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Chronology 1927

Date Event Historical Background
January 1, 1927 Mexican Petroleum Legislation To implement the 1917 constitution, two laws passed by the Mexican Congress went into effect. Under the Petroleum Law, permanent foreign oil concessions were limited to 50 years and foreign corporations had to waive their right of appeal to their home government (the Calvo Clause). The Land Law, which the Mexican legislature designed to break up the large estates, restricted foreign land ownership in Mexico. These two laws alienated American oil corporations operating in Mexico and increased tensions between the two countries.
January 1, 1927 Nationalist Chinese Government at Hankou The Nationalist Chinese officially established their new capital at Hankou (Hankow) in central China.
January 17-20, 1927 Conference of Health Experts on Child Welfare To promote the general health and welfare of children around the world, the League of Nations held a conference in Paris.
January 27, 1927 Panamanian Rejection of the Treaty of 1926 The Panamanian Assembly refused to ratify the Panama Canal Treaty of 1926 with the U.S. because the agreement violated Panamanian sovereignty. The Panamanian government moved the issue to the League of Nations for consideration, but the League took no action.
January 27, 1927 U.S. Arbitration with Mexico The U.S. Senate unanimously passed a resolution calling for arbitration to address the growing crisis with Mexico stemming from the southern republic's new petroleum laws.
January 31, 1927 End of Inter-Allied Military Control of Germany The Inter-Allied Commission of Military Control in Germany ended its administrative duties. Future problems with German rearmament would now come under League of Nations jurisdiction.
February 1927 U.S. Minister Sent to Canada President Calvin Coolidge appointed William Phillips as U.S. Minister to Canada.
February 1927 Catholic Church Repudiated Mexican Constitution The Roman Catholic Church publicly repudiated the Mexican Constitution of 1917 in response to the Mexican government's anti-cleric policy.
February 1927 German Airline Service to Persia The Junkers Company opened regular air service to Baku, Teheran, Esfahan, and Bushire. This air service continued until 1932.
February 9, 1927 Tangier Conference International delegates met in Paris to consider the Spanish government's demand that Tangier should be included in Spanish Morocco.
February 10, 1927 U.S. Call for Naval Disarmament Talks President Calvin Coolidge called for a five-power conference to be held in Geneva to negotiate limitations on the construction of cruisers, destroyers, and submarines not covered by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1921. A conference was scheduled for June 1927.
February 11, 1927 Mexican Anti-Clerical Policy The Mexican government ordered the nationalization of church property and began to close parochial schools. The Mexican government also deported foreign priests, nuns, and monks. Tensions between the Mexican government and the Roman Catholic Church remained tense and often flared into open conflict.
February 21, 1927 Indian-South African Conference Representatives of the Indian government met with South African leaders to aid Indians who wanted to return home to the sub-continent. Indians who chose to stay in South Africa were to be free of further South African restrictions.
February 27, 1927 British Concessions in China The British government, tired of the Chinese boycott against British goods and hopeful of wooing the Chinese from Soviet influence, returned the concessions at Hankou (Hankow) and Jiujiang (Kiukiang) to the Nationalist government.
March 7-12, 1927 Forty-Fourth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its forty-fourth session in Geneva.
March 9, 1927 Italian Revocation of Self-Government in Libya The Italian government decided to revoke self-government in Libya.
March 24, 1927 Communist Capture of Nanjing Chinese Communists seized Nanjing (Nanking) and killed six foreigners in an attempt to discredit Chiang Kai-Sheik and the Nationalists. The international community raised a force of 40,000 troops to protect Shanghai.
March 27, 1927 End of Consular Courts in Siam The Siamese government closed the consular courts with the ratification of the last treaties ending extraterritoriality and the government established a new tariff policy for Siam.
April 5, 1927 Italo-Hungarian Treaty of Friendship The Italian and Hungarian governments signed a Treaty of Friendship reflecting a period of close relations between the two countries; this marked the beginning of the Fascist policy of rallying the "revisionist" states (reflecting growing agitation for treaty revisions) against the Little Entente and the French.
