|January 1, 1923
||Establishment of the USSR
||The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was officially established under the new constitution.
|January 2-4, 1923
||The British and Italian governments introduced financial plans to help the Germans avoid another reparations default. The French government rejected the proposals.
|January 6, 1923
||Recall of American Occupation Troops
||The U.S. Senate recalled American occupation forces from the
|January 8-February 23, 1923
||Second Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its second (extraordinary) session in the Hague
|January 9, 1923
||German Default on Coal Deliveries
||The German government declared its inability to export coal to pay its reparations installment.
|January 11, 1923
||Franco-Belgian Ruhr Occupation
||French and Belgian troops began an occupation of the Ruhr District, the industrial heart of Germany in response to the German default. The British government condemned the occupation. In response, the German government suspended all deliveries to the Allies and the French and Belgians seized control of the mines and railroads. Lacking other means, the German government encouraged workers to engage in passive resistance.
|January 11, 1923
||Lithuanian troops occupied Memel in response to a Lithuanian insurrection. The French garrison withdraw from the district in response to the Lithuanian occupation.
|January 19, 1923
||German Passive Resistance
||In response to the Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr, the Germans declared a passive resistance movement which further undermined the German economy.
|January 29-February 3, 1923
||Twenty-Third League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its twenty-third session in Paris.
|February 4, 1923
||French Occupation of Offenburg and Appenweier
||French troops expand the occupation of the west bank of the Rhein to include Offenburg and
|February 10, 1923
||The Turkish and Afghan governments signed a military alliance between the two countries.
|February 16, 1923
||Memel Autonomous Region
||The Council of Ambassadors grants Lithuania sovereignty over Memel, but established Memel as an autonomous region.
|February 17, 1923
||Hughes Support of U.S. Membership in World Court
||Secretary of State Charles E. Hughes wrote President Warren G. Harding urging U.S. membership in the World Court, with the clear understanding that U.S. participation in the court would not involve any legal relations with the League of Nations. President Harding's successor, Calvin Coolidge, called for U.S. participation in the World Court in three successive annual messages.
|February 18, 1923
||Franco-Swiss Free Zone Plebiscite
||The Swiss voted against a Franco-Swiss agreement whereby the Swiss government surrendered treaty rights in the free zone regions.
||U.S.-Canadian Fisheries Agreement
||The U.S. and Canadian governments signed a treaty protecting the North Pacific halibut fisheries from commercial extinction.
||Fourth Pan American Conference
||This conference of American states met in Santiago, Chile and led to a wide range of agreements on trademark regulations, document publication, health and education regulations, and the establishment of fact-finding commissions to investigate disputes.
|March 3-6, 1923
||French Occupation of Rhein Bridgeheads
||French occupation troops secured their occupation of the Rheinland by seizing bridgeheads in the region including Darmstadt, Mannheim, and
|March 4, 1923
||Autonomy for Sanjak of Alexandretta
||The French separated the Sanjak of Alexandretta from Syria and gave the region autonomy.
|March 14, 1923
||Vilna and Eastern Galacia to Poland
||The Allied governments assigned Vilna and Eastern Galacia to Poland.
|March 16, 1923
||Lithuanian Sovereignty over Memel
||The Lithuanian government accepted sovereign control over
|March 21, 1923
||Bulgarian Reparations Agreement
||The Bulgarians accepted a reparations agreement with the Allies.
|March 29, 1923
||Swiss-Liechtenstein Customs Union
||Switzerland agreed to operate the postal and telegraph systems in Liechtenstein and protect the principality's foreign interests.
|April 17-23, 1923
||Twenty-Fourth League Council Session
||The League of Nations held its twenty-fourth session in Geneva.
|April 23-July 24, 1923
||Second Lausanne Conference
||The republican Turkish government and the Allied Powers negotiated a final peace treaty whereby Turkey surrendered all claims to non-Turkish territories.
|April 26, 1923
||Mexican Oil Concessions
||The Mexican government agreed to recognize foreign oil concessions granted before 1917 and the nationalization of the country's subsoil resources.
|April 30, 1923
||Protocol to Anglo-Iraqi Agreement of 1922
||The British government agreed that Iraq would become independent when it joined the League of Nations or no later than four years after the conclusion of a peace treaty with Turkey.
|May 3, 1923
||This agreement provided for the pacific settlement of disputes in the Western Hemisphere.
|May 10, 1923
||Assassination of V.V. Vorovsky
||The Russian delegate to the Lausanne Conference was murdered by a Swiss citizen who had suffered under Soviet rule. The Soviet Union broke off diplomatic relations with Switzerland.
