||Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement
||The Irish and British governments negotiated a trade agreement, focusing on coal and cattle trade. While the new trade agreement allowed Irish farmers to reduce their meat surplus, the tariff war continued between the two countries.
||Mao Zedong established his predominance by consolidating political support over the Chinese Communist Party at the conference at Tsun-I, in the southwestern province of Kweichow. Mao continued the Long March by turning north and moving toward northwestern China for the safety of the Soviet border region.
|January 1, 1935
||Reduction in Newfoundland Import Duties
||In an attempt to stimulate trade, the Newfoundland government lowered most of the colony's import tariffs.
|January 3, 1935
||Ethiopian Appeal to the League
||After the Italians refused to arbitrate the Ualual dispute, the Ethiopian government appealed for relief to the League of Nations under Article XI of the Covenant of the League of Nations. The League, however, postponed action on the Ethiopian request.
|January 4, 1935
||Opening of Mosul-Haifa Oil Pipeline
||The British opened a major oil pipeline between the Mosul oilfields in Iraq and the Mediterranean port of Haifa in Palestine. This route provided the British better control over Iraqi oil by complementing oil shipments through the French port of Tripoli.
|January 7, 1935
||The French and Italian governments signed a treaty which addressed their conflicting interests in Africa during Premier Pierre Laval's visit to Rome. In order to win the support of the Italian government against future German aggression, the French government made a number of concessions to the Italians including defining the official status of Italians in Tunisia, colonial frontier changes (a cession of part of French Somaliland to Italy), and part ownership of the Ethiopian Railway. The agreement gave the Italians a free hand in Ethiopia.
|January 11-21, 1935
||Eighty-Fourth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eighty-fourth session in Geneva.
|January 13, 1935
||The League of Nations conducted a plebiscite in the Saar in accordance with the Versailles Treaty. Approximately 90 percent of the voters demanded reunion with Germany and rejected a union with France or continued League administration. The National Socialists mounted a massive political campaign in the Saar, but popular opinion clearly supported a return to Germany.
|January 14, 1935
||Lower Zambezi Bridge Opened
||The first train crossed the new railway bridge over the lower Zambezi River. This bridge was one of the longest in the world (12,064 feet long) and helped promote trade and transportation in southern Africa. The new rail line provided for uninterrupted railway connection between Nyasaland and the Indian Ocean port of Beira in Mozambique/Portuguese East Africa.
|January 15-17, 1935
||Zinoviev and Kamenev Trials in Moscow
||Premier Josef Stalin conducted a series of show trials of leading Communist leaders who were accused of conspiracy and state treason. Grigori Zinoviev, Leo Kamenev, and several other Communist leaders were found guilty and received terms of five to ten-years in prison.
|January 16, 1935
||End of League Embargo on Bolivia in the Chaco War
||Upon the recommendation of the League of Nations, 20 nations, which had imposed embargoes on Bolivia and Paraguay at the beginning of the Chaco War in 1932, lifted their trade sanctions on Bolivia. In response to the continued embargo, Paraguay announced its intention to withdraw from the League.
|January 16, 1935
||U.S. Rejection of Membership in World Court
||Although President Franklin Roosevelt urged Congress to ratify the World Court treaty and make the U.S. a member of the organization, the Senate rejected the proposal by a vote of 52-35. The Hearst newspapers and the radio addresses by Father Charles Coughlin kept the Irreconcilables on track and opposed to participation in international organizations.
|February 1-3, 1935
||Representatives of the British and French governments met in London in response to German plans to rearm. The two governments issued an invitation to the German government to help reestablish confidence and security in Europe. This would be achieved by concluding pacts of mutual assistance with governments in Eastern Europe, guaranteeing Austrian independence, collaboration in disarmament, and the German return to membership in the League of Nations. The German government indicated an interest in negotiating an air pact but refused to consider any agreements regarding Eastern Europe, which the British and French declared should be the first order of business.
|February 1-10, 1935
||Thirty-Fourth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its thirty-fourth session in the Hague.
|February 8, 1935
||Conclusion of Philippine Constitutional Convention
||Delegates at the Philippine Constitutional Convention completed a draft of a proposed constitution, a process which began in July 1934.
