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Chronology 1930

Date Event Historical Background
January 1, 1930 Call for Indian Independence At the Indian National Congress in Lahore, the extremists overruled the moderates and voted for complete independence from British rule. The extremists also called for Indian negotiators to boycott future Round-Table Conferences.
January 1, 1930 Extraterritoriality Abolished in China In an attempt to bolster the Chinese government, extraterritoriality rights were abolished in China. Under a series of treaties, beginning in the mid-19th century, Western powers and Japan demanded special economic and political rights in Chinese ports (treaty ports), agreements which undermined Chinese sovereignty.
January 3-20, 1930 Second Reparations Conference at The Hague Meeting at the Hague, Allied and German delegates negotiated a new reparations payment plan for Germany. The German government agreed to pay 38 billion gold marks over 59 years.
January 6-18, 1930 Technical Conference on Coal Mine Labor To improve safety conditions in coal mines, the League of Nations hosted a conference in Geneva.
January 13-16, 1930 Fifty-Eighth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its fifty-eighth session in Geneva.
January 20, 1930 The Hague Agreement The Allied governments negotiated a new reparations payment with the Bulgarian government which greatly reduced Bulgaria's reparations payments.
January 20, 1930 Bolivian-Paraguayan War The Bolivian and Paraguayan governments went to war over the disputed Chaco region, territory claimed by both states. Sporadic fighting erupted between military units across the region, which ended with a temporary cease fire agreement in April 1930.
January 21-April 22, 1930 London Naval Conference The American, British, French, Italian, and Japanese governments negotiated a naval disarmament treaty regulating submarine warfare and the size of submarines. These governments extended the limitations on aircraft carriers designated in the Washington Treaty of 1922. The American, British, and Japanese governments also agreed to scrap certain warships by 1933, and allocated tonnage limitations in other categories. As a result, one Japanese, three American, and five British capital ships were scrapped. The signatory states also included an "escalator clause" which permitted increases in specified warship tonnage due to national needs (demanded by the British in the event that France or Italy threatened the naval status quo). The agreement established a permanent naval parity between the United States and Britain, which reflected a major change in British naval policy. The naval parity between the United States and Japan in capital ships proved to be unsatisfactory for the Japanese government. The agreements maintained a capital ship construction holiday and remained in force until December 31, 1936. This was the last major multinational disarmament agreement negotiated before World War II.
February 3, 1930 Franco-Turkish Treaty The French and Turkish governments signed a treaty addressing regional issues between the two states.
February 6, 1930 Austro-Italian Treaty of Friendship The Italian government signed a Treaty of Friendship with Austria, improving relations between the two states. Premier Benito Mussolini planned to use this treaty to promote a revision of the Versailles Treaty accords by supporting Fascist elements in Austria.
February 9-10, 1930 Tonkin Revolt against France A number of serious outbreaks against French rule emerged in Tonkin in French Indo-China, led by the Vietnamese Nationalists (VNQDD), but the French responded with vigorous military action to crush the revolt. Vietnamese Nationalists were imprisoned or fled to China.
February 17-March 24, 1930 First International Conference on Concerted Economic Action In an attempt to reduce high tariff barriers and promote international trade, the League of Nations hosted a tariff conference in Geneva.
February 24, 1930 Nejd-Iraqi Treaty of Friendship The Nejd and Iraqi governments signed a Treaty of Friendship to address outstanding issues and improve future relations.
March 1930 Clark Memorandum to the Monroe Doctrine Undersecretary of State J. Reuben Clark wrote a memorandum which declared that the Monroe Doctrine was unilateral. Clark argued that the Monroe Doctrine was not limited to inter-American relations, the Monroe Doctrine was directed primarily against European interference in the Americas and not against countries in the Western Hemisphere, the Monroe Doctrine is intended to protect the nations of Latin America, and the Roosevelt Corollary was not properly part of the Monroe Doctrine. The Hoover administration announced this interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine to redefine American relations with Latin American countries.
March 1, 1930 Lake Tsana Dam Project The Ethiopian negus granted a dam construction concession to the American J.G. White Corporation with the support of the British and Egyptian governments.
