||Spanish Nationalization of Church Property
||The Spanish Republican government dissolved the Jesuit Order and seized the order's property as part of the government's new social program.
||Conference of Press Bureaux
||To support the dissemination of news, the League of Nations held a press bureau conference in Copenhagen.
||Warsaw Conference on Bessarabia
||Negotiations between the Romanian and Soviet governments in Warsaw, under Polish auspices, failed to settle the Bessarabian question.
|January 2, 1932
||Republic of Manchukuo Proclaimed
||With the Japanese occupation of Manchuria near completion, the establishment of the Republic of Manchukuo was proclaimed. The new government served under the direction of the Japanese government.
|January 4, 1932
||Japanese Occupation of Shanhaiguan
||With the occupation of Shanhaiguan (Shanhaikuan), the Japanese completed their military control over South Manchuria.
|January 4, 1932
||British Outlaw Indian Nationalist Party
||The British government again arrested Mohandas K. Gandhi and several Indian Nationalist leaders and declared the Indian Nationalist Party illegal. Gandhi continued to influence politics from prison, conducting "fasts until death" and demanding the extension of the franchise to the untouchables in the upcoming constitutional revisions referendum. Although the Indian government received special powers for six months, the nationalist movement in India maintained its momentum.
|January 7, 1932
||U.S. Secretary of State Henry Stimson declared in notes to the Chinese and Japanese governments, as well as the other signatories of the Nine-Power Treaty of 1922, that the United States would not recognize any situation, treaty, or agreement brought about by means contrary to the Pact of Paris. This doctrine served as an American protest against the Japanese occupation of Manchuria.
|January 11, 1932
||British Manchurian Policy
||The British government decided not to support the Stimson Doctrine and, instead, the Foreign Office professed its faith that Japan would continue to uphold the principles of the Open Door.
|January 15, 1932
||Pacification of French Morocco
||French forces occupied the Tafilet oasis, headquarters of the rebellious tribesmen. This operation effectively marked the submission of the rebels in the Atlas and Anti-Atlas regions of Morocco.
|January 23, 1932
||Turco-Persian Boundary Settlement
||In an effort to improve frontier security and eliminate a continuing source of tension between the two governments, the Turkish and Persian governments signed a treaty demarcating the boundary between the two nations in the vicinity of Mount Ararat.
|January 25, 1932
||Russo-Polish Non-Aggression Pact
||The Soviet and Polish governments signed a Non-Aggression Pact in an effort to improve relations between the two countries.
|January 25-February 29, 1932
||Sixty-Sixth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its sixty-sixth session in Geneva.
|January 28-March 4, 1932
||Japanese Attack on Shanghai
||To force the Chinese to end their economic war, the Japanese government landed 70,000 troops at Shanghai forcing the Chinese 19th Route Army to retreat.
|February 1-March 8, 1932
||Twenty-Fourth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its twenty-fourth session in the Hague.
|February 2-July 1932
||Geneva Conference on the Reduction and Limitation of Arms
||Sixty nations sent delegates to the Disarmament Conference in Geneva, but despite initial hopes, the delegates could not reach an agreement. The U.S. delegation called for the abolition of all offensive weapons as the basis for the negotiations, but ran into strong opposition. The French insisted that security must precede disarmament and called for the establishment of an international police force. The Germans demanded equality as the basis for peace. President Herbert Hoover suggested the division of national military forces into police components and defense components, with the latter reduced by one-third but this plan failed as well.
|February 5, 1932
||Soviet-Latvian Non-Aggression Pact
||The Latvian and Soviet governments signed a non-aggression pact as the Soviets sought to improve relations with its western neighbors in light of Japanese expansion in the Far East.
|February 5, 1932
||Japanese Occupation of Harbin
||The Japanese occupation of Harbin extended Japanese control to central Manchuria.
|February 6, 1932
||Lithuanian Coup in Memel
||Contrary to the Memel Statute, the Lithuanian government arrested Dr. Herbert Boettcher, the chief of the Memel directorate, for alleged treasonable correspondence with Germany. This incident led to a serious deterioration of relations between Lithuania and Germany as the German government protested that Lithuania must respect the statute. The British, French, and Italian governments made efforts to persuade the Lithuanians to uphold both the spirit and the letter of the Memel Statute without great success.
|February 7, 1932
||Denmark, Norway, and Sweden joined with Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands in an economic cooperation plan. Although the Oslo Convention was modest in scale, it represented a Free Trade response to the economic problems of the Depression.
