||Italian Arms to Hungary
||Austrian officials discovered five freight cars loaded with Italian machine guns and ammunition destined for Hungary. The Little Entente powers protested the sale to the League of Nations which launched an investigation into the affair.
||Sixth Pan American Conference
||Representatives met in Havana for the Sixth Pan American Conference. The representatives placed the Pan American Union on a legal basis and outlined a variety of conferences to negotiate a wide range of common interests. Charles Evans Hughes, leader of the U.S. delegation, successfully blocked a resolution against intervention in the internal affairs of other states. By preventing the passage of this resolution, the U.S. government would not violate international law by intervening in the affairs of American states.
||Royal Afghan Visit
||King Amanullah, seeking to modernize Afghanistan, and his queen conducted a royal visit to India, Egypt, and Europe in an effort to establish financial and advisory support for the kingdom.
|January 3, 1928
||End of the Senussi War in Libya
||The Senussi leader in Cyrenaica surrendered to the Italians, finally ending the war in eastern Libya and placing the colony fully under Italian control.
|January 11, 1928
||Kellogg Introduces Draft Treaty
||Frank B. Kellogg, U.S. Secretary of State, published a draft treaty which outlined his proposal, in cooperation with French Foreign Minister, Aristide Briand, for an international document to outlaw future wars.
|January 13, 1928
||End of Allied Military Control of Bulgaria
||The Allied governments formally ended military control over Bulgaria in accord with the Treaty of Neuilly, which ended World War I.
|January 18, 1928
||Norwegian Annexation of Bouvet Island
||The Norwegian government annexed Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, an important staging point for whaling operations.
|January 23, 1928
||Japanese and Russian delegates signed a new fisheries convention in Moscow, which revised the Fisheries Convention of 1907.
|January 29, 1928
||The German and Lithuanian governments signed a treaty formalizing the frontier between Lithuania and East Prussia and the status of Memel, including an arbitration instrument to address future disputes.
|February 6-April 26, 1928
||Thirteenth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its thirteenth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|February 13, 1928
||East African Railway Line
||The construction of the new railway line linking the Katanga Province in the Belgian Congo through British Rhodesia to the Portuguese East African port of Beria was completed. This railway line provided an Indian Ocean outlet for natural resources from the Congo.
|February 21, 1928
||Fascist Militia Incorporated into Italian Army
||Premier Benito Mussolini incorporated the Fascist militia into the regular Italian army.
|February 28, 1928
||The British recognized the Transjordania mandate as independent, although the British maintained military and some financial control over the kingdom.
|March 3, 1928
||Spanish Control of Tangier
||The French government agreed to give Spain increased power in the government of Tangier.
|March 4, 1928
||Egyptian Rejection of British Treaty
||The Egyptian Parliament rejected the British draft of July 1927 as incompatible with Egyptian independence.
|March 5-10, 1928
||Forty-Ninth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its forty-ninth session in Geneva.
|March 14-17, 1928
||Conference for the Abolition of Prohibitions and Restrictions on the Exportation of Hides and Bones
||To promote the exportation of hides and bones, the League of Nations sponsored a conference in Geneva.
|March 22, 1928
||Cancellation of Spain's Withdrawal from League
||The Spanish government withdrew its resignation letter and remained in the League of Nations although Spain did not receive a permanent seat in the League Council.
|March 22-24, 1928
||Conference of Exports for the Coordination of Higher International Studies
||To improve the science of international relations, the League of Nations hosted a conference of academics in Berlin.
||To improve international health care, the League of Nations sponsored a conference in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
|April 4, 1928
||Palmas Island Settlement
||After arbitration, the Dutch gained sovereignty over Palmas Island, near the Philippines. Control over the island was in dispute between the U.S. and Dutch governments until the award was announced.
|April 7, 1928
||Nationalist Chinese Northern Campaign
||The Nationalist government recalled Chiang Kai-shek to lead an offensive in northern China to gain control over Beijing.
|April 13, 1928
||Kellogg Note to the Locarno Powers
||U.S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg submitted a plan for the renunciation of war as an national instrument of foreign policy in response to negotiations with Aristide Briand, the French Foreign Minister.
