|January 1, 1934
||Reorganization of Libya
||The Italian government reorganized the colony of Libya into four provinces: Tripoli, Misurata, Benghazi, and
|January 12, 1934
||Departure of King Prajadhipok from Siam
||After a military coup challenged King Prajadhipok's (Rama VII) suspension of the constitution in 1933, and the failure of a counter-revolution in support of the royal government, the king departed for a visit to Europe and did not return. The execution of the counter-revolutionary leaders led to King Prajadhipok's abdication in March 1935, in favor of his ten-year old nephew, Ananda Mahidol. The country was ruled by a Council of Regency, headed by Prince Aditya
|January 15-20, 1934
||Seventy-Eighth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its seventy-eighth session in Geneva.
|January 18, 1934
||Communist Revolution in Portugal Suppressed
||The Portuguese government suppressed a revolutionary movement led by the Communists and the General Confederation of Labor with great vigor. The state imprisoned the leaders of the revolution.
|January 26, 1934
||German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact
||Following a period of great tension, the German and Polish governments signed a non-aggression pact which respected the two countries' borders for ten years. The pact provided the Polish government with some assurance that the Germans would not attempt to recover the Polish corridor by military force. Under the direction of the Foreign Minister, Colonel Josef Beck, Poland attempted to balance its alliance with France with German friendship in an attempt to avoid involvement in foreign quarrels. This agreement represented the first breach in the French alliance system in Eastern Europe and the Polish government became the first friendly power to reach an understanding with the new National Socialist government in Germany.
|January 27, 1934
||Bulgarian State Visit to Bucharest
||King Boris of Bulgaria conducted an official state visit to Romania to meet with King Carol regarding the impending Balkan Pact negotiations.
|January 30, 1934
||Abolition of the Reichsrat in Germany
||The National Socialist government abolished the Reichsrat, which represented the German states in the national government. This ended the sovereignty of the German states and the federal government, as Germany became a national state.
|January 30, 1934
||U.S. Gold Reserve Act
||The U.S. Congress approved the Gold Reserve Act which authorized President Roosevelt to revalue the dollar at 50 to 60 cents in terms of its gold content. The measure also set up a $2 billion stabilization fund.
|February 1-March 22, 1934
||Thirty-First Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its thirty-first session in the Hague.
|February 2, 1934
||Abolishment of Monarchist Parties in Germany
||The German government outlawed monarchical organizations as a means to curtail political opposition from the right. This measure gave the National Socialist party a monopoly on political power in Germany.
|February 6-7, 1934
||Riots in Paris in Response to Stavisky Case
||Major riots erupted in Paris and other French cities in response to the Stavisky Case. Alexandre Stavisky was a Russian promoter, who floated a fraudulent bond issue. When exposed and cornered by the police, he reportedly committed suicide to escape capture. Royalists and Fascists stirred up agitation against the republic, claiming that the guilt of important politicians and officials was covered up during the investigation.
|February 9, 1934
||Conclusion of Balkan Pact
||The Turkish, Greek, Romanian, and Yugoslav governments signed the Balkan Pact. This agreement was designed to complement the Little Entente and protect the Balkans from encroachment by other nations. The four governments agreed to mutually guarantee the security of the Balkan frontiers and pledged not to take any action with regard to any Balkan non-signatory state without previous consultation. The failure to include Bulgaria in the alliance seriously weakened the effectiveness of the agreement (the Bulgarian government refused to recognize the postwar territorial settlements and could not join the alliance). The Balkan Pact reflected the work of the Romanian Foreign Minister, Nicholas
|February 11, 1934
||Treaty of Sanaa (Saudi Arabia and Britain)
||The Saudi and British governments concluded a treaty of friendship for 40 years between the two countries.
|February 11, 1934
||Anglo-Indian-Yemeni Treaty of Friendship
||The governments of Britain, India, and Yemen signed a treaty of friendship and amity.