|February 23, 1935
||Dispatch of Italian Troops to East Africa
||In response to the Franco-Italian Agreement, President Benito Mussolini immediately dispatched General Di Bono and General Rudolfo Graziani to Eritrea with large numbers of Italian troops in preparation for a war against Ethiopia.
|February 24, 1935
||Swiss Extend Military Training
||The Swiss people voted to extend the period of military training in a national plebiscite in order to improve federal defenses.
|February 25, 1935
||Paraguayan Withdrawal from the League
||The government of Paraguay informed the League of Nations of its withdrawal from the organization.
|March 1, 1935
||Saar Reunion with Germany
||The League of Nations ended its administration of the Saar and the province returned to German sovereignty. The return of the Saar marked the beginning of German expansion under the National Socialists and reduced Chancellor Adolf Hitler's dependence on British and French good will.
|March 1, 1935
||Venizelist Uprising in Greece
||In a protest against royalism, the Venizelists launched uprisings in Athens, Macedonia, and Crete. After some fighting, Greek forces, under General George Kondylis, put down the protests and Eleutherios Venizelos, the former prime minister, fled to France.
|March 4, 1935
||British Defense Expansion
||Due to developments in the international system, the British government announced that the country would modernize and expand their national defenses. Most of the new expenditures were earmarked for the Royal Navy.
|March 11, 1935
||Bank of Canada Opened
||In response to the Bank of Canada Act of 1934, the Bank of Canada officially opened its doors which made this privately-owned but state-supervised financial institution the dominion's central bank.
|March 16, 1935
||German Denouncement of Disarmament Clauses of Versailles Treaty
||The German government shocked the world by officially denouncing its future adherence to the disarmament clauses of the Versailles Treaty. The state immediately resumed military conscription and announced that the Wehrmacht would be increased to 36 divisions. The Germans based their decision on the failure of the other signatory states to reduce their military forces as required by the peace treaties and the steady increase in French and Russian military forces. Under French leadership, the British and Italians send representatives to Stresa to condemn the new German policy.
|March 21, 1935
||Persia Renamed Iran
||The government officially changed the name of the country from Persia to Iran.
|March 23, 1935
||Sale of Russian Interest in Chinese Eastern Railway
||The Soviet government sold its interest in the Chinese Eastern Railway in Manchukuo for 140 million yen, finalizing negotiations which began in May 1933. This sale helped reduce tensions between Japan and the Soviet Union over Manchurian affairs, but problems continued to persist due to Japanese activity on the border of Outer Mongolia. Outer Mongolia had an alliance with the Soviet Union and was under Russian protection.
|March 23, 1935
||U.S. Approval of Philippine Constitution Draft
||President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved the draft of the Philippine constitution, a document which resulted from a constitutional convention.
|March 25, 1935
||New Belgian Government
||Paul van Zeeland, a renowned financier, formed the Government of National Unity in Belgium to deal with the kingdom's desperate financial problems. Van Zeeland devalued the belga by 28 percent, converted the public debt, concluded new trade agreements, and managed to balance the state budget. Despite these economic policies, Belgium continued to be wracked by strikes and political unrest.
|March 25, 1935
||Memel Treason Conviction
||The Lithuanian government charged almost 100 Germans in Memel with plotting to restore the region to Germany. Most were found guilty; those condemned to death had their sentences commuted and many were ultimately pardoned. The episode brought German-Lithuanian tensions to a head.
||Chinese Military Training
||The Nationalist government decreed one year of military training for all male high school and college students. The regime's goal was to train 100,000 reservists every year for the Chinese army to meet the growing Japanese threat.
|April 1, 1935
||Establishment of Reserve Bank of India
||The British government set up the Reserve Bank of India as a central bank to control Indian currency and to insure financial stability of the colony.
|April 11-14, 1935
||At the urging of the French, representatives of the British, French, and Italian governments met in Stresa to formulate a common front in response to German rearmament and to maintain Austrian independence. While the Italians joined the other states in protesting German policy, Italian support would soon dissipate due to the Ethiopian crisis.
|April 15-17, 1935
||Eighty-Fifth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eighty-fifth (extraordinary) session in Geneva.