|April 19, 1928
||Japanese Intervention in Shantung
||The Japanese government dispatched forces to Shantung in response to Nationalist Chinese preparations for an offensive into northern China. The Japanese temporarily seized control of the Chinese railways.
|April 29, 1928
||British Ultimatum to Egypt
||The British government issued an ultimatum to the Egyptian government which forced the Egyptian legislature to kill a bill establishing the right of public assembly.
|May 3-11, 1928
||Chinese Clash with Japanese Troops
||Nationalist Chinese troops fought with Japanese soldiers from Jinan (Tsinan) during the Nationalist offensive against Beijing. The Japanese forces withdrew and to mark national disapproval of the Japanese intervention, the Chinese mounted a vigorous boycott of Japanese goods.
|May 4, 1928
||Second Laboratory Conference on the Serology of Syphilis
||In an effort to find a cure for syphilis, the League of Nations hosted a conference of laboratory researchers in Copenhagen.
|May 10, 1928
||Persian Abolition of the Capitulations
||Having established a new judicial system, based on the French model, the Persian government officially abolished the capitulations and established new minimum tariff rates. The British, followed by other governments, accepted the new system.
|May 24, 1928
||Conviction of Alsatian Separatists
||A French court convicted four Alsatian autonomists who had sought a separate status for Alsace through the
|May 25, 1928
||Second Afghan-Turkish Treaty
||The Afghan and Turkish governments signed a second treaty which bolstered relations between the two countries.
|May 30, 1928
||Italian-Turkish Non-Aggression Pact
||The Italian and Turkish governments signed a five-year non-aggression pact.
|May 30-June 16, 1928
||Eleventh Session of the International Labor Conference
||The International Labor Organization (BIT) held its eleventh session in Geneva, under the chairmanship of Carlos Saavedra Lamas (Argentina). The delegates addressed the issue of establishing a means to fix minimum wages for workers.
||Royal Visit to the Belgian Congo
||King Albert of Belgium made a state visit to the Belgian Congo and officially opened the new railway from the Katanga Province to Bukama-Ilebo (the Kassai River). This new rail line linked Leopoldville with the rich copper mines of Katanga.
||Conference on Transit Cards for Emigrants
||To speed the transit of emigrants across national boundaries, the League of Nations hosted a conference in Geneva.
|June 4, 1928
||Political Instability in Manchuria
||With the success of the Nationalist offensive in northern China, the Japanese found it difficult to maintain their political influence in Manchuria. Chang Tso-lin, military governor of Manchuria since 1911 and strong Japanese supporter, decided to break his relationship with the Japanese and was assassinated.
|June 4-9, 1928
||Fiftieth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its fiftieth session in Geneva.
|June 8, 1928
||Nationalist Occupation of Beijing
||Chiang Kai-shek and his Nationalist forces occupied Beijing and renamed the city Peip'ing. The Nationalist Chinese established Nanjing (Nanking) as the official capital of China.
|June 9, 1928
||Syrian Constituent Assembly
||The French government summoned a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution for Syria. The majority of the members were Syrian Nationalists and the drafted constitution did not recognize the French mandate. The French High Commissioner rejected the constitution draft and prorogued the assembly.
|June 11, 1928
||Final German Reparations Demand
||The Reparations Agent, acting on behalf of the Allied governments, made the demand for final settlement of German liabilities for World War I.
|June 12-July 4, 1928
||International Exposition of Printmakers
||To promote the arts, the League of Nations sponsored an exposition of printmakers in Birmingham, England.
|June 13, 1928
||Ottoman Bond Repayment
||The Turkish government made arrangements to pay back the Ottoman public debt to bondholders.
|June 15, 1928
||The Turkish and Persian governments signed a treaty to improve relations in the region.
|June 15-September 13, 1928
||Fourteen Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its fourteenth session in the Hague.
|June 23, 1928
||Kellogg-Briand Explanatory Note
||The U.S.-French proposal to outlaw as an instrument of foreign policy was sent to the British, German, Italian, and Japanese governments as well as the French allies and Dominion governments. These governments extended general approval for the Kellogg-Briand draft.