|May 10, 1923
||Saloniki Free Zone
||The Greek government granted a small free zone in Saloniki to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes for 50 years. The free zone began operations in 1925 and provided the Serb-Croat-Slovenes access to the Aegean Sea.
|May 13, 1923
||Papal Rapprochement with France
||Pope Pius XI improved relations with the French government after a long-term disruption in relations.
|May 16-18, 1923
||Final Conference for the Exchange of Health Personnel
||The League of Nations hosted its final conference in Geneva on the exchange of medical personnel between member states.
|May 24, 1923
||Anglo-French Agreement on Tunisian Nationality
||The French and British governments agreed that children born of foreign parents in Tunisia may choose their nationality but their children would receive French citizenship.
|May 26, 1923
||The British organized Transjordania as an autonomous state under Emir Abdullah ibn Hussein.
|June 10. 1923
||Swiss-Liechtenstein Customs Union
||The customs union between Switzerland and Liechtenstein officially went into effect.
|June 15-September 15, 1923
||Third Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its third session in the Hague.
|June 19, 1923
||Anglo-American War Debt Convention
||The British and U.S. governments signed an agreement formalizing Britain's war debt obligations to the United States.
||Italianization of Tyrol
||The Italian government began a strict policy of Italianization of the Southern Tyrol (Upper
|July -October 1923
||London Conference on Morocco
||Spanish, French, and British delegates negotiated the future of Morocco without success.
|July 2-7, 1923
||Twenty-Fifth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its twenty-fourth session in Geneva.
|July 6, 1923
||New Soviet Constitution
||The Constitution of 1922 for the Soviet Union officially came into force.
|July 19-21, 1923
||Conference for the Standardization of Biological Remedies
||In an effort to standardize treatments for a wide range of diseases, the League of Nations hosted a conference in Edinburgh.
|July 24, 1923
||Treaty of Lausanne
||The Turkish government surrendered all of its claims on non-Turkish territory lost during World War I and regained Eastern Thrace, Karagach, and the islands of Imbros and Tenedos in the Aegean. Greece gained the remainder of the Aegean Islands, Italy retained the Dodecanese, and Britain continued to govern Cyprus. The Allies abolished the Capitulations in return for Turkish judicial reforms and Turkey accepted treaties to protect minorities. Unlike the other Central Empire allies, Turkey would not have to pay reparations. The Straits were demilitarized and were to remain open in times of peace as well as war if Turkey was neutral--if Turkey declared war, enemy ships, but not neutrals, could be excluded from passage. The treaty did not settle the dispute between Turkey and Iraq over the Mosul region.
|July 24, 1923
||The Turkish and Greek governments agreed to exchange their nationals which resulted in the exodus of millions. By 1930, 1.25 million Greeks left Asia Minor and returned to Greece with the assistance of the League of Nations and the Near East Relief Commission.
|July 25, 1923
||South African Company Claims
||The British government accepted the South African Company's claims in Southern Rhodesia as outlined in the Cave Commission Report. The British government paid the company and assumed administrative control over the colony.
|August 23, 1923
||Allied Evacuation of Constantinople
||Allied forces evacuated Constantinople under the terms of the Lausanne Treaty.
|August 27, 1923
||Assassination of General Tellini
||While participating in the Albanian-Greek border frontier commission, an Italian general, General Enrico Tellini, and several staff members were murdered.
|August 31, 1923
||U.S. Recognition of New Mexican Government
||The U.S. government officially recognized General Alvaro Obregon as the new president of Mexico, after the new government agreed to respect land titles held by American oil companies for land acquired before 1917 as well as accepting an adjustment of U.S. claims.
|August 31-September 12, 1923
||International Conference for the Repression of Obscene Publications
||The League of Nations hosted a conference in Geneva to repress the distribution of obscene publications.
|August 31-September 27, 1923
||After sending a stiff ultimatum to the Greek government regarding General Enrico Tellini's assassination, Italian forces bombarded and occupied the Greek island of Corfu. The Greek government accepted a decision by the League of Nations regarding the incident.
|August 31-September 29, 1923
||Twenty-Sixth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its twenty-sixth session in Geneva.
||Draft Treaty of Mutual Assistance
||This treaty attempted to define an aggressor nation to support League of Nations collective security, combining the advantages of a general guarantee and a system of local alliances. The League Assembly rejected the draft treaty after objections from Britain and the Dominions to the regional character of the plan.
|September 3-29, 1923
||Fourth League Assembly Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held its fourth session in Geneva under Cosme de la Torriente y Peraza (Cuba).