March 8, 1930 Slavery in Liberia The Johnson-Christy Commission, a joint American-League of Nations committee, investigated native labor conditions in Liberia.
March 12, 1930 Second Indian Civil Disobedience Campaign Mohandas K. Gandhi began the second civilian disobedience campaign against the British government. The campaign escalated to widespread rioting and arrests as Gandhi marched to the sea and illegally produced salt as a protest. In response, the British implemented drastic press censorship and widespread imprisonment of independence leaders.
March 13-April 14, 1930 Conference for the Codification of International Law In an effort to coordinate international statutes, the League of Nations hosted a conference of legal experts in the Hague.
March 27-May 8, 1930 Anglo-Egyptian Negotiations Negotiations between the British and Egyptian governments over the new British treaty draft broke down primarily due to continued disagreement over the future of the Sudan.
March 28, 1930 Persian Adoption of the Gold Standard To improve its international financial position, the Persian government adopted the gold standard as the basis for the national currency.
March 31, 1930 Shaw Commission Report on Palestine A British commission under Sir Walter Shaw investigated the Arab attacks on Jews in Palestine. The commission attributed the attacks to Arab hatred of the Jews and Arab disappointment regarding independence.
April 3, 1930 New Emperor of Abyssinia Ras Tafari became the new emperor of Abyssinia under the name Halie Selassie.
April 4, 1930 Chaco Temporary Agreement Negotiations between the Bolivian and Paraguayan governments, after several skirmishes in the Chaco region, resulted in a Temporary Agreement which reestablished the status quo ante until full-scale war broke out in 1932.
April 13, 1930 Franco-Swiss Free Zone Dispute After renewed disputes regarding the frontier free zones, the French and Swiss governments appealed to the Permanent Court of International Justice to resolve the issue.
April 28, 1930 Brocchi Plan--Settlement of Optants' Dispute The long standing dispute between Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary regarding the settlement of Hungarian landowner claims for compensation was settled by the Brocchi Plan, negotiated by British and Italian representatives. The Hungarian government assumed the claims of the optants and received financial contributions from Czechoslovakia and other nations.
April 30, 1930 Italian Naval Program With the failure of Italy to receive naval parity with France in disarmament conferences, the Italian government launched major a naval and air program in an attempt to establish Italian military supremacy in the Mediterranean region.
May 1930 Refunding of Allied War Debts A total of seventeen countries negotiated refinancing agreements regarding their war debts owed to the U.S. government. The expansion of the Depression undermined the new agreements.
May 2, 1930 Dunning Tariff in Canada The Canadian government imposed the most drastic tariff revision since 1907, significantly raising duties on American goods while providing preferential treatment to British goods. The Canadians resented the high tariff rates the American government placed on Canadian goods, reflected in the Smoot-Hawley Tariff legislation.
May 5, 1930 British Government Arrest of Gandhi British authorities arrested Mohandas K. Gandhi, an act which did not stem disorder in India. Indian peasants and factory workers conducted uprisings, public officials faced terrorist attacks, and Indian nationalists attacked government salt works.
May 6, 1930 Sino-Japanese Tariff Agreement In light of effective Chinese boycotts against Japanese goods and the problems associated with the global depression, the Japanese government signed a tariff agreement with the Chinese government at Nanjing (Nanking). The Japanese recognized China's tariff autonomy in return for certain commercial safeguards and Nationalist recognition of Japanese loans to former Chinese governments.
May 12-15, 1930 Fifty-Ninth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its fifty-ninth session in Geneva.
May 13-June 7, 1930 International Conference for the Unification of Laws on Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes, and Checks To promote international trade, the League of Nations sponsored a conference in Geneva to unify international laws dealing with bills of exchange, promissory notes, and checks.
May 17, 1930 Jewish Immigration Restriction Decree The British government announced the restriction of Jewish immigration to Palestine, which resulted in Jewish protest strikes against the policy.
May 17, 1930 Commencement of Young Plan The German government began new reparations payments based on the Young Report of June 1929.