|June 24, 1928
||French Franc Devaluation
||The French government devalued the franc by 500% (falling from 19.3 cents to 3.9 cents in relation to the U.S. dollar) in an attempt to repudiate 80 percent of the national debt. The devaluation had a serious impact on the rentier class.
|June 29-July 2, 1928
||Second International Conference for the Abolition of Prohibitions on the Exportation of Hides and Bones
||The League of Nations hosted a second conference in Geneva to promote the exportation of hides and bones.
|July 3-11, 1928
||Second Conference for the Abolition of Prohibitions and Restrictions on Imports and Exports
||To promote international trade, the League of Nations sponsored a second conference in Geneva on the elimination of trade restrictions on imports and exports.
|July 19, 1928
||Chinese Cancellation of Unequal Treaties
||The Nationalist Chinese government unilaterally annulled all "unequal treaties" signed with the Western powers.
|July 25, 1928
||Revision of the Tangier Statute
||The Tangier Statute was officially revised to give the Spanish government greater control of the zone and Italy became a signatory of the statute.
|July 25-December 22, 1928
||Chinese Political Unification
||After years of political instability and war lord rule, twelve states signed treaties recognizing the Nationalist Chinese government in Nanjing (Nanking) and the Nationalist government's right to complete tariff autonomy. This marked the political unification of China under the control of Kuo Min Tang.
|August 1, 1928
||Croatian Separatism Movement
||The assassination of Stephen Radish in parliament on August 8th resulted in the withdrawal of the Croatian delegates from the Serb-Croat-Slovene parliament. The Croats demanded the establishment of a federal state and set up a separatist "parliament" at Zagreb. King Alexander I was unable to negotiate a compromise to restore national unity.
|August 2, 1928
||Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of Friendship
||The Ethiopian and Italian governments signed a treaty of friendship for 20 years in an attempt to settle outstanding differences in East Africa. Ethiopia gained a free zone at Assab and a road between Assab and Dessie was to be jointly constructed by the Italian and Ethiopian governments.
|August 27, 1928
||Pact of Paris
||The Kellogg-Briand Pact was signed in Paris by representatives from 14 countries. Governments readily signed the agreement since the pact was limited to the renunciation of aggressive war and allowed for no provisions for sanctions against nations who violated the terms, except for the moral force of world opinion. Eventually 62 nations signed the agreement and it became the basis for the Nuremberg Trials.
|August 28, 1928
||Indian All-Parties Conference
||Delegates at the All-Parties Conference in Lucknow voted for the Nehru Plan which called for Dominion status for India. This plan was developed by a constitutional committee of the Indian National Congress, but was rejected by the radical elements attending the conference.
|August 30, 1928
||Independence of India League Founded
||Dissatisfaction with the adoption of the Nehru Plan at Lucknow led to the establishment of the Independence of India League under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, the son of the author of the Dominion Plan (Motilal Nehru). Other Indian groups established similar independence organizations.
|August 30-September 8, 1928
||Fifty-First League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its fifty-first session in Geneva.
|September 1, 1928
||King Zog of Albania Proclaimed
||Ahmad Zogu, the former premier of Albania, was proclaimed King of Albania and would soon gain dictatorial powers.
|September 1-29, 1928
||International Exposition of Printmakers
||The League of Nations hosted a second exhibition of printmakers in Burton-on-Trent, England.
|September 3-26, 1928
||Ninth League Assembly Session
||The Ninth League Assembly, under Herluf Zahle (Denmark), implemented the Pact of Paris by providing for arbitration and conciliation with an optional clause similar to the World Court. Nations who adhered to this clause agreed to compulsory arbitration of disputes. A total of 23 nations signed the Pact of Paris, some with reservations.
|September 10, 1928
||Argentinean Nationalization of Oil Industry
||The Argentinean government nationalized the country's oil industry, a decision which adversely affected British interests in the country. This marked the beginning of tensions between Britain and Argentina.
|September 11, 1928
||Portuguese-South African Convention
||The Portuguese and South African governments signed a convention addressing transportation issues between the Transvaal and the Indian Ocean and the problems associated with labor recruitment.
|September 12-21, 1928
||Fifteenth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its fifteenth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|September 12-26, 1928
||Fifty-Second League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its fifty-second session in Geneva.