|February 11-15, 1934
||Destruction of the Austrian Socialists
||The Austrian government issued a decree dissolving all political parties except for Chancellor Dollfuss' Fatherland Front. Government forces and the Heimwehr conducted a series of raids on Socialist headquarters. This led to an uprising and the bombardment of the Karl Marx Hof, where the Socialist leadership attempted an unsuccessful last stand. As a result, the Socialist leadership was captured or fled the country. By this drastic action, Dollfuss and the Christian Democrats alienated the working classes of Vienna, who might have been recruited to counter a German threat to Austria.
|February 16, 1934
||Anglo-Russian Trade Agreement
||The British and Soviet governments, in an attempt to improve relations, signed an agreement to promote trade between the two countries.
|February 17, 1934
||Death of King Albert I of Belgium
||King Albert I, the defender of Belgian sovereignty during World War I, died in a mountaineering accident. He was succeeded by his son, Leopold III.
|February 21-March 16, 1934
||Berber Uprising in Morocco
||French forces subdued a revolt of the Berbers in southwestern Morocco.
|February 23, 1934
||Murder of Augustino Sandino
||After the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from Nicaragua in January 1933, General Augustino Sandino, leader of the Sandino Insurrection, met with General Anastasio Somoza, commander of the National Guard, to discuss peace terms. Somoza took advantage of the opportunity to eliminate Sandino, which effectively ended the insurrection.
||West Australian Secession Movement
||The government of West Australia sent a petition to King George V requesting legislation which would allow Western Australia to secede from Australia. The British Parliament refused to consider the petition, however, without the approval of the Australian Parliament in Canberra.
||Saudi Campaign against Yemen
||After several border incidents and tensions between Yemen and Saudi Arabia, King Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia launched a successful offensive against the Yemenis.
|March 1, 1934
||Coronation of Henry Pu-I as Emperor of Manchukuo
||Having served as Regent of Manchukuo since March 1933, the Japanese promoted Henry Pu-I as the Emperor of the K'ang Te reign. Japanese advisors continued to hold all of the new empire's important government posts.
|March 2, 1934
||Philippine Commonwealth Plan
||President Franklin D. Roosevelt urged the U.S. Congress to revive the Howes-Cutting Bill, which former President Hoover had vetoed in January 1933. The original bill called the establishment of a Philippine commonwealth over a twelve-year transition period. President Roosevelt urged Congress to modify the bill by removing the provision for American military and naval bases on the islands, subject to future negotiations.
|March 17, 1934
||Conclusion of the Rome Protocols
||The Italian, Austrian, and Hungarian governments concluded the Rome Protocols. Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss and Hungarian Premier Julius Goemboes traveled to Rome for a wide range of negotiations. The protocols included agreements for closer trade relations, consultation and common policy, and the establishment of a Danubian bloc under Fascist auspices to counterbalance the Little Entente and French influence in Central and Eastern Europe. The Austrians became more reliant on Italian protection against a hostile Germany.
|March 12, 1934
||Estonian Dictatorship Established
||President Konstantin Paets, aided by General John Laidoner, set up a virtual dictatorship in Estonia. President Paets prorogued parliament, abolished political parties, arrested 400 leaders of the League of Liberators (veterans of the military campaigns in the Russian Civil War), and drastically curtailed civil rights. But President Paets acted on behalf of the conservative elements and the middle class in Estonia and declared his intentions to eventually restore constitutional government.
|March 24, 1934
||Adoption of Tydings-McDuffie Act
||The U.S. Congress approved the modified Howes-Cutting Bill which established the Philippines as a commonwealth and provided for independence with a twelve-year transitional period under a Filipino executive. During this time, the U.S. government would maintain military and naval bases in the islands, Philippine court decisions were subject to review by the U.S. Supreme Court, and tariffs would be imposed on Philippine sugar, coconut oil, and fibers in excess of specific quotas. The Philippine legislature unanimously, but reluctantly, approved the measure on May 1, 1934.
||Great Strike in Barcelona
||The Socialists led a major strike in Barcelona which greatly increased tensions with the government in Madrid. The government had a difficult time suppressing the strike.
||Finland Prohibition on Political Uniforms
||The Finnish government outlawed the wearing of uniforms and political emblems in an effort to restrict the militarization of political organizations.