May 17, 1930 Briand Memorandum on United States of Europe French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand introduced a memorandum calling for the establishment of a federal system of states in Europe to promote economic development and enhance regional security.
May 20-22, 1930 Conference of Medical School Directors To promote global health issues, the League of Nations hosted a conference of medical school directors in Paris.
May 22, 1930 Establishment of Syrian and Latakian Republics The French High Commissioner introduced a new constitution for the Syrian mandate. Under the new law, Syria and Latakia became republics with representative government.
May 24, 1930 Mussolini Revisionism Plans The Italian Premier, Benito Mussolini, publicly called for a revision of the Versailles Treaty agreements in a speech in Milan. This marked the beginning of Italy's policy to revise the post-war international system.
June-July 1930 Great Kurdish Revolt in Turkey Kurdish nationalists revolted against Turkish rule in the Mount Ararat region. The rebellion led to tensions between the Turkish and Persian governments with the Turks accusing the Persians of providing assistance to the insurgents. Despite the heightened tensions, the Kurdish revolt led to renewed efforts between the Turkish and Persian governments to agree on a satisfactory frontier.
June 10-28, 1930 Fourteenth Session of the International Labor Conference The International Labor Organization (BIT) held its fourteenth session in Geneva, under the chairmanship of Ernest Mahaim (Belgium). The delegates addressed the issues of forced or compulsory labor and the hours of work for commercial and office workers.
June 13-24, 1930 Publication of the Simon Report The British government published the two volumes of the Simon Report outlining the political future of India. The report recommended administrative modifications in India but denied full responsible government. The Indian Nationalists condemned the recommendations out of hand.
June 14, 1930 Marchak Acquittal in Yugoslavia A Yugoslav court acquitted Dr. Vladko Marchak, leader of the Croat political party, of treason.
June 16-August 26, 1930 Eighteenth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice The Permanent Court of International Justice held its eighteenth session in the Hague.
June 17, 1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act Despite the protests of economists, President Herbert Hoover signed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff which increased duties on raw materials from 50 to 100 percent over the 1922 schedules. American protectionism sparked widespread reprisals and retaliation against American goods around the world which further flared economic dislocations and deepened the global depression. By December 1931, 25 countries had retaliated against American tariff policy.
June 24, 1930 Simon Report on India The British government issued a report on political conditions in India, which focused on continuing political disorder and the future of Anglo-Indian relations.
June 26, 1930 Wafd Non-Cooperation Campaign In response to the Egyptian king's decision to weaken the Wafd Party and resume negotiations with the British, the Wafd Party led nationalist support for non-cooperation with the government and the non-payment of taxes. In response, the king introduced a new constitution in September, which reduced democratic representation promoting further nationalist protest.
June 27, 1930 Nordic Arbitration Treaty The governments of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden signed a treaty of arbitration, which called for the peaceful settlement of disputes through negotiations between these states.
June 30, 1930 Final Evacuation of the Rheinland Allied forces completed their military evacuation of the Rheinland, leaving the region a demilitarized buffer zone between Germany and France.
June 30, 1930 British Recognition of Iraqi Independence The British government officially recognized the independence of the Iraq mandate. The two countries signed an agreement defining their relationship in November 1930.
July 7, 1930 Final Conference on Interchange in France The League of Nations sponsored a conference in Geneva on interchange in France.
July 12, 1930 Conference of Experts on Infant Welfare To promote child welfare and health, the League of Nations hosted a conference in Lima.
July 21, 1930 U.S. Ratification of the London Naval Treaty President Herbert Hoover called for a special session of Congress to review the London Naval Disarmament Treaty. The U.S. Senate ratified the treaty for both pacific and financial reasons.
July 26, 1930 Serology Conference on Blood Group Types To harmonize blood group typing, the League of Nations supported a conference in Paris of world health researchers.
July 28, 1930 Conservative Victory in Canada The Conservatives won a clear majority in the Canadian Parliament, running on a platform of promising to protect Canadian products from American competition, gaining reciprocal concessions from Britain in terms of preferential trade treatment, and reducing Canadian unemployment caused by the Depression. International economic issues were key to the election.
