|January 1, 1945
||France Admitted into the United Nations
||The French government officially joined in full partnership in the United Nations, three years after the French Committee on National Liberation agreed to participate in the international organization.
|January 6, 1945
||Turkish Severance of Relations with Japan
||The Turkish government broke off diplomatic relations with the empire of Japan.
|January 8, 1945
||Prime Minister Ahmed Pasha won the general elections, which had been boycotted by the
|January 9-July 5, 1945
||End of the Allied Philippine Offensive
||On January 9th, American forces landed at Lingayen Gulf, marking the beginning of the conquest of Luzon. American troops finally regained control of Manila, after heavy fighting, between February 5th and 23rd. The Americans seized control of most of the Philippine Islands, with the exception of Palawan, by July 5th.
|January 11, 1945
||End of the Greek Civil War
||The Leftist opposition in Greece ended their rebellion against the Greek government, which was supported by British troops. The six-week civil war resulted in $200 million in damage in Athens alone and 2,000 British casualties.
|January 12-March 30, 1945
||Soviet Polish Offensive
||The Red Army launched a general offensive in Poland, beginning on January 20th. The Soviets captured Warsaw on January 17th; Lodz, Tarnow, and Cracow on January 19th; and forced the Germans to abandon the Vistula Defense Line. The Red Army reached the Oder River on January 23rd. By February 20th, Soviet armored divisions were within 30 miles of Berlin, leading an army of 215 divisions. The Soviets captured Danzig and Kuestrin by the end of March and prepared for the final battle against the German capital.
|January 20, 1945
||After a dogged defense of Budapest, the provisional Hungarian government, under General Miklos, concluded an armistice with the United Nations. Hungarian forces then supported the war against Germany.
|January 28, 1945
||Reopening of the Burma Road
||The first Allied truck convoy, carrying supplies to the Nationalist Chinese, resumed operations over the Ledo Road (renamed the Stilwell Road) across Burma. The Allies could again supply the Chinese from bases in India.
|January 30-February 3, 1945
||President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met on the island of Malta to plan the final campaign against the Germans with the Combined Chiefs of Staff. Both leaders agreed on the undesirability of the Red Army advancing into central Europe.
|February 7-12, 1945
||President Franklin Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Premier Josef Stalin met in Yalta, on the Crimea peninsula, to discuss post-war planning and the most of the terms of the meeting remained secret until well after the end of the war. In return for declaring war against Japan, the Soviets would receive the southern half of Sakhalin Island, the Kurile Islands, and an occupation zone in Korea. In addition, the Soviets gained privileged rights in Manchuria and in the Chinese cities of Lushun (Port Arthur) and Dalian (Darien). The Americans and British agreed to recognize the independence of Outer Mongolia, which had come under Soviet influence. The Big Three issued an announcement on February 12th, declaring their concerted plan for the final surrender of Germany and for the post-war occupation, control, and collection of reparations from the defeated nation. Regarding Poland, the Allies redrew the borders of Poland, limiting the country's eastern frontier to the Curzon Line of 1919 and ceding the provinces in the east to the Soviet Union. In compensation, Poland's western borders were extended to the Oder-Niesse Line in eastern Germany, pending a final peace settlement. The three allies also declared their joint efforts to assist the liberated countries of Europe and to support the formation of a general international organization designed to maintain peace and security. This included Soviet support for the Declaration of Liberated Europe, which required the Big Three to support post-war governments which represented the popular will through free elections. The three leaders announced that they had worked out a plan for the voting procedure in the Security Council and endorsed the United Nations Conference, scheduled to begin on April 25th in San Francisco. A secret compromise was reached whereby the Ukraine and Byelorussia received seats in the General Assembly on the same footing as independent nations.
|February 8-May 3, 1945
||Anglo-American German Offensive
||British and Canadian forces opened a general offensive against the Netherlands on February 8th, southeast of Nijmegen, while American forces crossed the German frontier at ten points. The U.S. Third Army crossed the Saar River on February 22nd and the Saar-Pfalz region was cleared of German troops by March 25th. American forces drove east, entering the Ruhr Valley on February 23rd and captured Trier (March 2nd) and Cologne (March 5th). U.S. troops reached the Rhein on March 2nd and the U.S. First Army crossed the river at Remagen on March 7th, before the Germans had a chance to destroy the bridge. With a bridgehead in Germany proper, the Allies crossed the Rhein by water and air between Rees and Wesel. As a result, the German defense system on the east bank of the Rhein collapsed. Allied forces drove across Germany and enveloped the Ruhr between March 24th and April 18th. On March 27th, the Allies seized Mannheim and Frankfurt-am-Main. German defenses in the west collapsed and the U.S. Ninth Army reached the Oder River on April 11th. The Americans captured Nuremberg on April 21st and Munich on April 29th, while British forces gained Bremen on April 26th and Hamburg on May 3rd.