April 6, 1927 Briand Announcement of Outlawry of War Aristide Briand, Foreign Minister of France, publicly announced a proposal for the "outlawry of war." Briand developed this proposal after conversations with Professor James T. Shotwell of Columbia University in March.
April 15, 1927 Settlement of the Vorovsky Affair The Swiss and Soviet governments finally settled the last questions resulting from the assassination of V.V. Vorovsky, the Soviet delegate to the Lausanne Conference. Despite the agreement, which restored diplomatic relations, ties between the Swiss and Soviet governments remained cold.
April 18, 1927 Purge of Communists in China Chiang Kai-Sheik and his conservative allies in the Kuo Min Tang split with the radicals in Hankou (Hankow) and set up a new government in Nanjing (Nanking). Chiang purged the Russians and Communists from Hankou to restore political unity.
April 25-30, 1927 First International Rabies Conference In an effort to promote the treatment of rabies, the League of Nations sponsored a conference in Paris.
May-June 1927 Japanese Intervention in Shantung The Japanese government dispatched troops to protect residents in Jinan (Tsinan), hindering the advance of Kuo Min Tang forces marching on Beijing.
May 2-23, 1927 International Economic Conference Over 50 nations sent delegates to the International Economic Conference in Geneva to address international economic and trade issues.
May 4, 1927 American Arbitration of Nicaraguan Civil War Henry L. Stimson, U.S. delegate, succeeded in getting the Liberals and Conservatives in Nicaragua together for an agreement. President Adolfo Diaz would complete his term in office, the Liberals would disarm, and the U.S. agreed to supervise the next election.
May 13, 1927 Black Friday--German Economic Crisis The German economic system collapsed when threatened to expand into a general European economic crisis.
May 20, 1927 Anglo-Nejd Treaty Under the Treaty of Jeddah, the British government recognized the independence of Adb al-Aziz ibn Saud's kingdom.
May 20-21, 1927 First Solo Flight Across Atlantic Charles Lindbergh, an American aviator, became the first pilot to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. He departed New York and landed in Paris the next evening.
May 25-June 16, 1927 Tenth Session of the International Labor Conference The International Labor Organization (BIT) held its tenth session in Geneva, under the chairmanship of Sir Atul Chatterjee (India). The main issue at this BIT session was sickness insurance in agriculture and industry.
May 26, 1927 British Abrogate Soviet Trade Agreement Following Communist propaganda and agitation in Britain, the Conservative government abrogated the Trade Agreement of 1924 with the Soviet Union. As a result, the British government broke off diplomatic relations with the Soviets.
June 1927 Severance of Serb-Croat-Slovene Relations with Albania The government of the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes ended relations with the Albanian government after a number of border incidents which began in May 1927.
June 1927 End of Druse Insurrection in Syria After the French conducted a large-scale campaign against the Druse insurgents, the fighting finally ended after the Druse leadership fled to Transjordania. The revolution began in July 1925.
June 7-11, 1927 Conference of Health Experts on the Protection of Children The League of Nations hosted a conference of health experts in Montevideo to promote the welfare of children.
June 13-17, 1927 Forty-Fifth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its forty-fifth session in Geneva.
June 15-December 16, 1927 Twelfth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice The Permanent Court of International Justice held its twelfth session in the Hague.
June 19, 1927 Resumed Macedonian Raids against the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes Macedonians from Bulgaria resumed their raids across the Serb-Croat-Slovene frontier.
June 20, 1927 Submission of Briand Draft Treaty Aristide Briand, French Foreign Minister, submitted a draft treaty to outlaw war, after consultation with U.S. Secretary of State, Frank B. Kellogg.
June 20-August 4, 1927 Three-Power Naval Conference Britain, Japan, and the U.S. sent representatives to Geneva to reach an agreement on the reduction of cruisers, destroyers, and submarines. The French and Italian governments refused to send delegates and the British and American representatives could not agree on cruiser restrictions. As a result, the conference ended without an agreement.
July 1927 End of Java Revolt The Dutch finally suppressed the Communist revolt on Java and the East Indies with great difficulty.