August 4-5, 1930 Second Conference on the Serodiagnosis of Syphilis In an effort to find a cure for syphilis, the League of Nations held a second laboratory conference in Copenhagen.
August 11, 1930 Bulgarian Repression of Macedonians The Bulgarian government took action against the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) which supported cross-border raids against Yugoslavia. The Bulgarian government arrested Ivan Mihailov in an effort to restore better relations with the Yugoslav government and restore political stability.
August 25, 1930 League Palestine Report A League of Nations Mandate Report harshly condemned British authorities for providing inadequate police protection for Jews in light of the Arab riots against Jewish settlers in Palestine.
September 1930 First Pan-American Conference on Agriculture In response to the adverse impact on agriculture, Latin American delegates met in Washington, DC for the First Pan-American Conference on Agriculture to determine a common policy to protect the agricultural industry in the Western Hemisphere.
September 1930 Third Laboratory Conference on the Serodiagnosis of Syphilis The League of Nations hosted its third conference in Copenhagen of laboratory experts to promote syphilis eradication research.
September 8, 1930 Johnson-Christy Report on Liberia The Johnson-Christy Commission issued a report which found that slavery still existed in Liberia.
September 8-12, 1930 Sixtieth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its sixtieth session in Geneva.
September 8-22, 1930 Special Session of Canadian Parliament In an effort to reduce national unemployment, the Canadian Parliament held a special session which resulted in an increase of tariff duties on approximately 125 classes of goods, including agricultural equipment, cast-iron pipe, electrical equipment, fertilizers, jewelry, meats, paper, shoes, and textiles.
September 10-October 4, 1930 Eleventh League Assembly Session The League of Nations Assembly met for its eleventh session in Geneva under Nicolas Titulesco (Romania).
September 11, 1930-April 1931 Kurdish Revolt in Iraq Kurdish nationalists under Sheikh Mahmud rebelled against the Iraqi government. The fighting lasted for seven months.
September 14, 1930 Reichstag Elections in Germany The National Socialist Party, under Adolf Hitler, emerged as a major political party in the Reichstag elections winning 107 seats. The Socialists retained 143 seats and the German Communist Party received 77 seats. Due to the impact of the Depression on the German economy and continued reparations payments under the Young Plan, the radical parties won heavily while moderate parties suffered at the polls. The election marked the beginning of serious political disorder in Germany as National Socialists battled against Communists in the streets.
September 17-October 3, 1930 Sixty-First League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its sixty-first session in Geneva.
September 30, 1930 Dutch-Scandinavian Economic Pact The Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish governments signed an economic agreement, designed to coordinate tariff policies and promote trade. This agreement was expanded in scope to include Belgium and Luxembourg in another economic treaty in December 1930.
October 1930 Japanese Ratification of the London Naval Treaty After acrimonious debate, the Japanese government ratified the London Naval Treaty despite the inferior status of Japanese capital ships in relation to U.S. warships.
October 1, 1930 British Restored Weihaiwei to China The British government restored the treaty port of Weihaiwei to Chinese rule in accordance with the British declaration during the Washington Naval Conference of 1922.
October 1-November 14, 1930 British Imperial Conference Delegates from the British Commonwealth met in London to define the relationship between Britain and its imperial dominions. The delegates approved the Statute of Westminster, which recognized the sovereign rights of the dominions to conduct independent foreign policies. British Prime Minister Ramsey MacDonald rejected the Canadian proposal for the imposition of preferential tariffs for Dominion wheat because the British Labour Party supported free trade and cheap bread prices. The global depression had a significant impact on Canadian farmers who called for protectionism to sell their produce and help support prices.
October 5-12, 1930 First Balkan Conference Representatives of the Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian, Turkish, and Yugoslav governments met in Athens, at the invitation of the Greek Prime Minister, Eleutherios Venizelos, to discuss regional issues. Prime Minister Venizelos hoped to improve relations between the Balkan powers and improve the region's economic situation in light of the Depression. The representatives agreed to meet on an annual basis and this marks the basis for the Balkan Entente. The Bulgarian representatives declared that further cooperation was dependent on the settlement of the minorities question and the Turkish delegates took a leading role in promoting Bulgarian-Greek reconciliation.
