||Nejd Siege of Jidda
||The Wahabis, under Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud, conducted a siege of Jidda, although Sherif Ali held on to power.
|January 1, 1925
||Costa Rican Withdrawal from the League
||The Costa Rican government decided to withdraw from the League of Nations in response to the League's failure to address regional disputes.
|January 1, 1925
||Tanganyikan Immigration Policy
||The British introduced new immigration regulations in Tanganyika, which permitted the return of German settlers to the former German colony.
|January 1, 1925
||Creation of Syria
||The French government united the provinces of Damascus and Aleppo to form the new state of Syria.
|January 12-February 11, 1925
||First Session of the Second Opium Conference
||The League of Nations hosted the first session of the Second Opium Conference in Geneva in an effort to eliminate international opium trafficking and use.
|January 12-March 25, 1925
||Sixth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its sixth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|January 19-February 19, 1925
||Second Session of the Second Opium Conference
||The League of Nations sponsored the second session of the Second Opium Conference in Geneva with the goal of reducing opium trafficking and use around the world.
|January 20, 1925
||The Japanese and Soviet governments agreed to restore diplomatic relations and reached a number of important agreements. The Soviets recognized the Treaty of Portsmouth of 1905 and revised the Fisheries Convention of 1907. In return, the Japanese received oil and coal concessions in northern Sakhalin Island and agreed to the evacuation of Japanese troops from the Russian half of the island. This agreement settled most disputes between the two countries.
|January 20, 1925
||Anglo-Chinese Treaty of Pekin
||The British and Chinese governments signed a treaty in Beijing as the British agreed to recognize Chinese sovereignty issues.
|January 21, 1925
||Japanese Recognition of Soviet Government
||The Japanese government formally recognized the Soviet government and acknowledged the troop withdrawal from northern Sakhalin.
||Great Kurdistan Insurrection
||The Kurds mounted a major insurrection against the Turkish government in opposition to the Kemal government's religion policy and demanded autonomy. The Turkish suppression of the insurrection was costly in terms of lives and capital and Mustapha Kemal received greater dictatorial powers.
||French Suppression of Vatican Embassy
||The French government renewed its anti-clerical policy by suppressing the Vatican embassy, which caused a storm of opposition from the Right. The government did agree to a special arrangement with the Vatican regarding representation in Alsace and Lorraine.
|February 4-13, 1925
||International Health Conference
||The League of Nations sponsored a major health conference in Singapore in a coordinated effort to combat diseases in the Far East.
|February 6, 1925
||U.S. Withdrawal from the International Opium Conference
||After the American proposal to address opium traffic was rejected by the other members of the conference, the U.S. delegation from the League of Nations' International Opium Conference withdrew from the deliberations.
|February 9. 1925
||Rheinland Mutual Guaranty Pact
||The German government proposed the Rheinland Mutual Guaranty Pact to promote better relations in Western Europe. The British government expressed an interest in the proposal as a substitute policy to replace the Geneva Protocol.
|February 10, 1925
||U.S.-Canadian Fishing Agreement
||The U.S. and Canadian governments signed a treaty outlining fishing rights for their respective nationals as well as addressing outstanding fishing issues.
|February 11-19, 1925
||International Opium Conventions
||The International Opium Conventions convened to improve global opium production and trafficking control.
|February 14, 1925
||The French government renounced its special rights in Siam and arranged for the arbitration of disputes.
|March 5, 1925
||U.S. House Support of World Court Membership
||The House of Representatives voted overwhelmingly in support of U.S. adherence to the World Court Protocol, placing political pressure on the Senate to support membership.
|March 9, 1925
||U.S. Arbitration of Tacna Dispute
||President Calvin Coolidge of the United States agreed to arbitrate between Chile and Peru regarding the Tacna-Arica regional dispute.
|March 9-14, 1925
||Thirty-Third League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its thirty-third session in Geneva.
|March 12, 1925
||British Rejection of the Geneva Protocol
||Due to the opposition of the British Dominions, the newly elected Conservative government in Britain decided to reject the Geneva Protocol.