|April 16, 1935
||Spanish Reorganization of Spanish Guinea
||The Spanish government reorganized the colonial administration of Spanish Guinea, establishing a separate administration for the island of Fernando Po.
|April 17, 1935
||League Condemnation of German Rearmament
||The League of Nations formally condemned the German government's decision to unilaterally renounce the disarmament clauses of the Versailles Treaty.
|April 23, 1935
||New Polish Constitution
||A new constitution, forced through the Sejm by the new regime, brought an end to Poland's democratic, parliamentary system of government. Under the new constitution, the president appointed one-third of the members of the Senate and the remaining two-thirds were elected by people of special distinction. The Sejm was reduced in numbers by more than 50 percent and would consist of deputies nominated by local councils and corporate bodies. The power of the Sejm was greatly curtailed and the president emerged with all real political authority. A new authoritarian political system, similar to fascism, resulted based on "conducted democracy."
||Italian Arbitration with Ethiopia
||The Italian government finally agreed to be arbitration negotiations regarding the frontier dispute with Ethiopia. The League Council set up an arbitral tribunal to address the Ualual dispute. Italian participation was lackluster and it soon became clear that the Italians agreed to negotiate in an attempt to ward off League action.
|May 2, 1935
||The French and Soviet governments negotiated a five-year alliance agreement. This treaty represented a long term project of the French government whereby the French sought to bring Poland, Germany, and Russia into an eastern pact which would serve to maintain the status quo in the region. Both the German and Polish governments avoided this plan and when the German government announced its intention to rearm, the French government moved quickly to establish an alliance with Russia. Each pledged to come to the aid of the other in the event of unprovoked aggression. This alliance was designed to fit into the framework of the League of Nations but was unpopular with conservative elements in France.
|May 3-8, 1935
||International Studies Conference
||To improve the analysis of international relations, the League of Nations hosted another conference on international studies in London.
|May 12, 1935
||Death of Pilsudski of Poland
||A major leader in the creation of the Polish army and government, Marshal Josef Pilsudski died and was succeeded by General Edward Smigly-Rydz as the commander of the Polish army. General Smigly-Rydz soon became the new power behind the country's presidential system.
|May 14, 1935
||Ratification of Philippine Constitution
||The voters of the Philippines approved the draft of the new constitution which provided for commonwealth status and local government under Filipino rule.
|May 16, 1935
||Russo-Czechoslovak Mutual Assistance Pact
||The Czech and Soviet governments signed a pact of mutual assistance and an air convention. Under the terms of the agreement, the Soviet Union promised to come to the aid of Czechoslovakia in the event of an attack, provided that the French did so as well. This agreement followed France's failure to negotiate a new eastern pact and the conclusion of an alliance between France and the USSR. While this pact bolstered Czechoslovakia's position in case of a war with Germany, it led to a great deal of resentment in Germany. The Germans accused the Czechs of making their country a base for Russian air operations against Germany.
|May 19, 1935
||Czechoslovak General Elections
||The government coalition maintained a slim majority in the Chamber but the Sudete Party won an overwhelming victory in the German parts of Czechoslovakia. The Sudete Party became the second largest single political party in the country after the Czech Agrarians.
|May 20-21, 1935
||League Assembly Special Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held a special session, under Augusto de Vasconcellos (Portugal), in Geneva to discuss the Ethiopian crisis.
|May 20-25, 1935
||Eighty-Sixth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eighty-sixth session in Geneva.
||U.S.-Liberian Financial Agreement
||The Liberian Legislature ratified an agreement with American financial interests by which interest payments on the loan of 1926 was reduced to five percent and all payments would be made dependent on the size of Liberia's revenue. As a result of the agreement, the Roosevelt administration resumed diplomatic relations with Monrovia (which had been broken off in 1930) and the British government restored diplomatic relations in 1936. The rapid development of the Firestone rubber plantations secured greater revenue for the Liberian government which allowed the country to resume interest and amortization payments.
|June 3, 1935
||Croat Boycott of the Yugoslav Parliament
||Following national elections on May 5th, the Croats resumed their boycott of the Yugoslav parliament. The Croats formed a coalition with a new party of Serbian peasants during the elections and attracted approximately 40 percent of the total vote in the kingdom.