|February 12, 1945
||London Poles Protest of Soviet Deportations
||The Polish government-in-exile protested against Soviet arrests, deportation, and transfer of the Polish population across Poland.
|February 19-March 17, 1945
||U.S. Invasion of Iwo Jima
||The Japanese mounted a stubborn defense of the island of Iwo Jima, 750 miles south of Tokyo. After bitter fighting, the U.S. Marines captured Mount Suribachi on February 23rd, although Japanese resistance lasted another three weeks.
|February 21-March 8, 1945
||Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and Peace
||Delegates of the Inter-American Conference in Chapultepec, near Mexico City, adopted a proposal which called for the annual meeting of the foreign ministers of all of the American republics to harmonize policies in the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. government introduced an "economic charter for the Americas" to promote an orderly reconversion from wartime to peacetime economies and to help raise living standards in the Americas. The Roosevelt administration also guaranteed to aid any American state during the war if its political independence or territorial integrity were threatened by attack by a neighbor.
|February 23, 1945
||Turkish War Declaration against Germany and Japan
||The Turkish government declared war against Germany and Japan and joined the ranks of the United Nations.
|February 24, 1945
||Egyptian War Declaration against the Axis
||Prime Minister Ahmed Pasha announced that Egypt had declared war against Germany and Japan and was assassinated later that day. He was succeeded by Nokrashy Pasha as the new prime minister. The parliament approved the declaration of war on February 26th.
|February 26, 1945
||Syria Admitted to the United Nations
||The Syrian government joined the United Nations.
|March 2, 1945
||New Romanian Government
||After several months of occupation by the Red Army, a viable government was finally established in Romania. The Communist-controlled National Democratic Front, combined with Soviet support, applied constant pressure on the provisional government. On March 2nd, King Michael asked Petru Groza, the leader of the leftist Plowman's Front, to form a new government. The Plowman's Front was based primarily on members of the National Democratic Front and the new government immediately demonstrated pro-Soviet, Communist leanings. The American and British governments demanded that the new Romanian government include members of the opposition parties.
|March 3, 1945
||Finnish War Declaration against Germany
||The Finnish government, having signed an armistice with the Soviet Union, declared war against Germany.
|March 3, 1945
||Act of Chapultepec
||Nineteen delegates of the Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and Peace approved the Act of Chapultepec, which called for joint action to guarantee each American republic from aggression. The American states agreed to act collectively in their own defense until the World Security Council took effective action to deal with acts of aggression.
|March 3-22, 1945
||Arab League Conference
||Delegates at the Arab League Conference, meeting in Cairo, drafted a constitution, which the representatives adopted at the plenary session on March 17th. The Pact of Union of Arab States was published on March 22nd.
|March 19, 1945
||Soviet Denunciation of the Non-Aggression Pact with Turkey
||The Soviet government renounced the Soviet-Turkish Non-Aggression Pact of 1925. In response, the Turkish government rejected Soviet demands for territorial concessions and a revision of the Montreux Convention by the Black Sea powers.
|March 21, 1945
||Destruction of Japanese Fleet
||U.S. carrier aircraft attacked Japanese Home Island waters and targeted the principle units of the Japanese fleet. The Imperial Navy lost 15 warships and 475 aircraft in this airborne assault.
|March 22, 1945
||Restoration of Spanish Monarchy
||Don Juan, the Bourbon claimant to the Spanish throne, called for the resignation of General Francisco Franco and the restoration of the Spanish kingdom.
|March 27, 1945
||Argentinean War Declaration on Axis Powers
||The Argentinean government declared war on Germany and Japan, which marked the first step towards reconciliation with the Allied powers.
|April 1-June 21, 1945
||Battle of Okinawa
||The U.S. Tenth Army landed on the island of Okinawa, the main island of the Ryukyus. The Japanese mounted a desperate defense, employing suicide Kamakaze aircraft attacks against Allied warships. In an attempt to destroy the invasion force, the Japanese navy made their last major sortie, which resulted in the loss of a battleship, two cruisers, and three destroyers. Fighting on the island did not end until June 21st, but the island was a strategic asset for the Americans since they offered airbases only 325 miles from the Japanese Home Islands.
|April 3, 1945
||Czechoslovak National Front Government
||President Eduard Benes established a National Front Government, appointing Zdenek Fierlinger as prime minister.