|March 18, 1925
||Franco-Swiss Border Agreement
||Through arbitration, the French and Swiss governments reached a final agreement regarding free zones on the two countries' border region.
||French Support for Rheinland Guaranty
||Aristide Briand, the new French Foreign Minister, indicated that France would support the Rheinland Mutual Guaranty Pact if the German government agreed to join the League of Nations.
|April 2, 1925
||Franco-Turkish Agreement on Alexandretta
||The French and Turkish governments agreed on the autonomy of
|April 3, 1925
||Scheldt Navigation Agreement
||The Belgian and Dutch governments signed a treaty ending a long-standing dispute over navigation rights on the
|April 3, 1925
||Repeal of Reparation Recovery Act
||The British government repealed the Reparation Recovery Act which placed import duties on German goods as a means of recovering reparations payments from Germany.
|April 4, 1925
||Japanese Evacuation of Northern Sakhalin
||Japanese troops withdrew from northern Sakhalin and turned the territory over to Soviet authorities.
|April 4-May 25, 1925
||Seventh Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its seventh (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|April 13, 1925
||Beginning Moroccan Insurrection against the French
||Abd el-Krim launched an attack against French forces in Morocco marking the beginning of a renewed insurrection.
||Opening of French Embassy in Vatican City
||In light of the political opposition in France, the French government decided to open an embassy in Vatican City.
|May 4-June 17, 1925
||Geneva Arms Conference
||Delegates met in Geneva to negotiate an arms limitation agreement which resulted in the Arms Traffic Convention of June 1925.
|May 19-22, 1925
||International Sleeping Sickness Conference
||The League of Nations hosted a health conference on African sleeping sickness in London.
|May 19-June 10, 1925
||Seventh Session of the International Labor Conference
||The International Labor Organization (BIT) held its seventh session in Geneva, under the chairmanship of Eduard Benes (Czechoslovakia). The major issues discussed at the conference were workingmen's compensation for accidents and occupational diseases, equality of treatment in accident compensation, and night work in bakeries.
|May 20-21, 1925
||Charles Lindbergh was the first pilot to fly solo non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean, departing New York and landing in Paris.
|May 30, 1925
||Chinese sentiments against the "unequal treaties" led to protests in Shanghai. British forces used force to disperse the student protesters.
||In light of the long controversy between the U.S. and Mexico regarding the Mexican government's application of the constitution to property rights, U.S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg accused the Calles government of Mexico of failing to protect American lives and property. This accusation led to increased tensions between the two countries.
|June 8-11, 1925
||Thirty-Fourth League Council Session.
||The League of Nations Council held its thirty-fourth session in Geneva.
|June 15-August 25, 1925
||Eighth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its eighth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|June 17, 1925
||Arms Traffic Convention
||Delegates participated in the Arms Traffic Convention to limit international trade in arms and munitions as a means to promote peace. The delegates signed a protocol which prohibited the use of poison gas.
|June 23, 1925
||Chinese protests against the "unequal treaties" spread to Canton. The Chinese conducted strikes and a boycott against British goods and shipping.
|June 29, 1925
||Juba River Transfer
||The British ceded a strip of territory on the Juba River in Somaliland to Italy in fulfillment of the Treaty of London of 1915.
|July 6, 1925
||Czech-Vatican Relations Severed
||In response to the Czech celebration of the anniversary of John Hus as a national holiday, coupled with a long-standing dispute over the appointment of bishops and the delineation of dioceses, the Czech government and the Papacy severed official relations.
|July 11, 1925
||French Arrest of Druse Notables
||After inviting Druse leaders to attend a conference in Damascus, the French arrested these notables after they accused the French of favoritism towards the Christians in Syria.
|July 14, 1925
||The British government renounced its special rights in Siam and arranged for the arbitration of disputes with the Siamese government.
|July 18, 1925
||Beginning of Lebanese Insurrection
||Sultan Pasha led the Great Insurrection of the Druses against the French in Lebanon. The Druse soon gained control of the countryside and launched attacks against the larger cities.
|July 18, 1925
||Treaty of Nettuno
||The Italian and Yugoslav governments signed a treaty regarding both nations' claims to Dalmatia and the Adriatic islands.