||Grand Tour of King Alexander of Yugoslavia
||In April 1934, King Alexander of Yugoslavia began a grand tour of Europe designed to help build up alliances to counter the growing power of Germany.
|April 4, 1934
||Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact Renewal
||The Soviet and Polish governments renewed their non-aggression pact of July 1932 for another ten years. This agreement reflected the Soviet fear of a resurgent Germany and the Russians embarked on a massive land, sea, and air armament program.
|April 7, 1934
||Suspension of Indian Civil Disobedience
||Mohandas K. Gandhi suspended the Indian civil disobedience campaign against the British authorities in response to the widespread rioting and violence.
|April 7, 1934
||Russo-Finnish Non-Aggression Pact Renewed
||The Soviet and Finnish governments agreed to renew their non-aggression pact for another ten years.
|April 10, 1934
||Conference for the Reduction and Limitations of Armaments
||The League of Nations made another attempt to reduce and limit arms at a conference in Geneva.
|April 13, 1934
||Johnson Debt Default Act
||In response to Allied governments which defaulted on World War I loans, the U.S. Congress passed the Johnson Debt Default Act which prohibited financial transactions with foreign governments which were in default in debt payment obligations to the United States. This measure further reduced liquidity available in international financial markets and contributed to the global depression.
|April 18, 1934
||Japanese Protectorate over China Declaration
||In light of the Japanese military successes in Manchukuo and Jehol, the Japanese Foreign Office announced that the Japanese empire officially established a virtual protectorate over Chinese relations with the Western powers.
|April 19-25, 1934
||International Congress of Educational Cinematographers
||To promote international education, the League of Nations hosted a conference of cinematographers in Rome.
|April 26, 1934
||French Official Visit to Prague
||The French Foreign Secretary, Louis Barthou, conducted an official visit to Czechoslovakia to discuss the new situation in the Danubian region following the conclusion of the Rome Protocols. Foreign Secretary Barthou's visit was intended to shore up the Franco-Czechoslovak alliance.
|April 30, 1934
||New Austrian Constitution
||The National Assembly of Austria adopted an extremely complicated constitution which set up a dictatorship under Englebert Dollfuss. By July, Chancellor Dollfuss set up a new cabinet on Fascist lines.
||Passage of Dutch Laws against Extremists
||The Dutch parliament granted the government emergency powers to regulate trade and industry and to control the activities of extremist political movements. Under the new measures, the government barred National Socialists, Revolutionary Socialists, and Socialists from holding political office. Despite these measures, the National Socialists continued to increase in number and influence.
||Reorganization of Angola
||The Portuguese government reorganized the colony of Angola/Portuguese West Africa into five provinces.
||Turkish Rearmament Program
||In response to Italy's aggressive policies in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Turkish government launched an active rearmament program.
||Bahrain Oil Concession
||The concession granted to the Standard Oil Company of California to explore and develop petroleum resources on the Bahrain Islands resurrected Persian claims to the islands.
|May 1, 1934
||The Austrian government negotiated a concordat with the Vatican which gave the Roman Catholic church in Austria wide powers over education.
|May 3, 1934
||Establishment of People's Court in Germany
||The National Socialist government established the People's Court to try cases of treason (the courts received an extremely wide definition of treasonous conduct). Trial proceedings were secret and the only appeal was to the Chancellor. Summary execution of sentences became the norm and concentration camps, filled with political opponents without trial, emerged as institutions.
|May 14-19. 1934
||Seventy-Ninth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its seventy-ninth session in Geneva.
|May 15, 1934
||Successful Latvian Coup
||Assisted by General Francis Balodis, Prime Minister Karlis Ulmanis seized control of the Latvian government. Prime Minister Ulmanis claimed that he was preempting a Communist coup, established martial law, and arrested many of the Socialist leaders. His success reflected the growing power of the conservatives. Prime Minister Ulmanis suspended the constitution and became a virtual dictator.
|May 15-June 1, 1934
||Thirty-Second Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its thirty-second (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|May 19, 1934
||Bulgarian Military Coup d'Etat
||Army officers under General Kimon Gueorguiev overthrew the Bulgarian government and set up a dictatorship for one year. The new regime maintained a policy of reconciliation with Yugoslavia.