|April 4, 1945
||Argentine Admission to Pan-American Union
||The Pan-American Union admitted Argentina to membership in the organization, after the Argentinean government declared war against the Axis powers.
|April 5, 1945
||Soviet Denunciation of the Non-Aggression Pact with Japan
||The Soviet government denounced its five-year Non-Aggression Pact with the Japanese empire. Under the terms of the agreement, which was set to end on April 13, 1946, either nation could denounce the treaty one year before its expiration.
|April 9, 1945
||Allied Recognition of Argentinean Government
||The U.S., British, and French governments extended full diplomatic recognition of the Argentinean government, which had proven to be sympathetic to the Germans during the Second World War.
|April 12, 1945
||Death of Roosevelt
||President Franklin Roosevelt died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage in Warm Springs, Georgia and was succeeded by Vice President Harry S Truman.
|April 13-May 2, 1945
||Battle of Berlin
||The Red Army launched the final offensive against Germany, mounting an attack on Berlin on April 13th. Fighting from house to house, Soviet troops entered the city on April 20th. American and Soviet forces met at Torgau on April 25th, cutting Germany in half. The Soviets shelled the German capital and fought their way into the city. On May 1st, German radio announced the death of Chancellor Adolf Hitler in the Reichschancellery and that Admiral Karl Doenitz had succeeded him. German forces in Berlin surrendered to the Soviets on May 2nd.
|April 20-May 4, 1945
||Allied Spring Offensive in Italy
||Allied forces penetrated the German Winter Line in northern Italy, routing the Axis forces and seizing the Po Valley. Allied forces captured Turin, Bologna, Verona, Milan (on April 26th), Venice (on April 29th), Trieste (on May 2nd), and linked up with American forces at the Brenner Pass on May 4th.
|April 21, 1945
||Soviet-Polish Provisional Government Treaty of Mutual Assistance
||The Soviet government and the Polish Provisional Government signed a 20-year Treaty of Mutual Assistance and Cooperation. Soviet attempts to obtain seats for representatives of the Polish Provisional Government at the United Nations Conference in San Francisco proved unsuccessful.
|April 25-June 26, 1945
||United Nations Conference on International Organization/San Francisco Conference
||Delegates of 50 nations met in San Francisco to complete the Charter of the United Nations Organization. Tensions emerged between the U.S. and Soviet Union over the veto process in the Security Council. The Soviet representatives interpreted the Yalta agreement to allow a permanent member to use its veto power to forbid the Security Council from even discussing an issue. To break the deadlock, President Truman requested that Premier Josef Stalin intercede and the Soviet leader agreed that the veto should not be used to prevent discussion. Based on this compromise, U.S. Secretary of State Edward Stettinius submitted a preliminary draft to the Conference on June 22nd, which called for the creation of several new organizations: a General Assembly, as the major policy-making organ; an eleven member Security Council, to supervise military and political problems (this organization consisted of five permanent members with veto power and six members who served for two years); an 18 member Economic and Social Council, to address economic and social conflicts, human welfare, and fundamental rights and freedom problems; an International Court of Justice of 15 justices, set up in The Hague, for the adjudication of international disputes; and a Trusteeship Council, made up of states administering trusteeships, including the permanent members of the Security Council and members elected by the General Assembly for three year terms. A General Secretariat, directed by a Secretary General, would handle the administrative work of the UNO. The participating nations unanimously approved the Charter on June 25th and signed the document the next day.
|April 28, 1945
||Execution of Mussolini
||While attempting to escape to Switzerland, Premier Benito Mussolini was captured by Italian anti-Fascist forces and was summarily executed in Dongo, on Lake Como. Premier Mussolini's execution marked the end of the Fascist Republican Party, which maintained ties with the Germans during the war.
|April 28, 1945
||Austrian Occupation Government Established
||Allied occupation forces set up a provisional occupation government in Austria as the first step towards reestablishing the Austrian republic. Socialist Karl Renner became the new Chancellor of the provisional government.
|April 29-May 1, 1945
||Surrender of German Forces in Italy
||The collapse of the Winter Line forced German forces in northern Italy to surrender unconditionally to the Allies.
|April 30-May 5, 1945
||British Southeast Asian Offensive
||The Fourteenth British Imperial Army, under the command of Admiral Lord Mountbatten, with the support of American and Chinese forces, completed the destruction of the Japanese 15th, 28th, and 33rd Armies. The British captured Rangoon on May 3rd. This offensive allowed the British to regain northern Burma and threaten French Indo-China.