July 1927 End of Moroccan Insurrection Fighting finally ended in the Franco-Spanish campaign against Riffian insurgents.
July 1927 Serb-Croat-Slovene-Albanian Rapprochement The European powers persuaded the government of the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes to restore diplomatic relations with the Albanians.
July-October 1927 Unrest in Samoa Political unrest erupted in Samoa as the native chiefs complained against New Zealand administration. A commission investigating the charges vindicated the New Zealand government and found that foreigners had instigated the natives. The New Zealand government responded by repatriating objectionable foreigners (primarily Germans) and seizing their properties.
July 1, 1927 Czech Administrative Reform Due to the constant complaints of the Slovaks and Ruthenians regarding policy-making in Prague, the Czechoslovak government adopted administrative reforms which granted greater self-government to these provinces.
July 4-12, 1927 Conference for the Establishment of an International Welfare Union The League of Nations hosted a conference in Geneva to investigate the establishment of an International Welfare Union.
July 15-16, 1927 Socialist Riots in Vienna Political violence erupted in Austria as Socialists took to the streets and burned down the Palace of Justice in Vienna.
July 18, 1927 Anglo-Egyptian Draft Treaty The British and Egyptian governments drafted a treaty which called for British military occupation to end within the next ten years.
July 20, 1927 Death of King Ferdinand of Romania King Ferdinand of Romania died and was succeeded by his grandson, King Michael.
July 27, 1927 Belgian-Portuguese Central African Agreement The Belgian and Portuguese governments redefined the borders between the Belgian Congo and Angola. The Belgians ceded 480 square miles of territory from the Belgian Congo in return for one square mile of territory near Matadi. The Belgians needed this land to complete the reconstruction of the Matadi-Stanleyville Railway.
August 7, 1927 International Peace Bridge Opened The International Peace Bridge, connecting New York with Ontario, opened for traffic between the U.S. and Canada.
August 13, 1927 Illegal Communist Strikes in Brazil President Washington Luis Pereira de Souza took drastic measures against Brazilian Communists making strikes illegal.
August 22, 1927 End of Allied Military Control of Hungary The Allies formally ended military control of Hungary.
August 23-September 2, 1927 Third General Conference on Communications and Transit The League of Nations hosted its third general conference in Geneva for the promotion of international communications and transportation.
August 24-27, 1927 International Conference of Press Experts To support press journalism, the League of Nations hosted a conference of journalists in Geneva.
September 1-15, 1927 Forty-Sixth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its forty-sixth session in Geneva.
September 5-27, 1927 Eighth League Assembly Session The League of Nations Assembly held its eighth session in Geneva under Alberto Guani (Uruguay).
September 17-28, 1927 Forty-Seventh League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its forty-seventh session in Geneva.
September 18, 1927 German Renunciation of Article 231 President Paul von Hindenburg, in a speech dedicating the war memorial at Tannenburg, repudiated German responsibility for the outbreak of World War I (Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty).
September 19-28, 1927 International Anthropology Congress To promote the study of anthropological research around the world, the League of Nations hosted an international anthropology conference in Amsterdam.
September 22, 1927 Abolition of Slavery in Sierra Leone The colonial government declared the abolishment of slavery in Sierra Leone.
September 26-28, 1927 Fourth Congress of the International Confederation of Intellectual Workers To promote the protection of intellectual property, the League of Nations sponsored a conference of academics in Paris.
October 1927 Appointment of Morrow as Ambassador to Mexico President Calvin Coolidge appointed Dwight W. Morrow as U.S. ambassador to Mexico. Morrow displayed unusual tact and understanding when dealing with the Mexican government and gained the Mexicans' confidence. In response, the Mexican government offered concessions on difficult issues.
October 1, 1927 Russo-Persian Non-Aggression Pact The Soviet and Persian governments signed a non-aggression treaty designed to bolster relations between the two states.
October 10, 1927 Bulgarian Martial Law on Frontier In an attempt to control Macedonian raids against the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes, the Bulgarian government declared martial law in the border region.