|July 20, 1925
||French Withdrawal from Westphalia
||French occupation forces evacuated Westphalia leaving German authorities in control of the region.
|July 26, 1925
||Franco-Spanish Agreement on Morocco
||In light of the insurrection in Morocco, the French and Spanish governments agreed to take common action against the Riff insurgents. The French eventually dispatched 150,000 troops to control the
|July 27, 1925
||Southwest African Constitution
||The British introduced a new constitution for Southwest Africa which provided for a colonial legislature. The German population became British subjects, but German remained an official language.
|August 15, 1925
||Norwegian Annexation of Spitzbergen
||The Norwegian government officially annexed the Spitzbergen Islands in the Arctic Ocean. Sovereignty over the islands remains a source of dispute between Norway and the Soviet Union.
|August 18, 1925
||U.S.-Belgian War Debt Agreement
||The U.S. and Belgian governments concluded an agreement on Belgian war debt obligations to the United States during World War I.
|August 19-29, 1925
||Stockholm Ecumenical Conference
||Religious delegates from a variety of faiths met in Stockholm for the Ecumenical Church Conference to revive the ecumenical church movement in post-war Europe.
|August 21, 1925
||Reorganization of Ruanda-Urundi Mandate
||The Belgian government united the administration of the Ruanda-Urundi mandate with the colonial government in the Belgian Congo.
|August 25, 1925
||French Evacuation of the Ruhr
||The last French troops evacuated Duesseldorf, Duisburg, and Ruhrort, ending French occupation of the Ruhr region of Germany.
|September 1-4, 1925
||Security Pact Deliberations
||A committee of international jurists met in London to draft a security pact to prevent the outbreak of future wars.
|September 2, 1925
||Albanian National Bank
||The Albanian government organized a national bank under Italian auspices with the support of an Italian loan.
|September 2-28, 1925
||Thirty-Fifth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its thirty-fifth session in Geneva.
|September 3, 1925
||Second International Conference on the Standardization of Medicine
||The League of Nations hosted the second conference on medicine standardization in Geneva. The delegates worked to unify drug formulae around the world.
|September 7-26, 1925
||Sixth League Assembly Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held its sixth session in Geneva under Raoul Dandurand (Canada).
|September 9, 1925
||Franco-Spanish Offensive in Morocco
||Under the command of Marshal Henri-Phillipe Petain, a combined Franco-Spanish force began an offensive against the Riffians.
|September 10, 1925
||End of League Control of Austrian Finances
||The League of Nations voted to end its successful control of Austrian finances as the country's economy returned to health.
|September 23, 1925
||Australian Immigration Restriction Act
||The Australian Parliament gave the Governor-General the authority to prohibit the entrance of aliens of any specified nationality, class, race, or occupation for economic or racial reasons. While this act was never systematically enforced, it limited the entry of Italian immigrants in response to Australian labor group objections.
|October 5-16, 1925
||European delegates met in Locarno, Switzerland to negotiate a variety of treaties which guaranteed the borders of Western Europe. These treaties became the basis for inter-war peace and security and signaled a shift in European diplomacy towards international law and arbitration of disputes. While the "spirit of Locarno" offered hope for the future, the treaties did not eliminate German expansion to the east or south and encouraged the French to seek alliances with East European nations.
|October 12, 1925
||Soviet-German Commercial Treaty
||The German and Soviet governments signed a commercial treaty designed to increase trade between the two countries.
|October 14, 1925
||French Evacuation of Damascus
||Rioting in Damascus erupted after the French displayed the corpses of Druse rebels. The popular uprising forced French forces to withdraw from the city.
|October 18-20, 1925
||French Counterattack on Damascus
||The French launched a 48 hour bombardment of Damascus, followed by an air and tank assault.
|October 21-23, 1925
||Bulgarian-Greek Border Incident
||Greek and Bulgarian forces clashed on the border which resulted in a Greek invasion of Bulgarian territory.
|October 22-November 25, 1925
||Ninth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its ninth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|October 25, 1925
||Emiliano Chamorro began a revolt against the Carlos Solorzano government, forcing the Vice President, Juan Sacasa to resign from office. This revolt would lead to U.S. military intervention in Nicaragua.