|May 24, 1934
||Settlement of the Leticia Conflict
||The governments of Peru and Colombia reached an agreement on the Leticia dispute, which reduced tensions between the two countries and avoided the outbreak of war.
|May 24-26, 1934
||International Studies Conference
||To promote pacific relations between nations, the League of Nations hosted a conference of academics in Paris.
|May 29-June 11, 1934
||Geneva International Disarmament Conference
||The Disarmament Conference met for a brief session in an attempt to reduce global tensions. French resistance to the talks undermined last-minute efforts to reach an agreement.
|May 30-June 7, 1934
||Eightieth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eightieth (extraordinary) session in Geneva.
|May 31, 1934
||The U.S. Congress ratified the U.S.-Cuban Treaty which abrogated the Platt Amendment, a legal document which had been a source of friction between the two countries. U.S. Ambassador to Havana Sumner Welles conducted the negotiations with the government of Carlos Mendieta, reaching an agreement on May 29th. The U.S. government insisted that the Platt Amendment be incorporated in the Cuban constitution in 1901, although the measure undermined Cuban sovereignty. Under this amendment, the Cuban government was not permitted to enter into a treaty with a foreign power which impaired the country's sovereignty, Cubans could not contract excessive foreign debts, the U.S. had the right to intervene to maintain Cuban independence, and Cuban territory had to be leased to the U.S. for naval bases.
|June 1, 1934
||Yugoslav-German Trade Agreement
||The German and Yugoslav governments concluded a trade agreement to expand economic ties between the two countries. Many nations feared that the Yugoslavs were moving closer to Germany in response to the Italian-Austrian-Hungarian rapprochement.
|June 4-23, 1934
||Eighteenth Session of the International Labor Conference
||The International Labor Organization (BIT) held its eighteenth session in Geneva, under the chairmanship of Justin Godart (France). During the session, the delegates considered a revision of night work for women, workingmen's compensation (occupational diseases), automobile sheet-glass work hours, and benefits for the involuntarily employed.
|June 6-7, 1934
||Failed Lithuanian Coup
||Followers of Augustine Voldermaras attempted a coup to overthrow the Lithuanian government. Having already been convicted of high treason in May 1930 and exiled to a village, Voldermaras was imprisoned for twelve months as a result of the coup attempt.
|June 8, 1934
||Jones-Costigan Sugar Control Act
||This agreement between the Roosevelt administration and the Cuban government stabilized Cuban sugar production and established a floor price for Cuban sugar.
|June 9, 1934
||Romanian-Polish-Soviet Border Agreement
||The Romanian, Polish, and Soviet governments signed an agreement by which each state guaranteed the other nations' frontiers. For the first time, the Soviet government officially recognized the loss of Bessarabia to Romania.
|June 9, 1934
||Czechoslovakia Resumption of Relations with Soviet Union
||The Czechoslovak government decided to restore diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in an effort to counter-balance the growing power of Germany.
|June 10, 1934
||Romanian Resumption of Relations with Soviet Union
||The Romanian government decided to reestablish diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union which reflected improved relations between the two countries, after the Soviets recognized Romania's claim to
|June 12, 1934
||Bulgarian Abolishment of Political Parties
||The new Bulgarian government abolished all political parties in the kingdom and took vigorous action against the Macedonians who were the chief opponents to the state's pro-Yugoslav foreign policy.
|June 12, 1934
||Reciprocal Tariff Act
||Under the Reciprocal Tariff Act, President Roosevelt gained the power to negotiate trade agreements with other countries without the advice and consent of the Senate for a three-year period. It also gave the president the power to increase or low tariff rates up to a maximum of 50 percent. This act provided President Roosevelt with the tools to negotiate liberal trade policies to help reduce the impact of the Depression and became the basis for post-war U.S. economic and trade policies.
|June 12, 1934
||Status of the Union of South Africa Act
||This legislation was designed to define the position of the Union of South Africa under the Westminster Statute, which the British Parliament passed in December 1931. The South African act established the Union as a sovereign independent state, but failed to adequately address the right of secession from the British Commonwealth, which led to further debate and discussion.
