic and military cooperation to the dismay of the Allied powers.
April 18, 1922 Polish Incorporation of Vilna Poland formally incorporated Vilna under Polish sovereignty, which led to a bitter feud with Lithuania.
May 11-17, 1922 Eighteenth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its eighteenth session in Geneva.
May 22, 1922 Italian Offensive in Libya Italian forces began an eight-year war against the Arabs in Libya.
May 24, 1922 Italian-Russian Commercial Treaty Despite Western efforts to isolate Russia economically until the Soviet government agreed to recognize tsarist foreign debts, the Italian government signed a trade agreement with the Soviets.
May 31, 1922 German Reparations Moratorium The Reparations Commission granted Germany a six-month moratorium on reparations payments due to the collapse of the mark and Germans inability to pay. The French government protested the decision.
May 31, 1922 Austrian Loan Due to reconstruction problems, the Austrian government received an international loan guaranteed by the League of Nations with a League commissioner appointed to supervise Austrian finances.
June 1922 Greco-Turkish Mediation The Allied Powers failed in another attempt to mediate an end to the Greco-Turkish War.
June 2, 1922 Japanese Ratification of Shantung Treaty The Japanese government ratified the Shantung Treaty which established friendlier relations with China
June 16, 1922 German Cession of Eastern Upper Silesia In response to Allied pressure, the German government officially ceded Eastern Upper Silesia to Poland after disturbances during the plebiscite.
June 18, 1922 Kurdish Insurrection The Kurds, under Sheikh Mahmud, sought independence or autonomy from Iraq and began a two-year civil war.
June 30, 1922 Danube Statute Begins The new Danube Statute governing Danube River transportation went into effect.
June 30, 1922 U.S.-Dominican Agreement The U.S. government agreed to end American military occupation of the Dominican Republic. U.S. State Department officials worked out a plan with Dominican political leaders for national elections to establish a new government.
July 3-5, 1922 Intergovernmental Conference on Identity Certificates for Russian Refugees To assist Russian refugees travel between countries, the League of Nations hosted a conference in London on identity certificates for Russian expatriates.
July 6, 1922 Japanese Ratification of Washington Treaty The Japanese approved the terms of the Washington Treaty and slashed their naval budget.
July 17-24, 1922 Nineteenth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its nineteenth session in London.
July 20, 1922 League Confirmation of West African Mandates The League of Nations confirmed the establishment of British and French mandates in the former German colonies of Togo and Cameroon.
July 24, 1922 League Approval of Syrian and Palestinian Mandates The League of Nations approved the establishment of a French mandate over the Syrian states and the creation of the British mandates over Palestine and Transjordania.
July 29, 1922 Allied Ultimatum to Greece The Allied Powers warned the Greeks not to occupy Constantinople (Istanbul).
August 1, 1922 British Debt/Reparations Plan The British government offered to abandon Allied debts and Central Power reparations if a general settlement on war debts and reparations could be reached. The U.S. government rejected the proposal arguing that reparations and inter-Allied debts were separate issues.
August 7-14, 1922 London Conference The French government demanded the appropriation of German property and capital on the left bank of the Rhine and expropriations from state mines in the Ruhr. The British government rejected the French demands and the French refused to grant a moratorium on reparations payments.
August 18, 1922 Turkish Counter-Offensive in Anatolia Turkish Nationalist forces began a counter-offensive against the Greeks capturing Afiun-Karahissar and Brussa. The Greek armies collapsed and a rout ensued in their escape to the coast.
August 31, 1922 Renewal of Czechoslovak-Yugoslav Treaty of Alliance The governments of Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes renewed their treaty of alliance, which was the basis of the Little Entente.
August 31-October 4, 1922 Twentieth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its twentieth session in Geneva to consider issues associated with the Class A mandates.
August 31-October 4, 1922 Twenty-First League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its twenty-first session simultaneously with the twentieth session in Geneva to discuss general issues.
August 31-October 4, 1922 Twenty-Second League Council Session The League of Nations Council also convened its twenty-second session in Geneva to consider the Austrian issue.
September 4-30, 1922 Third League Assembly Session The League of Nations Assembly met in Geneva for its third session under Agustin Edwards (Chile).
September 6-24, 1922 Ch'ang-ch'un Conference Japanese and Russian delegates failed to reach an agreement on the future of the northern part of Sakhalin Island and the Japanese continued to govern the region.
September 9-11, 1922 Turks Capture Smyrna Turkish Nationalist forces captured Smyrna, the Greek base of operations, but the city was destroyed by fire.
September 10, 1922 Anglo-Russian Commercial Treaty The British and Russian governments signed an agreement opening trade relations between the two countries despite Allied pressures to force the Soviet government to recognize foreign loans.
September 13, 1922 Franco-Polish Military Convention The French and Polish governments signed a ten-year military convention in an effort to prevent a German revision of the Versailles border settlement.
September 15, 1922 Near East Crisis and Dominion Appeal The British government appealed to the Dominions for support in the Near Eastern crisis (the British strongly supported the Greek government), a request rejected by most of the Dominion governments. The French and Italians also rejected the proposal.