|October 26-30, 1925
||Thirty-Sixth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its thirty-sixth (extraordinary) session in Paris.
|November 1, 1925
||Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud and the Iraqi government reached an agreement regarding the assignment and rights of the frontier tribes.
|November 2, 1925
||The British government and Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud negotiated an agreement regarding the frontier of Hejaz-Nejd and Transjordania.
|November 12, 1925
||U.S.-Italian War Debt Settlement
||The Italian government agreed to repay its war debt to the United States with an interest rate fixed at 0.4 percent.
|November 20-27, 1925
||European Conference on Ship Measurement
||The League of Nations sponsored a conference in Paris to determine a common measurement for ship tonnage.
|November 27, 1925
||German Ratification of Locarno Treaties
||The German government formally ratified the treaties negotiated during the Locarno Conference.
|December 1, 1925
||Treaties of Mutual Guaranty of German Borders
||Delegates from Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy signed treaties which guaranteed the Franco-German and Beglo-German border regions. These treaties were guaranteed by the British and Italian governments and were the products of the Locarno Conference.
|December 1, 1925
||Polish-German Arbitration Treaty
||Polish and German delegates signed a treaty which called for the arbitration of disputes between Germany and Poland. This treaty was negotiated during the Locarno Conference.
|December 1, 1925
||Czech-German Arbitration Treaty
||Czech and German delegates signed a treaty which called for the arbitration of disputes between Germany and Czechoslovakia. This treaty was drafted during the Locarno Conference.
|December 1, 1925
||Franco-German Arbitration Treaty
||French and German delegates signed a treaty which called for negotiations to settle disputes between France and Germany. This treaty was drafted during the Locarno Conference.
|December 1, 1925
||Belgian-German Arbitration Treaty
||Belgian and German delegates signed a treaty which called for the arbitration of disputes between Belgium and Germany. This treaty was also negotiated during the Locarno Conference.
|December 1, 1925
||French Mutual Assistance Treaties
||The French government negotiated separate mutual assistance treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia in the event of a German attack on any of the signatories. These treaties reflected France's concern for a resurgent Germany despite the Locarno Conference guarantees. The French developed an extensive alliance system with Poland and the Little Entente powers and began construction of the Maginot Line.
|December 3, 1925
||Northern Irish Border Agreement
||The British and Irish Free State governments signed an agreement delineating the border of Northern Ireland. This agreement was the result of long negotiations and the rejection of several compromise proposals. The 1920 border was retained in the agreement, but the Irish Free State was relieved of obligations for the British national debt.
|December 5, 1925
||Nejd Capture of Medina
||The city of Medina surrendered to Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud's forces which forced Sherif Ali to abdicate his throne.
|December 6, 1925
||The British and Italian governments redrew the border between Libya and Egypt, which included the transfer of the Jarabub Oasis and other parts of western Egypt to Italy.
|December 7, 1925
||Philippine Independence Petition
||The Philippine legislature sent a petition to the U.S. Congress demanding independence.
|December 7-16, 1925
||Thirty-Seventh League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its thirty-seventh session in Geneva.
|December 14, 1925
||Bulgarian-Greek Border Settlement
||The League of Nations settled the Bulgarian-Greek border incident of October 1925 and fined the Greek government for the frontier violation.
|December 14-20, 1925
||Anglo-Italian Notes Regarding Ethiopia
||The British and Italian governments exchanged diplomatic notes regarding their future interests in Ethiopia. The British government promised to aid the Italian government develop its sphere of influence in Ethiopia in return for Italian support for British plans to build a dam at Lake Tsana.
|December 16, 1925
||The League of Nations assigned most of the disputed territory in the oil rich Mosul region to Iraq, despite strong Turkish protests.
|December 17, 1925
||Turco-Soviet Security Treaty
||The Turkish and Soviet governments declared an alliance which established close political and economic cooperation between the two countries.
|December 23, 1925
||Nejd Capture of Jidda
||Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud consolidated his control over Arabia after seizing Jidda.