October 10-14, 1927< valign="top">October 17-November 8, 1927 Diplomatic Conference for the Abolition of Prohibitions and Restrictions on Imports and Exports To promote international trade, the League of Nations hosted a conference on the suppression of restraints on imports and exports in Geneva.
October 25, 1927 Epidemiological Intelligence Conference To promote the sharing of information on disease control, the League of Nations sponsored a conference of health officials in Geneva.
October 30-November 8, 1927 Anglo-Egyptian Negotiations Representatives of the British and Egyptian governments met again to iron out the last details of the new treaty draft.
November 1927 Royal Iraqi Visit to Britain King Faisal of Iraq visited London in an attempt to obtain British support for Iraq's immediate admission to the League of Nations.
November 11, 1927 Franco-Serb-Croat-Slovene Treaty The governments of France and the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes signed a treaty designed to balance Italian advances in the Balkans.
November 15, 1927 Canada Elected to League Council Seat League of Nations delegates elected Canada to a seat on the League Council.
November 17, 1927 Mexican Supreme Court Invalidation of Petroleum Law The Mexican Supreme Court declared that limitations on foreign concessions under the Petroleum Law were unconstitutional. This represented a major step in resolving U.S.-Mexican tensions.
November 22, 1927 Second Treaty of Tirana The Italian and Albanian governments signed a second treaty in response to the Franco-Serb-Croat-Slovene treaty. The Second Treaty of Tirana established a defensive alliance between the two countries for 20 years and provided for military cooperation. This agreement effectively made Albania an Italian protectorate. The Italians extended substantial loans in return for valuable concessions (petroleum), supervision of military affairs, construction of roads, and educational privileges.
November 22, 1927 Persian Claim to Bahrain The Persian government announced its claims to the Bahrain Islands although the Arab sheikh of Bahrain was under British protection. The discovery of petroleum in the area made the islands a valuable commodity.
November 27, 1927 Second Persian-Afghan Treaty of Friendship and Security The Persian and Afghan governments signed a second Treaty of Friendship and Security.
November 30-December 3, 1927 Soviet Disarmament Proposal During the Preparatory Commission on Disarmament, the Soviet representative, Maxim Litvinov, proposed a complete and immediate disarmament as the best means to avoid future war. The other delegates rejected the Soviet motion as mere Communist propaganda.
December 1927 Amendment of Mexican Petroleum Law The Mexican government amended the Mexican Petroleum Law which marked a major improvement in U.S.-Mexican relations. Ambassador Morrow also played a leading role in the reconciliation between the Mexican government and the Roman Catholic Church.
December 5-12, 1927 Forty-Eighth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its forty-eighth session in Geneva.
December 14, 1927 New Anglo-Iraqi Treaty The British and Iraqi governments negotiated a new treaty whereby the British recognized the independence of Iraq and agreed to support Iraq's admission into the League of Nations in 1932 in return for three new airbases in Iraq and an agreement that British officers should train the Iraqi army.
December 14, 1927 Severance of Nationalist Chinese Relations with the Soviets Chiang Kai-shek broke off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and proceeded to overthrow the government at Hankou (Hankow) in an effort to consolidate political power in China.
December 17, 1927 U.S. Renunciation of War U.S. Secretary of State, Frank B. Kellogg, formally announced his plan to negotiate a treaty with the French government which would renounce war as an instrument of foreign policy.
December 25, 1927 Mexican Concession to Foreign Oil The Mexican Congress granted unlimited confirmatory concessions to lands where foreign oil corporations had begun exploratory operations by May 1, 1917. This permitted international oil companies to resume operations in areas where they had already committed investments.
December 27, 1927 15th All Union Communist Party Congress Premier Josef Stalin achieved complete victory over Leon Trotsky when the delegates at the 15th All-Union Congress of the Communist Party condemned all deviation from the party line as determined by Premier Stalin. Trotsky and his supporters were expelled from the Communist Party and banished to the provinces.
December 28, 1927 Kellogg Note on Outlawry of War After negotiations with Senator Borah, U.S. Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg issued a note which substituted a multinational, rather than a bilateral, agreement to outlaw future wars. This plan became the basis for a series of treaties between countries designed to outlaw aggressive actions.

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