|June 12-14, 1934
||Second International Conference on Vitamins
||The League of Nations held its second conference on the standardization of vitamins around the world.
|June 14-15, 1934
||German State Visit to Italy
||Adolf Hitler conducted his first state visit to Italy to pave the way for closer relations between the two countries. Very little appears to have been accomplished in Venice as both Chancellor Hitler and Premier Benito Mussolini made poor impressions on each other. Instead of developing a common policy, tensions flared between Germany and Italy over the future of Austria and the Danubian region.
|June 15, 1934
||German Suspension of Foreign Debt Payments
||The German government announced the suspension of cash transfers on foreign debts as of July 1, 1934.
|June 15, 1934
||Allied Default on War Loans
||The governments of the Allied governments formally defaulted on their war debts to the United States. The only country to continue paying its war debt in full was Finland.
|June 16-July 2, 1934
||Persian State Visit to Turkey
||Reza Shah of Persia conducted an official state visit to Ankara and Constantinople. As a result of this visit, the two countries drew even closer.
|June 18, 1934
||Opening of Algiers-Brazzaville Air Line
||The French introduced a new air line service which connected Brazzaville, in the French Congo, with Algiers via Fort
|June 19, 1934
||U.S. Silver Purchase Act
||The U.S. Congress approved the Silver Purchase Act, which authorized President Roosevelt to nationalize silver holdings. This decision resulted in an increase in the world price of silver, which forced China to abandon the silver standard in November 1934.
|June 23, 1934
||Italian Blockade Threat to Albania
||The resurgence of disputes between the Italian and Albanian governments led to Premier Benito Mussolini sending Italian warships to Durazzo. The sudden appearance of the Italian fleet off the coast frightened the Albanian government into submission. As a result, the Italians strengthened their control over the Albanian army and Italians received the right to colonize certain areas of Albania.
|June 23, 1934
||Saudi-Yemeni Peace Treaty
||After six weeks of fighting, in which the Saudis soundly defeated Yemeni forces, the British mediated an agreement which maintained the independence of Yemen and provided the Saudis with a rectification of the frontier between Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
|June 25, 1934
||French Official Visit to Belgrade
||The French Foreign Secretary, Louis Barthou, conducted an official visit to Yugoslavia in response to the Yugoslav-German Trade Agreement. The French feared a Yugoslav defection from the Little Entente and convinced the Yugoslavian government to maintain their ties with France.
|June 30, 1934
||Great Blood Purge in Germany
||To preempt a plot against the National Socialist regime, Chancellor Adolf Hitler summarily executed 77 people, many of whom had been significant leaders of the party. This drastic move was directed against the more radical, social revolutionary wing of the National Socialist party who advocated the incorporation of the Storm Troops (party forces) into the Wehrmacht and called for radical property redistribution. Leading victims included General Kurt von Schleicher, Ernst Roehm, Gregor Strasser, and Erich
|July 10, 1934
||Opening of Brazzaville-Pointe Noire Railway
||The French opened a new railway line which connected Brazzaville, in the French Congo, to the Atlantic coast at Pointe Noire.
|July 12, 1934
||Prohibition of Political Uniforms in Belgium
||Faced with a growing Fascist movement, the Belgian government prohibited the formation of military units and the wearing of political uniforms by political parties. This state directed this law against the Fascists and the Labor Defense Militia. The government dissolved both organizations.
|July 14, 1934
||Opening of Mosul-Tripoli Oil Pipeline
||Petroleum produced in Mosul, Iraq could now be shipped by pipeline to the Mediterranean port of Tripoli in Syria (Lebanon).
|July 20, 1934
||Sudanese-Libyan Border Defined
||The British and Italian governments signed an agreement finalizing the border between Libya and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
|July 24, 1934
||Abortive National Socialist Putsch in Vienna
||The National Socialists failed to seize power in Austria after seizing the radio station in Vienna (forcing announcers to broadcast Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss' resignation) and assassinating Chancellor Dollfuss (probably unintentionally). The coup was badly mismanaged and the Heimwehr routed the National Socialists. The German government mounted a major propaganda effort prior to the revolt and pressured the Austrian government to step aside. The German plan almost succeeded except for the timely intervention of the Italian and Yugoslav governments. The Italian government intervened actively in support of the Austrian government. Premier Benito Mussolini mobilized a large Italian army on the Brenner Pass to demonstrate his determination to intervene and counter the German threat to Austrian independence. The Yugoslavians also mobilized their army on the Austrian frontier. The German government backed off by disavowing any connection with the affair and recalled their ambassador from Vienna.