|February 8, 1932
||Bulgarian Renouncement of Reparations
||The Bulgarian government officially announced that the country would not make any more reparations payments.
|February 18, 1932
||Independence of Manchukuo
||The former Three Provinces with Jehol (Manchuria), under Japanese military occupation, declared their independence from China at the capital of
|February 23, 1932
||U.S. Support of the Open Door
||U.S. Secretary of State Henry Stimson informed the U.S. Senate that the Hoover administration would stand by its treaty rights in the Far East and urged other countries to adopt the Stimson Doctrine of non-recognition of acts which violated the Pact of Paris.
|February 27-March 7, 932
||Lapua Uprising in Finland
||The Lapua organization fomented another revolution against the Finnish government and again failed. The movement's leader, General Kurt Wallenius, was arrested. The organization demanded that the government take active measures against the Communist threat in Finland.
|February 29, 1932
||British Protective Tariff Acts
||Parliament passed a series of new protective tariff acts, including a new "corn law" which provided British farmers with $1 per bushel for domestic wheat. These acts reflected Britain's decision to abandon free trade.
|March 3, 1932
||American Shanghai Protest
||U.S. Secretary of State Henry Stimson proposed to British Foreign Secretary Sir John Simon that the American and British governments issue a joint protest to the Japanese government regarding the occupation of Shanghai, based on the Nine-Power Treaty of 1922. The British government did not act on the proposal and instead chose to work within the League of Nations to settle the dispute.
|March 3-December 9, 1932
||Special League Assembly Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held a special session in Geneva under Paul Hymans (Belgium) to discuss the Manchurian crisis, with special reference to Article 15 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, as requested by the Chinese government.
|March 4, 1932
||Japanese Occupation of Shanghai
||Japanese forces drove Nationalist Chinese forces out of Shanghai, seizing control of the International Settlement area and destroying Chapei. As a result, the Japanese controlled of one China's most important ports.
|March 7, 1932
||Death of Briand
||Aristide Briand, former French Foreign Minister and co-author of the Pact of Paris, died.
|March 9, 1932
||Regent of Manchukuo
||Henry Pu-I, the last emperor of China who abdicated the throne in 1912, became the new Regent of Manchukuo and head of state. The new imperial government included Japanese advisors who controlled all important government activities and functions.
|March 11, 1932
||League Adoption of Stimson Doctrine
||The League of Nations, in a unanimous vote, adopted the Stimson Doctrine of non-recognition of violations of the Pact of Paris. This resolution was aimed at the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.
||Southwest African Mandate Issue
||In a first step to end the League mandate in Southwest Africa, citizens in Southwest Africa formed the Farmers' and Labor Party. The organization's goal was to establish the territory as a separate province with responsible government.
||Third Kurdish Uprising in Iraq
||Kurdish rebels launched their third post-war uprising against the Iraqi government. With the support of Royal Air Force, Iraqi forces drove the Kurdish rebels across the border into Turkey, ending the revolt.
|April 6-8, 1932
||London Conference on the Danube
||Representatives from Britain, France, Germany, and Italy met in London to discuss the Danube problem. The French proposed a proposal which would have excluded Germany and Italy from the regional plan and both governments successfully worked to undermine the deliberations.
|April 12-30, 1932
||Sixteenth Session of the International Labor Conference
||The International Labor Organization (BIT) held its sixteenth session in Geneva, under the chairmanship of Gideon D. Robertson (Canada). The delegates revised their policies regarding the prevention of accidents among dock workers and considered minimum age requirements for non-industrial workers.
|April 16, 1932
||Innsbruck Conference on the Danube
||Under the auspices of the International Chamber of Commerce, unofficial delegates met in Innsbruck to consider a plan on economic cooperation in the Danubian area. The French proposed the original plan but it met with considerable opposition from Austria, Germany, and Italy, who remained suspicious of any policies promoted by France or the Little Entente.
|April 18-August 11, 1932
||Twenty-Fifth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its twenty-fifth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|April 26, 1932
||Royal Iraqi Visit to Persia
||King Feisal of Iraq conducted a state visit to Teheran, laying the foundation for improved relations between the two countries.
||Rebel Invasion of Nejd
||Opposition to westernization policies and the centralization policy of King Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud of Nejd resulted in an invasion of rebel forces from Transjordania and an insurrection in Nejd. The rebel invasion reflected on-going tensions between Nejd and
|May 5, 1932
||The Chinese and Japanese governments reached an agreement establishing a neutral zone around the International Settlement in Shanghai and a termination of the Chinese boycott against Japanese goods.