|September 10, 1923
||Irish Admission to the League
||The League of Nations admitted the Irish Free State as a member state in the organization.
|September 23, 1923
||Resumption of U.S.-Mexican Relations
||After years of political instability in Mexico, the United States resumed diplomatic relations with the Mexican government.
|September 26, 1923
||End of German Passive Resistance
||The collapse of the German mark through hyper-inflation resulted in a serious European depression which also undermined the value of the French franc. As a result of the economic crisis, the Germans ended their passive resistance movement in the Ruhr and the British and Americans worked to avert complete economic collapse.
|September 26-28, 1923
||Failed Communist Coup in Bulgaria
||The Bulgarian government repressed an abortive Communist insurrection.
|September 27, 1923
||Evacuation of Italians from Corfu
||Under pressure from the British government, Italian forces evacuated Corfu.
|September 28, 1923
||Ethiopian Admission to the League
||With the support of Italian and French governments, the Ethiopian government allayed British concerns regarding arms traffic and suppression of slavery and the League of Nations admitted Ethiopia as a member state in the organization.
|September 29, 1923
||The British officially assumed control of the Palestine mandate.
|October 1-November 8, 1923
||London Imperial Conference
||The British government recognized the right of the Dominions to negotiate and ratify treaties with foreign powers.
|October 6, 1923
||Turkish Nationalist Occupation of Constantinople
||Nationalist Turkish forces regained Constantinople although the Turkish republic soon moved the national capital to Ankara.
|October 11, 1923
||British Togoland Transferred to Gold Coast
||The British government placed sovereignty over British Togoland under the Gold Coast colonial government.
|October 15-November 3, 1923
||International Conference for the Unification of Customs Formalities
||To promote international trade and travel, the League of Nations hosted a conference on the unification of customs formalities in Geneva.
|October 21, 1923
||Declaration of the Rhein Republic
||A short-lived Rhein Republic was proclaimed by separatists, who had the support of the French and Belgian governments, at
|October 22-29, 1923
||Fifth Session of the International Labor Conference
||The International Labor Organization (BIT) held its fifth session in Geneva under the chairmanship of Mineichiro Adatei (Japan). The primary issue at this session was the inspection of labor protection.
|November 1, 1923
||Estonian-Latvian Defensive Treaty
||The Estonian and Latvian governments signed a defensive treaty.
|November 2, 1923
||Estonian-Lithuanian Defensive Treaty
||The Estonian and Lithuanian governments signed a defensive treaty. These agreements established the basis for a general defensive alliance to overthrow the Bavarian government through a coup in Munich. The revolt was suppressed by force and Hitler spent time in prison.
|November 10, 1923
||Franco-Swiss Customs Dispute
||Due to the abrogated free zone agreement of August 1921, the French moved their customs stations forward to the political border with Switzerland. The Swiss government protested the French government's unilateral action.
|November 10, 1923
||Reparation Recovery Act Suspended
||In an effort to address the economic crisis in Germany, the British government suspended the Reparation Recovery Act.
|November 12-December 6, 1923
||Fourth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its fourth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|November 15, 1923
||Establishment of the Rentenbank
||In an effort to end Germany's hyperinflation, Hjalmar Schacht introduced a new currency and deflationary policies which resulted in economic hardships for most Germans. As a result of this economic initiative, individual savings were wiped out during this period which fanned radical political partisanship.
|November 15-December 9, 1923
||Second General Conference on Communications and Transit
||The League of Nations, in an effort to promote international communications and transportation, held a second general conference in Geneva.
|November 16, 1923
||A Swiss court acquitted Maurice Conradi of the assassination of V.V. Vorovsky, which fueled the tension between the Soviet and Swiss governments.
|November 30, 1923
||German Economic Investigation
||Two committees were established to determine the causes of the German economic collapse and the impact of reparations payments on the country's economy.
|December 10-20, 1923
||Twenty-Seventh League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its twenty-seventh session in Paris.
|December 18, 1923
||Representatives of the British, French, and Spanish governments agreed that Tangier was to be governed for the sultan by a mixed commission in which the French would exercise the leading influence in decisions.
|December 18, 1923
||U.S.-German Commercial Treaty
||The German and U.S. governments signed a commercial treaty promoting trade between the two countries.
|December 20, 1923
||Hungarian Economic Reconstruction
||The League of Nations implemented an economic reconstruction program for Hungary similar to the successful program developed for Austria.
|December 27, 1923-January 2, 1924
||Final Conference on the Exchange of Health Personnel
||The League of Nations conducted its final conference on the exchange of medical personnel between member states in Geneva, which included discussions with the U.S. government.