|July 25, 1934
||Australian Defense Program
||The Australian government adopted a three-year defense program designed to expand the country's air force, naval power, and army mechanization. This program was later expanded as international tensions increased.
|July 30, 1934
||New Austrian Government
||Dr. Kurt Schuschnigg, a close collaborator of former Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, formed a new government and maintained Christian Democratic policies. He met with Premier Benito Mussolini in Italy twice during the fall and new economic agreements with Italy and Hungary led to some improvement in Austria's situation.
|July 30, 1934
||Philippine Constitutional Convention
||In response to the Tydings-McDuffie Act, a constitutional convention convened in the Philippines to frame a constitution for the new commonwealth.
||Arab Attacks on Jews in Algeria
||Arab nationalists launched a series of violent attacks on Jews in Constantine and other Algerian cities. Anti-Semitism was a significant part of the Arab nationalist program.
|August 6, 1934
||Withdrawal of U.S. Forces from Haiti
||After a national plebiscite and under pressure by the Haitian president, the Haitian Assembly approved a series of agreements between the United States and Haiti. The Haitian Assembly opposed a similar series of agreements with the Hoover administration, but the Roosevelt administration sought a swift resolution of the issues. The U.S. government made arrangements for the complete termination of American control of the country's administration and the liquidation of Haiti's foreign debt.
|August 19, 1934
||German Presidential Plebiscite
||Chancellor Adolf Hitler consolidated his political power by assuming the role of head of state by combining the offices of the President and Chancellor on August 1st. President Paul von Hindenburg died the next day at the age of 87. A national plebiscite approved Chancellor Hitler's assumption of the presidency with 88 percent of the vote affirmative.
|August 20, 1934
||U.S. Admitted to ILO
||The Roosevelt administration accepted membership in the International Labor Organization.
|August 24, 1934
||U.S.-Cuban Reciprocal Trade Agreement
||The U.S. and Cuban governments negotiated a reciprocal trade agreement designed to expand trade between the two countries. Cuba received a number of significant concessions under this arrangement, including the reduction of American duties on Cuban sugar from 2.5 cents per pound to .9 cents per pound.
|September 7-15, 1934
||Eighty-First League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eighty-first session in Geneva.
|September 10-27, 1934
||Fifteenth League Assembly Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held its fifteenth session, under R.J. Sandler (Sweden), in Geneva.
|September 12, 1934
||Flight of Macedonian Leader from Bulgaria
||In response to the Bulgarian government's crackdown on Macedonians, Ivan Mihailov, the Macedonian leader, fled to Turkey to escape imprisonment.
|September 12, 1934
||Treaties of the Baltic Entente
||The Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian governments signed a number of agreements which overlooked the Vilna problem and allowed the three countries to coordinate their foreign policies. The Baltic Pact prepared for common action to defend the independence of the three states and for common actions in foreign affairs with semi-annual meetings of the countries' foreign ministers.
|September 18, 1934
||Soviet Admission to the League
||The League of Nations admitted the USSR as a member state and the Soviets accepted the sixth permanent seat on the Council. The Soviet Union remained a member until it was expelled in December 1939, after the Soviets invaded Finland to begin the Winter War. The Soviet decision to join the League reflected the Russian fear of a resurgent Germany. Prior to its admission to the League, the Russian government severely denounced the organization. The Soviets now took an active role in promoting collective security and supported the French in their alliance system in Eastern Europe. The Swiss government, however, bitterly opposed the admission of the USSR into the League and voted against the Russians in the League Council, to no avail.
|September 19-28, 1934
||Eighty-Second League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eighty-second session in Geneva.