|May 9-July 15, 1932
||Sixty-Seventh League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its sixty-seventh session in Geneva.
|May 23-27, 1932
||Conference of Institutions for the Scientific Study of International Relations
||To improve the science of international relations, the League of Nations held a conference in Milan.
|May 25, 1932
||Renewal of Turco-Italian Non-Aggression Pact
||Turkish foreign minister, Tewfik Rushdi, visited Rome and extended the Turco-Italian Non-Aggression Pact of 1928 for another five years and made arrangements to improve trade relations between the two countries.
|May 31, 1932
||Romanian Failure to Secure French Loan
||The Romanian government failed to secure a badly-needed loan from the French. This failure resulted in the fall of the government under Nicholas
|May 31, 1932
||Japanese Withdrawal from Shanghai
||Under international pressure and League of Nations mediation, the Japanese government agreed to evacuate its military forces from Shanghai.
|June 16-August 9, 1932
||Reparations Conference of Lausanne
||Representatives from Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan met in Lausanne, Switzerland, under the aegis of the League of Nations, to negotiate Germany's reparation program. These states agreed to set aside the German reparation debt and accepted the debt (RM 3 billion) in five percent bonds which would be deposited in the Bank for International Settlements and marketed within 15 years. The ratification of this plan was conditional on the basis that the Allied Powers could reach an agreement with the United States government regarding their outstanding war loan. Unfortunately, the U.S. Congress rejected the Allied war debt reduction plan in December 1932.
||Anglo-Irish Tariff War
||Negotiations between the British and Irish governments collapsed on the question of land annuities. The Irish government unilaterally suspended payments resulting in a tariff war between the two nations.
|July 1-18, 1932
||Special League Assembly Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held its second special session of the year in Geneva, under Paul Hymans, to continue negotiations with the Japanese over the Manchurian crisis.
|July 12, 1932
||Norwegian Annexation of Southern Greenland
||While the Permanent Court of International Justice was considering Norway's claims to Western Greenland, the Norwegian government announced that it had also annexed parts of southern Greenland as well.
|July 13, 1932
||Anglo-French Pact of Friendship
||To promote continued collaboration, the British and French governments signed a Pact of Friendship in
|July 15, 1932
||League Loan to Austria
||The League of Nations finally agreed to provide the Austrian government with a loan of 300 million schillings on the condition that Austria agreed not to enter into a political or economic union with Germany before 1952. This condition raised a storm of protest in Austria.
|July 18, 1932
||Belgian Language Regulations
||The Belgian government enacted new language regulations for the nation. French became the administrative language for the Walloon provinces while Flemish served as the official language in Flanders. Both French and Flemish would be used in Brussels and Brabant. In secondary schools, instruction would be offered in the language prevailing in the district.
|July 18, 1932
||Turkish Admission to the League
||The League of Nations admitted Turkey as a member state in the organization.
|July 19, 1932
||Ouchy Agreement Concluded
||The governments of Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands concluded the Ouchy Agreement which included the gradual reduction of trade and economic barriers between the three countries.
|July 21-August 20, 1932
||Ottawa Imperial Conference
||Representatives from the British Commonwealth met in Ottawa and negotiated seven bilateral agreements which provided limited imperial preference to Commonwealth goods. These agreements led to the resignation of Free Trade Liberals from the British cabinet, who joined the opposition. The British government gave Dominion raw materials a preference of about 10 percent of the British market and the British government imposed preferential tariffs on foreign meat, butter, cheese, fruit, and eggs. The British offered to remove restrictions on Canadian live cattle and reached new tariff arrangements on Canadian cooper, timber, fish, asbestos, zinc, and lead. In return, the Canadians extended concessions on British manufactured goods. The conference led to new trade relationships between Australia, Britain, Canada, the Irish Free State, New Zealand, Rhodesia, and South Africa.
|July 25, 1932
||Soviet Non-Aggression Pacts
||The Soviet government signed a series of non-aggression pacts with Estonia, Finland, and Poland. This diplomatic activity on Russia's western borders reflected the Soviet government's concerns regarding developments in the Far East, particularly Japanese inroads in Manchuria and Outer Mongolia. The tensions in the Far East encouraged the Soviet government to take an active role in the Disarmament Conference and reduced the activities of the Third International.