|June 4-25, 1935
||Nineteenth Session of the International Labor Conference
||The International Labor Organization (BIT) held its nineteenth session in Geneva, under the chairmanship of Frederick Cresswell (South Africa). The delegates examined a wide range of issues including mine work for women, hours of work in coal mines, the reduction of work hours, migrants' pension rights, and the reduction of hours in glass bottle works.
|June 5, 1935
||Swiss Armament Program
||In response to international tensions, the Swiss government introduced an extensive armament expansion program which included the modernization of frontier defenses, mechanization of army units, and the development of air defense systems.
|June 9, 1935
||The Chinese, under General Ho Ying-chin, accepted Japanese demands that the Chinese government would withdraw their troops and that anti-Japanese activities in Hopei would cease. Under this agreement, the Chinese government recognized Japan's conquests in northeast China. Despite this agreement, the Japanese government found it difficult to establish a durable peace in the region. The cost of the occupation of Manchukuo, plagued with bandits and irregular guerillas, led the Japanese army to attempt to force or bribe local Chinese governments. The Japanese attempted to exploit the resources and markets of five Chinese provinces (Shantung, Hopei, Shansi, Chanhar, and Suiyan) without success.
|June 14, 1935
||Chaco War Armistice
||As a result of negotiations by the United States and five South American governments, the Paraguayan and Bolivian governments agreed to a truce to end the fighting in the disputed Chaco region. The truce prepared for a peace conference in Buenos Aires in July.
|June 18, 1935
||Anglo-German Naval Agreement
||The British and German governments concluded a naval treaty by which the Germans could build a navy which totaled 35 percent of the tonnage of the Royal Navy (this number included submarines). This agreement led to suspicion on the part of the French regarding British intentions toward Germany and a cooling of relations between the two allies.
|June 23-24, 1935
||British Concessions in Ethiopia
||British Minister for League Affairs, Anthony Eden, visited Rome and offered a number of concessions to Benito Mussolini in Ethiopia. The Italian premier rejected the offers as inadequate to meet Italian demands.
|June 25-July 9, 1935
||Italian-Ethiopian Arbitration Negotiations
||Italian and Ethiopian representatives met in the Hague to negotiate an arbitration agreement. The meetings did not lead to an agreement which forced the League of Nations to intervene.
||Anti-Catholic Riots in Belfast
||Protestants in Belfast rioted which led to the expulsion of Catholic families from Northern Ireland. The Irish Free State conducted reprisals in response.
||Ualual Arbitration Tribunal
||Deliberations by the League of Nations arbitration tribunal, designed to address the Ualual dispute between Italy and Ethiopia ground to a halt after having failed to agree on procedure. The League arranged for a fifth arbiter to break the deadlock to determine responsibility for the onset of the fighting and not to decide on the possession of
|July 1-4, 1935
||Buenos Aires Peace Conference
||The League of Nations hosted the peace conference in Buenos Aires to end the Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay. Negotiators from Paraguay and Bolivia met and concluded a peace treaty which provided for arbitration of the final border frontier between the two countries
|July 1-13, 1935
||Conference on Government Restraint
||During these times of domestic and international tensions, the League of Nations sponsored a conference in Geneva to promote government reorganization and restraints.
|July 4, 1935
||Austrian Repeal of Anti-Hapsburg Laws
||The Austrian government repealed many of the anti-Hapsburg laws and restored part of the imperial property. This action reflected increased support for a return of the Hapsburg monarchy, a movement led by Prince Ernest Stahremberg and encouraged by Italian Premier Benito Mussolini. France and the Little Entente opposed this plan and effectively derailed the movement.
|July 6, 1935
||Chinese Ratification of Ho-Umezu Agreement
||The Chinese government accepted in writing the terms of the Ho-Umezu Agreement of June 1935. The Chinese withdrew their troops from northeastern China and agreed to end anti-Japanese activities in
|July 13, 1935
||Russo-U.S. Trade Agreement
||The U.S. and Soviet governments signed an economic agreement designed to promote trade between the two countries.
|July 25, 1935
||League Council Intervention in Ethiopian Talks
||In response to the failed arbitration talks between the Italians and Ethiopians in the Hague, the League Council set a date (September 4th) when the Council would begin its own investigation of the situation in East Africa. By that date, the Italian military was prepared to begin its offensive against Ethiopia and Premier Benito Mussolini no longer concealed his goal of the annexation of Ethiopia into the Italian empire.