|September 23, 1934
||Yugoslav Royal Visit to Sofia
||King Alexander of Yugoslavia conducted an official state visit to Bulgaria with the hope of persuading the Bulgarians to join the Balkan Pact. His visit proved unsuccessful from that perspective.
|September 26, 1934
||Afghanistan Admitted to League of Nations
||The League of Nations admitted Afghanistan as a member state in the organization.
|September 28, 1934
||Ecuador Admitted to the League of Nations
||To support its claims in the Amazon Basin during the Leticia dispute between Peru and Colombia, the Ecuadorian government decided to join the League of Nations. The League negotiated a settlement of the disputed territory in 1935.
|October 1, 1934
||Newfoundland Import Duties
||Newfoundland achieved substantial economic and financial recovery progress during 1934 and announced that most import duties for the colony would be lowered on January 1, 1935.
|October 2, 1934
||Establishment of Royal Indian Navy
||The British inaugurated the establishment of the Royal Indian Navy as an independent naval force.
|October 5, 1934
||General Strike in Spain
||The leftist political parties in Spain called for a general strike in protest against the rising reaction against the Socialist government.
|October 6, 1934
||Catalonian Declaration of Independence from Spain
||Luis Companys, President of Catalonia, declared the independence of Catalonia. Spanish troops suppressed the independence movement, as well as an insurrection by miners in Asturias, where a Communist government was proclaimed. Spanish forces ruthlessly suppressed the revolt in Asturias with great brutality.
|October 9, 1934
||Assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia
||Operating out of Hungary, a Macedonian revolutionary, working with Croat revolutionaries, assassinated King Alexander of Yugoslavia and Louis Barthou, the French Foreign Secretary, in Marseilles, France. The French and Yugoslavs were holding talks to develop stronger ties to deal with the growing power of Germany. The assassinations resulted in deportations from Hungary and Yugoslavia and threatened to lead to war between the two countries until the League of Nations negotiated a settlement to the crisis in December. Upon the death of his father, Peter II became the new king and Alexander's cousin, Prince Paul, served as the chief regent.
|October 15, 1934
||Beginning of Long March of Communist Chinese
||Under pressure from Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists, the Communist Chinese, under Mao Zedong and Zhu De, broke through the Nationalist lines and marched westward. Approximately 100,000 Communist Chinese endured Nationalist bombardment and air attacks, which resulted in the loss of half of Mao's force. The Communists marched 6,000 miles, crossing 18 mountain ranges and 24 rivers before reaching safe haven in the northwestern province of Shensi in October 1935. As a result of this redeployment, the Communists moved beyond the range of the Nationalists and Mao emerged as the undisputed leader of the Chinese Communist movement.
|October 22-December 12, 1934
||Thirty-Third Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its thirty-third (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
|October 23-December 19, 1934
||London Naval Disarmament Conference
||The major naval powers made a last attempt at negotiating a naval disarmament treaty in London. With mounting political tensions, the conference collapsed without agreement.
|October 24, 1934
||Gandhi's Withdrawal from the National Congress
||Mohandas K. Gandhi decided to withdraw from the National Congress, although he did not eschew all political activity in support of Indian independence from Britain.
|October 28-November 4, 1934
||General Conference on Architecture and Development of Art Museums
||To promote the fine arts and the protection of historical architecture, the League of Nations held a conference in Madrid.
|October 29-November 4, 1934
||International Conference of Musicology
||To encourage the musical arts, the League of Nations sponsored a conference in Madrid.
|October 30, 1934
||Greek-Turkish Mixed Commission Dissolved
||The Greek-Turkish Mixed Commission, established in 1923 to determine outstanding issues between the Greek and Turkish governments, ended their meetings.
||Birth of Moroccan Nationalism
||A group of young Moroccans introduced "A Plan of Moroccan Reforms" which is considered the birth of Moroccan nationalism, a movement distinct from traditional tribal opposition to foreign rule. Many of these young Moroccans received their educations in Europe and they were inspired by political developments in Iraq and the Wafd struggle in Egypt.
||Chinese Abandonment of the Silver Standard
||The Nationalist government in China abandoned the silver standard and established a controlled paper currency in response to the U.S. government decision to purchase silver in June 1934.