|July 31, 1932
||Beginning of the Chaco War
||After years of tensions, Paraguay and Bolivia went to war over control of the disputed Chaco region. The League of Nations and the Pan American Union called on both countries to end hostilities and accept neutral arbitration without success as neither country was willing to accept various peace proposals and fighting continued. Paraguayan forces succeeded in occupying most of the Chaco region after several major offensives but were unable to invade Bolivian territory. During the war relations between Paraguay and Chile became strained as Chile provided officers and workers for the Bolivian war effort.
|August 17, 1932
||Austria Approval of League Loan
||Despite the "no political or economic union with Germany" clause, the Austrian Assembly approved the League of Nations loan to help boost the Austrian economy.
|September 1, 1932
||The Peruvian and Colombian governments threatened to go to war over control over the disputed Leticia region after armed Peruvians seized the city. The Peruvian government took a strong stand on their claims and prepared for war before finally accepting an offer by the League of Nations to mediate the dispute. This crisis provided the Ecuadorian government the opportunity to press its claims to disputed territory in the Amazon Basin.
|September 5-20, 1932
||Conference of Stresa
||Delegates met in Stresa to consider outstanding problems in eastern and central Europe. Economic issues as well as territorial problems became the focus of attention during the conference, as plans were discussed for future European union.
|September 14, 1932
||Belgian Economic Policy
||Facing alarming budget deficits, the Belgian legislature granted the government extraordinary powers to deal with the Depression. The cessation of German reparations payments undermined the Belgian economy and the Belgian government responded by reducing salaries, floating loans, and steadily increasing taxes while keeping the country on the gold standard.
|September 14, 1932
||Germany Departure from Disarmament Conference
||The German government, arguing that their country remained a subjected power, decided to withdraw from the Disarmament Conference. The Germans demanded equality of rights with the other countries participating in the negotiations.
|September 15, 1932
||Japanese Protectorate over Manchukuo
||The Japanese and Manchukuo governments signed a protocol which established a Japanese protectorate over the kingdom.
|September 22, 1932
||Establishment of Saudi Arabia
||The government officially changed its name from the Kingdom of the Hejaz and Nejd to Saudi Arabia.
|September 23, 1932
||Sixty-Eighth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its sixty-eighth session in Geneva.
|September 24, 1932
||Hansson Government in Sweden
||Per A. Hansson became the new prime minister of Sweden as a new Socialist government came to power. This ministry undertook a rearmament program in response to deteriorating relations between Germany and the Soviet Union.
|September 25, 1932
||Catalan Charter of Autonomy
||After a series of protests and disorders, the Spanish government granted a new charter for Catalonia which included: a separate president, parliament, and government with extensive taxing and fiscal powers; their own flag; and recognition of Catalan as the official language. The success of the Catalonia autonomy movement encouraged other regional groups, including the Basques, to demand similar rights.
|September 26-October 17, 1932
||Thirteenth League Assembly Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held its thirteen session under Nicholas Politis (Greece) in Geneva.
||Establishment of Persian Fleet in the Persian Gulf
||The Persian government established the nucleus of the Persian navy and a naval presence in the Persian Gulf by purchasing new gunboats from Italy.
|October 3, 1932
||Iraqi Admission to the League
||After receiving a favorable report from the Mandates Commission, the League of Nations formally admitted Iraq into the organization after the Iraqi government guaranteed the protection of minorities, the rights of foreigners, freedom of conscience, and recognition of debts. This marked the official end of the British mandate over Iraq.
|October 3, 1932
||Mexican Tensions with Catholic Church
||The Rubio administration in Mexico renewed tensions over church and state issues with the Roman Catholic Church.
|October 3-December 19, 1932
||Sixty-Ninth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its sixty-ninth session in Geneva.
|October 4 1932
||Lytton Report on Manchuria
||The League of Nations appointed a commission of inquiry to investigate the situation in Manchuria when the Chinese government appealed to the League under Articles X, XI, and XV of the Covenant. The Lytton Report found that the Japanese had violated Chinese sovereignty in Manchuria by their military action of September 1931 (which was not conducted in self-defense) and that the creation of Manchukuo did not represent a genuine independence movement. Rather than ordering the Japanese to withdraw from Manchuria, the commission recommended a settlement which would recognize Japan's special interests in the region--Manchuria would become an autonomous state under Chinese sovereignty with international advisors and police and recognition of Japan's economic interests.
|October 4, 1932
||Goemboes Became Premier of Hungary
||Julius Goemboes emerged as the new premier of the Hungarian government. An ardent nationalist and revisionist, Goemboes would seek to revise Hungary's boundaries through closer cooperation with Fascist Italy.