September 16, 1922 British Troops Landed in Anatolia The British landed forces in Chanak to support the Greeks.
September 18, 1922 Hungarian Admission to the League The League of Nations admitted Hungary as a member state in the organization.
September 19, 1922 Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act The U.S. passed the highest rates in American tariff history. The Harding administration assessed duties on the foreign value of the imported goods with the goal of equalizing the cost of American and foreign production.
September 25-27, 1922 Serological Conference The League of Nations sponsored a conference on health standardization in Geneva.
September 28, 1922 Surrender of Raisuli Raisuli, the leader of the Moroccan rebels, surrendered ending the war in the western part of Spanish Morocco.
October 3-11, 1922 Convention of Mudania Representatives of the Allied Powers and Turkish Nationalists met at Mudania and negotiated the Convention of Mudania. Under the terms of the agreement, the Allies agreed to return Eastern Thrace and Adrianople to Turkey and Turkey accepted the neutralization of the Straits under international control.
October 4, 1922 Geneva Protocol In return for renouncing political union with Germany, the Austrian government received a major loan to help restore the national economy.
October 8, 1922 Italians Rejection of Dodecanese Agreement Despite British protests, the Italians denounced the Dodecanese Island agreement with Greece as a result of the collapse of the Sevres Treaty.
October 10, 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Alliance The British government signed an agreement with Iraq which established an alliance between the two states. This arrangement allowed the British to maintain a strong presence in Iraq, but moved the mandate a step closer to independence.
October 18-November 3, 1922 Fourth Session of the International Labor Conference The International Labor Conference held its fourth session in Geneva under Viscount Burnham (Britain). One of the main issues at the session was the collection of migration statistics.
October 21, 1922 End of U.S. Rule in Dominican Republic U.S. administration of the Dominican Republic formally ended and the U.S. government began to withdraw the Marines contingent.
October 22, 1922 Japanese Evacuation from Siberia The last Japanese troops withdrew from Vladivostok, ending Japanese military intervention in Siberia during the Russian Civil War. The Soviet Russian government was now free to annex the Far Eastern Republic and extend Bolshevik rule to the Pacific Ocean.
October 23, 1922 Treaty of Santa Margherita Italian and Yugoslav representatives signed a treaty which reaffirmed the Treaty of Rapallo and the independence of Fiume.
October 27, 1922 Southern Rhodesia Referendum The Southern Rhodesians voted against incorporation with the Union of South Africa despite attractive terms offered by the Smuts government.
October 28, 1922 March on Rome The Fascists, under Benito Mussolini, seized control of Rome and Mussolini formed a new government.
November 1, 1922 Abolition of Ottoman Sultanate Turkish Nationalist leader Mustapha Kemal proclaimed the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate and the establishment of the Turkish republic. Sultan Mohammed VI fled Constantinople (Istanbul) on board a British warship.
November 2-7, 1922 Conference of Berlin Economic experts met in Berlin to develop policies designed to bolster the mark and revitalize the German economy.
November 19, 1922 Soviet Annexation of the Far Eastern Republic With the evacuation of Japanese forces from eastern Siberia, the Soviet Russian government was free to eliminate the buffer zone formed by the Far Eastern Republic and annexed the territory.
November 20, 1922-February 4, 1923 First Lausanne Conference Representatives met in Lausanne to conclude a peace treaty in Asia Minor and end the Turco-Greek War. The conference temporarily ended after disagreements arose between the participants regarding the abolition of capitulations and the status of Mosul.
December 2, 1922 Nejd-Iraq Border Agreement Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud, Nejd leader, signed an agreement with Iraq defining their common border. Border raids and clashes between tribes in the region would continue for several more years.
December 4, 1922 Macedonian Uprising Macedonians, under Todor Alexandrov, began an unsuccessful uprising against the Bulgarian government.
December 4, 1922-February 7, 1923 Central American Conference The U.S. government invited Central American representatives to Washington to address the Nicaraguan-Honduran crisis. The representatives signed a general treaty of neutrality which called for the establishment of a Central American Court of Justice, supported economic development, and limited armaments in the region.
December 6, 1922 Irish Constitution Proclaimed The Irish constitution went into effect and the Irish Free State was officially proclaimed.
December 9-11, 1922 Second London Conference The British government again offered to cancel Allied war debts and would continue to pay war debts to the United States. The French rejected the offer since they stood to gain more from German reparations in relation to the cancellation of their war debts to Britain
December 10, 1922 Tsingdao Returned to China The Japanese restore Tsingdao to Chinese rule.
December 20, 1922 Formation of the USSR The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics united Russia, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, and Transcaucasia into one federation. Under the reorganization, the member states retained some cultural autonomy, but political power was firmly concentrated in Moscow.
December 26, 1922 German Reparations Default The Reparations Commission again declared Germany in default due to a delayed timber delivery to France.

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Blandine Blukacz-Louisfert, Chief, UNOG Registry, Records and Archives Unit, United Nations