|November 2, 1934
||League Settlement of the Leticia Dispute
||The League of Nations defused a potential war between Colombia and Peru over the disputed region of Leticia. The League helped negotiate an agreement which was accepted by both countries. Under the terms of the agreement, Peru and Colombia proclaimed peace and amity and renounced armed action.
|November 3, 1934
||Prorogation of the Syrian Parliament
||As a result of widespread disorder in Syria and the opposition of the Syrian parliament to the Treaty of 1933 with France, the Syrian parliament was prorogued indefinitely. Most Syrians objected to continued French control over Syrian foreign relations, the army, and finances and opposed separate treatment of the Syrian states.
|November 20-24, 1934
||League Assembly Special Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held a special session, under Francisco Castillo Najera (Mexico), in Geneva, to discuss Article 15 of the Covenant of the League of Nations.
|November 29, 1934
||Southwest African Petition for Union with South Africa
||The Southwest African legislative assembly petitioned the Union of South Africa parliament for admission into the Union as a fifth province. The South African parliament set up a commission to investigate the problems of unification and the South African government announced in December 1936 that they had no plans to change the political status of the mandate.
|November 30, 1934
||Suspension of Egyptian Constitution of 1930
||The Nationalists in Egypt agitated for the restoration of the Constitution of 1923 after the new Egyptian prime minister, Mohammad Tewfik Nessim, suspended the Constitution of 1930. Nessim chose not to restore the 1923 constitution on the advice of the British government.
||Military Coup in Bolivia
||Following a series of major defeats against the Paraguayans in the Chaco War, the Bolivian military overthrew President Daniel Salamanca. Vice President Luis Tejada Sorzano assumed the presidency.
|December 1, 1934
||Assassination of Kirov in the Soviet Union
||The assassination of Serge Kirov, a close collaborator of Josef Stalin, revealed the existence of a strong and determined opposition to the regime from within the ranks of the Communist Party in the USSR. This act marked the beginning of another outbreak of terror by Stalin's government coupled with repeated purges of the Communist Party and Soviet administration. In several spectacular show trials, many of the older and prominent leaders admitted their guilt in the conspiracy.
|December 5, 1934
||Ualual Incident in Ethiopia
||Italian and Ethiopian troops clashed at Ualual on the disputed Ethiopian-Italian Somaliland frontier. The Italians had territorial aspirations on Ethiopia since the debacle at Adua in 1896. Although the Italians gained a minor sphere of influence over part of Ethiopia in 1906 under an Anglo-French agreement, Italian aspirations in East Africa remained unappeased. After World War I, the Italians adopted a treat of friendship with Ethiopia and supported the kingdom's admission into the League of Nations. However, the clash at Ualual reflected a major change in Italian foreign policy towards imperialism. The Italian government demanded an apology from the Ethiopian government and reparations. In response, the Ethiopian government called for an international investigation of the incident. This clash served as the precursor for the beginning of the Italian-Ethiopian War.
|December 5-11, 1934
||Eighty-Third League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eighty-third (extraordinary) session in Geneva.
|December 8, 1934
||Anglo-Australian Air Mail Service
||Weekly air mail service between England and Australia began, designed to promote communication and business opportunities between the two countries.
|December 10, 1934
||League Settlement of King Alexander's Assassination
||The League of Nations successfully concluded an agreement which avoided a war between Hungary and Yugoslavia after the assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia. Although the assassins operated out of Hungary, the League issued a mild rebuke against the Hungarian government.
|December 15, 1934
||Suspension of the Catalonian Statute
||In response to the revolution in Catalonia in October, the Spanish government suspended the Catalonian Statute until the document could be revised.
|December 19, 1934
||Japanese Denouncement of the Naval Treaties
||The Japanese government formally renounced their participation in the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930. The Japanese would no longer have to limit their fleet to the ratios prescribed by these agreements and could begin a massive arms building program.
|December 21, 1934
||Anglo-Irish Coal-Cattle Treaty
||Despite the continuing Anglo-Irish tariff war, the British and Irish governments signed an agreement which promoted trade in coal and cattle between the two states.