|October 14, 1932-April 5, 1933
||Twenty-Sixth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its twenty-sixth (extraordinary) session at the Hague.
|October 17, 1932
||Yugoslav Arrest of Machek
||In an effort to stem nationalist agitation, the Yugoslav government arrested Dr. Vladko Machek, the leader of the Croat Peasant Party.
||Central and South African/British Indian Conference
||British medical authorities met with central African, South African, and Indian officials to address regional health care issues.
|November 8, 1932
||Roosevelt Elected U.S. President
||Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated incumbent President Herbert Hoover in a landslide election and became the country's thirty-second president.
|November 14, 1932
||Croat Demand for Autonomy
||In response to the arrest of their leader, Dr. Vladko Machek, the Croat Peasant Party denounced the regime of personal rule in Yugoslavia and renewed their demands for regional autonomy.
|November 17, 1932
||South American Anti-War Pact
||Saavedra Lamas, Foreign Minister of Argentina, published a South American Anti-War Pact, which had already been accepted by several nations.
|November 19-December 24, 1932
||Third Indian Conference
||Delegates of the British government and Indian leaders met in London for a third general conference to determine the future of India.
|November 21, 1932
||Conviction of Lapua Leadership
||A Finnish court found General Kurt Wallenius and 50 other leaders of the Lapua movement guilty in their failed uprising in February-March 1932. The government disbanded the organization but the Patriotic Nationalist Movement emerged in 1933 to take its place.
|November 26, 1932
||Persian Government Cancellation of British Oil Concessions
||The Persian government cancelled the Anglo-Persian oil concessions of 1901 and 1909, after long negotiations to revise the agreements broke down. The British government, which was the largest shareholder of the company, took the issue before the League of Nations, which urged both parties to resume negotiations.
|November 27, 1932
||Russo-Polish Non-Aggression Pact
||The Soviet and Polish governments extended their Non-Aggression Pact as the Soviets sought to improve their relations with the Western powers.
|November 29, 1932
||Franco-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
||The Soviet and French governments signed a non-aggression pact reflecting Soviet concerns regarding Japanese activities in the Far East and France's goals of securing Eastern Europe.
||U.S. Congress Rejection of the Lausanne Agreement
||Concerned about the impact of the Depression, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution that no foreign debt to the United States should be cancelled or reduced, which effectively killed the Lausanne Agreement of July 1932. The German government did not make any payments under this plan and the National Socialists repudiated the reparation debt as interest slavery. Finland was the only country to repay its war debt to the United States in full.
||French Rejection of U.S. Debt Payment
||The Chamber rejected the French government's proposal to pay the scheduled debt installment to the United States. This decision resulted in the collapse of the French government and the second ministry of Edouard Herriot. Succeeding French ministries attempted to deal with the Depression by balancing the French budget and keeping France on the gold standard.
||First Meeting of Catalonian Parliament
||The Catalonian Parliament met for the first time, demonstrating the region's growing independence from rule from Madrid.
|December 3, 1932
||Mexican Withdrawal from the League of Nations
||The Mexican government informed the League of Nations that it could no longer participate in the organization. The Mexican government rescinded this decision in May 1934 and remained in the League.
|December 6-9, 1932
||Special League Assembly Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held its third special session of the year, under Paul Hymans (Belgium), in Geneva to continue deliberations on the Japanese occupation of Manchuria.
|December 9, 1932
||Japanese Invasion of Jehol
||Japanese forces from Manchukuo invaded the Chinese province of Jehol as the Japanese sought to expand their influence in northern China.
|December 11, 1932
||The German government agreed to return to the Disarmament Conference after delegates signed the Geneva Protocol, which acknowledged the equality of rights among the participants in the deliberations.
|December 11, 1932
||No Force Declaration
||In preparation for the Disarmament Conference, scheduled to begin in February 1933, the United States government negotiated a No Force Declaration with Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. These states promised not to resolve any present or future differences between them by force.
|December 15, 1932
||Allied War Debt Default
||Most of the Allied governments defaulted on their war debt obligations to the United States in response to the U.S. Congress' rejection of the Lausanne Conference agreement.
|December 23, 1932
||Liberian Suspension of Debt Payments
||As a result of the Depression, the Liberian government suspended due interest and amortization payments to Firestone. These payments absorbed 55 percent of the government's total revenue in 1931.
|December 27, 1932
||South African Withdrawal from the Gold Standard
||The Union of South Africa government decided to leave the gold standard. This decision was reached only after prolonged debate and disagreement, especially in light of South Africa's rich gold deposits.