|July 25, 1935
||The Yugoslav government signed a concordat with the Vatican which granted Roman Catholics wider privileges in the kingdom (primarily in Croatia). Although the concordat was signed, Orthodox groups created so much disorder that the Yugoslav government was forced to drop the agreement. The overall effect was a disaster for the government. The state managed to estrange the Orthodox Church without winning any support from the Croats.
|July 25-August 20, 1935
||Third International Meeting
||Delegates at the meeting of the Third International decided that the Soviet Union, in light of the growing tensions between the democratic and fascist states, should throw its support behind the democracies and against their common enemy, the fascist dictatorships. Communists in other countries were called upon to end their opposition to military appropriations and support democratic governments, even though they were led by the bourgeois.
|July 31-August 3, 1935
||Eighty-Seventh League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eighty-seventh (extraordinary) session in Geneva.
|August 2, 1935
||British Parliament Passage of Government of India Act
||The British Parliament approved the Government of India Act, which included the recommendations of the Round Table conferences, and completely transformed the governmental system of India. The act separated the colonies of Burma and Aden from Indian administration and divided British India into eleven provinces. Each province received an appointed governor and an appointed executive council; each would have an elected legislature (bicameral in six provinces and unicameral in five); and representation would be based on a communal arrangement. Provincial governments enjoyed wide authorities, although the governors reserved emergency powers. The goal of the legislation was to establish an All-India Federation which would include the native states as well as the British Indian provinces. Until a certain number of native states approved the scheme, final arrangements were postponed. A governor-general and his executive council ruled British India with a central legislature in Delhi. This legislature was composed of an upper house (Council of State) with 34 elected members and 26 appointed members, and a lower house (Legislative Assembly), consisting of 105 members selected by the provincial assemblies and 40 appointed members. The Governor-General retained control over defense, foreign affairs, and Christian church affairs. The act went into effect on April 1, 1937.
|August 16, 1935
||Paris Conference on Ethiopia
||Representatives of the governments of France, Britain, and Italy met in Paris to defuse the Ethiopian crisis. The British and French delegates offered the Italians wide opportunities for development in Ethiopia, subject to approval by the Ethiopian government. The Italian representatives rejected the proposals and it became clear that the Italians were determined to go to war in East Africa.
|August 19, 1935
||Formation of Radical Union in Yugoslavia
||Milan Stoyadinovich formed the Radical Union, a coalition of Serbian Radicals, Slovene Clericals, and Bosnian Moslems, which reaffirmed the unity of the kingdom of Yugoslavia and undermined plans for the establishment of a federation which would reflect nationalist concerns.
|August 28, 1935
||Scandinavian Foreign Ministers Meeting
||For the first time, the Finnish foreign minister joined the other Scandinavian foreign ministers in a series of regular meetings. In light of the rise of National Socialism in Germany, the Finnish government attempted to form a bloc of Scandinavian and Baltic states to maintain a balance between Germany and the Soviet Union. In close collaboration with these countries, the Finnish government refortified the Aaland Islands, despite the opposition of the local inhabitants.
|August 31, 1935
||U.S. Neutrality Act of 1935
||Congress passed the first of a number of acts designed to keep the U.S. out of the next world war. When the Italians invaded Ethiopia in May, the State Department drafted a bill which would have given President Roosevelt the power to place an arms embargo on one or all belligerents. On August 17th, the House Foreign Relations Committee rejected the bill and substituted a resolution authorizing the president, after proclaiming the existence of a state of war, to prohibit all arms shipments and forbid American citizens from traveling on belligerent ships, except at their own risk. The Roosevelt administration persuaded Congress to place a six-month limit on arms embargoes. President Roosevelt signed the bill on August 31st, but noted that the law would drag America into war instead of keeping the country out of a conflict. The embargo did not include primary materials such as oil, steel, or copper, and other critical components in war materials production.
|September 3, 1935
||Ualual Arbitration Tribunal Report
||The Ualual Arbitration Tribunal reported that neither Italy nor Ethiopia was to blame for the outbreak of hostilities in the Ualual region because both sides considered the region within their respective borders.