October 6-23, 1930 Conference on the Unification of Coastal Buoys and Lighthouses To promote safe maritime traffic, the League of Nations hosted a conference in Lisbon to unify coastal buoyage and lighthouse operations.
October 20, 1920 Passfield White Paper on Palestine Following the report of Sir John Hope-Simpson, the British government released the Passfield White Paper on the Arab attacks on Jews in Palestine. The report stressed the plight of the growing Arab landless proletariat who demanded land reform. The paper also recommended that Jews should be forbidden to acquire more land as long as Arabs remained landless and for an end to Jewish immigration as long as Arabs remained unemployed.
October 23-November 6, 1930 Nineteenth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice The Permanent Court of International Justice held its nineteenth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
October 25, 1930 Italo-Bulgarian Royal Wedding Princess Giovanna of Italy, daughter of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, married King Boris of Bulgaria. This marriage increased Italy's political influence in Bulgaria and the Balkans and marked a rapprochement between Italy and Bulgaria.
October 27, 1930 Conference on Rural Health Centers To encourage the construction and development of rural health centers, the League of Nations supported a conference in Budapest to address this issue.
October 30, 1930 Treaty of Ankara Greek Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos visited Turkey and negotiated a treaty with the Turkish government which settled the property claims of the repatriated populations, recognized the territorial status quo of the two countries, established naval parity in the Eastern Mediterranean, and addressed other outstanding issues.
November 1930 British Parliament Debate on the Passfield White Paper An acrimonious debate erupted in Parliament in response to the conclusions of the Passfield White Paper on Palestine. The British government denied any plans to change policy in Palestine, but these protests undermined Jewish confidence in the British government.
November 6-December 9, 1930 Final Meeting of Preparatory Commission on Disarmament The representatives approved a draft convention to serve as the basis of negotiations at the Disarmament Conference called by the League of Nations Council in February 1932. The German and Russian governments did not accept the draft and the American and Swedish representatives criticized the final document. The greatest stumbling block was the preservation of rights and obligations embodied in earlier treaties which the French government interpreted as a strict maintenance of the military clauses of the Versailles Treaty. This approach barred German equality in armaments and general revision of the treaty terms.
November 12, 1930-January 19, 1931 First Round Table Conference The British government conducted the First Round Table Conference with representatives of the Indian princes and Indian Liberals who agreed to cooperate with the British government. The conference delegates supported the principle of federation and a measure of responsible government.
November 16, 1930 Anglo-Iraqi Agreement Ratified The Iraqi Parliament ratified the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty providing for Iraqi admission into the League of Nations in 1932. This treaty confirmed Iraq's complete independence and sovereignty.
November 17-28, 1930 Second International Conference on Concerted Economic Action The League of Nations hosted another economic conference in Geneva in an attempt to end the global depression and restore a vibrant world economy.
November 17-December 9, 1930 Conference on the Unification of River Laws To promote commercial transportation and international trade, the League of Nations held a conference of legal experts in Geneva to work towards the unification of river laws.
December 10, 1930 U.S. Delays World Court Protocol Decision Senator William Borah, an Irreconcilable, blocked Senate action on the World Court Protocol, which President Herbert Hoover had introduced for ratification.
December 12, 1930 Final Evacuation of the Saarland Allied forces completed the military evacuation of the Saarland giving the German government political control over this industrial region.
December 22, 1930 Oslo Agreements The governments of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) signed economic agreements promising not to raise tariffs between these states without first notifying and consulting the other signatory powers. The Oslo Agreements reflected regional responses to the Depression.
December 23, 1930 Dervish Uprising in Turkey A Dervish uprising near Smyrna resulted in the Turkish government taking measures to eliminate the Moslem opposition. Turkish government action led to the execution of 28 Dervish leaders.

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