|September 23, 1928
||Greco-Italian Treaty of Friendship
||The Greek and Italian governments signed a treaty of friendship in an attempt to settle outstanding differences in the Eastern Mediterranean. The treaty was the first step of the new government under Eleutherios Venizelos to restore Greece's international position.
|October 1, 1928
||First Soviet Five-Year Plan
||Premier Josef Stalin announced the first five-year plan for the Soviet Union, an economic plan designed to industrialize the country. The Soviet government concentrated national resources in the development of heavy industry and the promotion of agriculture through collectivized and state farms.
|October 4-16, 1928
||German Battleship Plebiscite
||The German people voted in favor of constructing new battleships in a national plebiscite. Disarmament advocates hoped that the German public would reject the initiative.
|October 6, 1928
||Chiang Elected President of China
||Chiang Kai-shek was elected president of China. Despite the election, he continued to face a number of political opponents and worked to consolidate his political power over the country.
|October 7-14, 1928
||International Congress of Popular Art
||To promote the fine arts, the League of Nations hosted a conference on popular art in Prague.
|October 15-18, 1928
||Technical Conference for the Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Vaccination
||To fight the war against tuberculosis, the League of Nations sponsored a health conference on tuberculosis vaccination in Paris.
||Nationalist Control over Manchuria
||Chang Hsueh-liang, son of the assassinated Military Governor of Manchuria (Chang Tso-lin), recognized the Nationalist government in Nanjing (Nanking), completing the unification of China under Nationalist rule.
|November 1, 1928
||Turkey Adopted Latin Alphabet
||The Turkish government, in another effort to Westernize the country, adopted the Latin alphabet.
|November 4-8, 1928
||International Diplomatic Conference on Economic Statistics
||In an effort to unify economic statistics, the League of Nations held a conference of economic statisticians in Geneva.
|November 5-7, 1928
||Second International Conference on Sleeping Sickness
||To combat African sleeping sickness, the League of Nations conducted a second conference on the disease in Paris.
|November 15-17, 1928
||International Congress of Journalists
||To promote journalism, the League of Nations hosted a conference of journalists in Dijon, France.
|November 19, 1928
||President Hoover's "Good Will Tour"
||After winning the presidential election of November 1928, Herbert Hoover began a seven-week "Good Will Tour" of eleven Latin American countries. President-elect Hoover wanted to improve relations with the southern republics and he received a cordial welcome during his visits. The president-elect returned to the United States on January 6, 1929.
||Hungarian Irredentism in Slovakia
||The Czechoslovak government arrested and convicted Voitech Tuka, a Slovak parliamentary deputy found guilty of supporting Hungarian irredentism in Slovakia. This action led to general unrest in Slovakia.
||International Exposition of Printmakers
||To promote printmaking, the League of Nations hosted an exposition in Castleford, England.
|December 6, 1928
||Chaco Dispute between Bolivia and Paraguay
||Paraguayan and Bolivian forces clashed in the disputed Chaco region and the threat of war emerged. The two countries broke off diplomatic relations and the Paraguayan government appealed to the League of Nations for a resolution. The Pan American Conference intervened in the meantime and offered to mediate an agreement.
|December 10-15, 1928
||Fifty-Third League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its fifty-third session in Lugano, Switzerland.
|December 17, 1928
||Clark Memorandum to Monroe Doctrine
||J. Reuben Clark, of the U.S. State Department, drafted a memorandum arguing that the Monroe Doctrine was directed against Europe, not Latin America. This memo, in effect, repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which called on the U.S. government to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries experiencing financial or political instability.
|December 20, 1928
||The British government recognized the Nanjing (Nanking) government of Chiang Kai-shek and accepted Chinese tariff autonomy. In return, the Chinese government abolished coast and interior duties.
|December 22, 1928
||Indian All-Parties Conference
||Mohandas K. Gandhi resumed leadership over the All-Parties Conference meeting in Calcutta and persuaded the delegates to grant the British government one year to introduce Dominion status for India. If the British failed, the Indians planned to mount another non-cooperation campaign.
|December 22, 1928
||Reparation Commission Appointed
||A Commission of Experts for reparations was appointed to consider Germany's ability to meet its reparations payments owed to Allied governments.