|September 5-13, 1935
||Eighty-Eighth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eighty-eighth session in Geneva.
|September 8, 1935
||Polish National Elections
||Despite the focus of political power in the Polish army under the new constitution, the army and its supporters experienced opposition from a number of political parties. The army maintained control of the Sejm in the election, but the Socialists and Peasant Party demanded a return to genuine democracy, while the Ukrainians increased their demands for autonomy or independence.
|September 9-October 11, 1935
||Sixteenth League Assembly Session
||The League of Nations Assembly held its sixteenth session in Geneva.
|September 10, 1935
||White Settler Parliament in Kenya
||A group of white settlers in Kenya formed a "parliament" which denounced the Kenyan government, especially its financial policy, and demanded greater union between Kenya, Uganda, and Tanganyika. A British parliamentary committee rejected the proposed union between the three colonies in 1931.
|September 15, 1935
||Nuremberg Laws Introduced in Germany
||The German government announced the Nuremberg Laws by which Jews (defined as all those one-quarter Jewish or more) were deprived of their German citizenship and intermarriage with Jews became strictly forbidden. Many Jews departed Germany leaving most of their property behind.
|September 17, 1935
||Philippine voters elected Manuel Quezon as the first president of the Philippines, as well as a vice president and a national assembly.
|September 17-December 18, 1935
||Eighty-Ninth League Council Session
||The League of Nations Council held its eighty-ninth session in Geneva.
|September 29, 1935
||Despite changes in Memel electoral law designed to increase Lithuanian representation, the elections resulted in the return of 24 Germans to the Memel directorate and only five Lithuanians.
||Establishment of Fascist Front in Argentina
||The Conservative government faced growing conflict with the Radical and Socialist Parties in March. In response, Fascist organizations, also in opposition to the government, formed a common front with the extreme Right in October.
||Conclusion of the Long March in China
||Mao Zedong, along with only 8,000 survivors, arrived in northern Shensi in northwestern China. While some Chinese Communists remained behind during the Long March to mobilize the peasantry, most of the missing were killed by fighting, disease, and starvation. Shensi offered the Chinese Communists protection from Nationalist forces and allowed Mao to build up the Red Army for a future offensive. Mao set up a government in northern Shensi and called on the Nationalists to go to war against the Japanese.
|October 1-4, 1935
||Conference on Biological Standardization
||In an attempt to establish international biological standards, the League of Nations hosted a conference in Geneva on this issue.
|October 3, 1935
||Italian Invasion of Ethiopia
||Italian forces swept into Ethiopia from Eritrea and Italian Somaliland and overwhelmed the Ethiopian army.
|October 3, 1935
||League Condemnation of Italian Invasion of Ethiopia
||The League Council declared that the Italians had violated Article XII of the Covenant of the League of Nations by resorting to war against Ethiopia, even though neither government had declared war.
|October 6, 1935
||Italian Occupation of Adwa
||The Italians captured Adwa in northern Eritrea and began their offensive into the interior.
|October 7, 1935
||League Council Declared Italy the Aggressor
||The League Council declared that Italy was the aggressor nation in the Ethiopian affair and made preparations to apply sanctions against the Italians.
|October 10, 1935
||Military Coup in Greece
||In a military coup, General George Kondylis ousted the new government, under Panyoti Tsaldaris, which had won the June 1935 national elections. General Kondylis induced the Greek parliament to vote in favor of a recall of King George II.
|October 10, 1935
||Chaco War Arbitration
||The presidents of six American countries met to define the new border between Paraguay and Bolivia as a result of the Chaco War truce and Buenos Aires conference. The arbiters assigned most of the disputed Chaco region to Paraguay, but provided Bolivia with an outlet to the Pacific Ocean via the Paraguay River.
|October 11, 1935
||League Imposition of Sanctions on Italy
||The representatives of 51 countries voted in the League Assembly to impose trade sanctions on Italy under Article XVI of the Covenant. The sanctions would go into effect in November 1935, unless Italian forces evacuated Ethiopian territory.
|October 28, 1935
||Japanese Enunciation of Three Point Policy
||The Japanese Foreign Minister, Koki Hirota, announced his Three Point Policy: the establishment of a Japan-China-Manchukuo bloc; the suppression of anti-Japanese activities in China; and the organization of a joint Japanese-Chinese front against Communism. The failure of this policy led to future Japanese aggression against the Chinese.
|October 28-December 4, 1935
||Thirty-Fifth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its thirty-fifth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
||Communist Revolt in Brazil
||Communist uprisings arose in Pernambuco and spread to Rio de Janeiro. Although the government was able to subdue the Communist insurrection within a few days, the revolt gave the government the excuse to introduce martial law in Brazil. The president received almost full dictatorial powers, imposed strict censorship, and set up special tribunals to try Communist leaders.
|November 3, 1935
||Merger of French Socialist Parties
||A number of socialist groups in France merged to form the Socialist and Republican Union. This organization soon established close ties with the Communists and Radical Socialists to form the Popular Front. The goal of the Popular Front was to combat the political unrest of reactionary groups, especially the Croix de
|November 3, 1935
||Greek Royalist Plebiscite
||In a dubious plebiscite, the Greeks almost unanimously called for a restoration of the monarchy.
|November 4, 1935
||Polish-German Economic Agreement
||The German and Polish governments signed an economic agreement to promote trade between the two countries.
|November 7, 1935
||Russo-Turkish Treaty Extension
||The Turkish and Soviet governments agreed to extend the Treaty of 1931 for another ten years.
|November 8, 1935
||Italian Occupation of Mekele
||After a slow start, the Italian army finally captured the fortress of Mekele. Italian Marshal Pietro Badoglio carefully reorganized the Italian forces and prepared for a difficult offensive into the mountains of Ethiopia.
|November 13, 1935
||Franco-Spanish Tangier Accord
||The French and Spanish governments reached an accord on the government of Tangier. Both countries agreed that the chief administrator and bishop of Tangier would be Spanish. The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, however, deferred the implementation of these arrangements.
|November 13-December 2, 1935
||Nationalist Uprising in Egypt
||In response to the Ethiopian Crisis, which consumed British attention, Nationalists in Egypt launched a violent uprising. The Nationalists organized a union of parties which was designed to extract major concessions from the British during this period of crisis.
|November 15, 1935
||U.S.-Canadian Reciprocal Trade Agreement
||Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King met with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington and signed the Reciprocal Trade Agreement. Under the agreement, the U.S. government granted the Canadians lower rates or other concessions on two-thirds of Canadian exports by volume to the U.S. In return, the United States gained concessions on three-fourths of American dutiable exports to Canada. This agreement was designed to stimulate trade between the two countries and help both countries out of the Depression.
|November 15, 1935
||Establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
||The new Philippine constitution went into effect. President Manuel Quezon enjoyed most of the powers of the governor-general and held office for six years. The National Assembly became the new unicameral legislature for the islands. The U.S. government retained control of defense and foreign relations, exercised control of critical financial issues, and reserved the right to intervene in the affairs of the islands to preserve the commonwealth government. Philippine court decisions could be appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. There were still demands, on the part of Philippine nationalists, for immediate and total independence from the United States, which marked the beginning of opposition to the Quezon administration.
|November 18, 1935
||League Sanctions on Italy Begin
||The trade sanctions against Italy imposed by the League Assembly went into effect and included embargoes on arms, credit, and raw materials (not petroleum), as well as a prohibition of imports from Italy. A number of countries issued reservations on these sanctions, which provided a series of loopholes for the Italians. In response, the Italian government ended all economic relations with the sanctioning powers and imposed a system of rigid control on food and fuel to meet the emergency. Despite the economic sanctions, the Italians continued their offensive in Ethiopia. Acute tensions emerged between the Italian and British governments in response to the war in East Africa. During the winter of 1935-1936, the British concluded agreements with France, Greece, Spain, Turkey, and Yugoslavia which provided for mutual support in the event a war erupted as a result of League action. The British collected a large naval force at Malta to control the Mediterranean, but had to withdraw the force to Alexandria due to exposure to potential Italian air attack.
|November 20, 1935
||Pan-African Health Conference
||To promote improved health care standards in Africa, the League of Nations hosted a medical conference in Johannesburg.
|November 24, 1935
||Return of King George II of Greece
||King George II returned from exile in Britain after leaving Greece in 1924 and the establishment of a Greek republic. The British supported the king's return, due to the Ethiopian crisis, but King George was at the mercy of General
|November 25, 1935
||Creation of East Hopei Autonomous Council
||The failure of the Japanese to establish an autonomous North China led the Japanese government to create an East Hopei Autonomous Council to govern Japanese-occupied north China (between T'ungchou, outside Beijing, and the Yellow Sea). The Japanese were able to openly smuggle goods wholesale into China through this autonomous region, including narcotics from the world market. This policy was met by student demonstrations in Beijing against Japanese imperialism.
|December 1, 1935
||Greek General Amnesty
||Upon the restoration of King George II of Greece, the king proclaimed a general amnesty for political prisoners and dissenters.
|December 1, 1935
||Chiang Elected President
||Chiang Kai-shek was elected President of the Chinese Executive Committee.
|December 2, 1935
||London Naval Conference
||In preparation for the upcoming naval disarmament conference, the League of Nations hosted a one-day disarmament conference in London.
|December 9, 1935
||Hoare-Laval Proposals on Abyssinia
||In a last ditch effort to placate Italian demands in Ethiopia, the British Foreign Minister, Sir Samuel Hoare, and the French Premier, Pierre Laval, offered a proposal to the Italians for the partition of Ethiopia. The plan called for the transfer of territory in Ethiopia, which included Adua and Adigrat in northern Ethiopia and a significant portion of eastern Ethiopia, as well as the establishment of a special Italian economic zone, which included most of southern Ethiopia. In return, the Ethiopians would receive a "corridor for camels" (a small sliver of territory to the Red Sea) between Eritrea and French Somaliland. The French and British abandoned these proposals after a huge outcry from the British public and Sir Samuel was forced to resign from office on December 18th.
|December 9-13, 1935
||Canadian Government Conference
||Representatives of federal and provincial governments met and agreed unanimously to amend the Canadian constitution which would allow the dominion to amend its own constitution. The conferees appointed a committee to study the process by which Canada could amend the North America Act of 1867 without recourse to the British Parliament in Westminster.
|December 9, 1935-March 25, 1936
||London Naval Conference
||The major powers (Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States) made one last attempt to reduce naval armaments by attending a League of Nations conference in London. The French, Italians, and Japanese left the conference without agreeing to any naval reductions, while the treaty which resulted from the talks remained vague and full of loop holes.
|December 12, 1935
||Restoration of Constitution of 1923 in Egypt
||In response to Nationalist demands in Egypt, the government restored the Constitution of 1923. The Wafd Party planned to regain control of the government and reduce British influence in their country.
|December 13, 1935
||Resignation of Masaryk
||At the age of 85, the father of Czechoslovakia, Thomas G. Masaryk, resigned as president and was succeeded by his close friend and Foreign Minister, Eduard Benes. Former President Masaryk died on September 14, 1937.
|December 18, 1935
||Establishment of Hopei-Chahar Political Council
||A Hopei-Chahar Political Council was set up in Beijing under Chinese General Sung Che-yuan. General Sung paid lip service to the Japanese but did not make any vital concessions to demands from Tokyo.
|December 18, 1935
||Resignation of Hoare
||Sir Samuel Hoare resigned as the British Foreign Secretary. He was replaced five days later by Anthony Eden. After the failure of the Hoare-Laval Plan, the British government caved in to British public opinion. Under the leadership of British Foreign Minister, Anthony Eden, Britain assumed a guiding role in the League of Nation's imposition of sanctions against Italy. The result was a real danger of war in the Mediterranean. The French, Greek, Turkish, and Yugoslav governments all agreed to support the British in the event of war with Italy. In the end, the British government pulled back from extreme measures (oil sanctions) and the League embargo failed. Uncertainty regarding Germany's involvement in the crisis influenced the British government's decision, coupled with British military
|December 27, 1935
||Uruguay Severs Relations with Soviet Union
||The Uruguayan government severed diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.
|December 28, 1935
||French Government Dissolution of Political Leagues
||In an attempt to counteract radical political movements, the French government dissolved "political leagues." In response, most of these political factions reemerged as political parties.