|May 1, 1945
||Death of Hitler
||As the Red Army battled to gain control of Berlin, the German press reported that Chancellor Adolf Hitler was dead, after committing suicide. Admiral Karl Doenitz emerged as the new German leader and immediately began surrender negotiations with the Allied powers.
|May 3, 1945
||Irish Condolences to Germany
||Irish Prime Minister De Valera expressed official condolences to the German minister in Dublin upon learning of the death of Chancellor Adolf Hitler.
|May 3, 1945
||Return of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
||Queen Wilhelmina returned to the Netherlands after four years in exile in Britain.
|May 3, 1945
||Portuguese Official Mourning for Germany
||The Portuguese government ordered officials flags to fly at half-mast in memorial for the death of German Chancellor Adolf Hitler. The collapse of the Axis, however, led the Portuguese to demand greater political freedom.
|May 4, 1945
||Surrender of German Forces in the Netherlands and Denmark
||With the collapse of defenses across Germany, Wehrmacht forces in northwestern Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark surrendered to the Allies.
|May 6, 1945
||Portuguese Severance of Relations with Germany
||The Portuguese government severed diplomatic relations with the German government.
|May 7, 1945
||Spanish Severance of Relations with Germany
||The Spanish government severed diplomatic relations with the German government.
|May 7, 1945
||Unconditional Surrender of Germany
||The German government, under Admiral Karl Doenitz, accepted the Allied surrender terms unconditionally. Field Marshal Jodl, leading a group of German military leaders, signed the instrument of unconditional surrender in
|May 8, 1945
||Proclamation of V-E Day
||President Harry Truman and Prime Minister Winston Churchill proclaimed the end of the war in Europe. V-E Day marked the Victory in Europe.
|May 8, 1945
||Algerian Nationalist Clashes
||Algerian Nationalists and French forces clashed in Algeria, resulting in the death of 88 Frenchmen and over 1,000 Algerians. Algerian Nationalists published a manifesto prior to the rioting, demanding the establishment of an autonomous Algeria, federated with France.
|May 9, 1945
||Formal Ratification of German Surrender
||Representatives of the Allied powers and German army chiefs ratified the official surrender in Berlin. Marshal Josef Stalin announced the end of the war to the Russian people.
|May 9-23, 1945
||Disarmament of the German Army
||The Allies supervised the disarmament of the German army, transmitting orders through the provisional German government led by Admiral Karl Doenitz. After two weeks, the Allies disbanded this provisional government. The Allies then placed Admiral Doenitz, several colleagues, and members of the German High Command and the General Staff under arrest in preparation for an International War Crime Tribunal.
|May 10, 1945
||New Czechoslovak Government
||President Eduard Benes and the National Front Government set up operations in Prague. In a sweeping political purge, the new government arrested, tried, and executed a number of collaborators. Ex-President Emil Hacha died in prison while Konrad Henlein committed suicide.
|May 12, 1945
||Trieste Occupation Controversy
||Italian Premier Ivanoe Bonomi called on the Allied governments to send troops to occupy Trieste. The British and U.S. governments warned Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia that Trieste had to remain under Allied control.
|May 12, 1945
||Spanish Requiem Mass for Germany
||A number of Spanish Nationalist officials participated in a requiem mass for Chancellor Adolf Hitler. The Spanish government gave refuge to a large number of Germans in spite of Allied demands for their repatriation.
|May 14, 1945
||Reestablishment of the Austrian Republic
||The American, British, and French governments treated Austria like a liberated, rather than a defeated nation. The Western Allies worked to speed up Austria's recovery. On the other hand, the Soviets demanded reparations from the Austrians in the form of livestock and industrial equipment, which hampered Austrian economic reconstruction. On May 14th, the Allies recognized the reestablishment of the Democratic Republic of Austria.
|May 17, 1945
||Dominion Status for Burma
||A British White Paper outlined dominion status for Burma after the end of World War II.
|May 18, 1945
||French Occupation Zones in Germany
||President Harry Truman informed the French ambassador that the United States would relinquish part of the American Zone of Occupation in Germany to French control. The French would occupy the Saarland, Rheinland-Pfalz, Baden, and Wuerttemberg under the U.S. plan.
|May 20, 1945
||U.S. Withdrawal from Trieste
||The U.S. withdrew its military forces in Trieste. In response, Marshal Tito agreed to evacuate Yugoslav forces from
|May 21, 1945
||Lebanese and Syrian Severance of Relations with France
||The Lebanese and Syrian governments broke diplomatic relations with France after the French sent troops into both countries without prior consent. The French troops remained confined in their barracks due to widespread rioting and resistance in both countries.
|May 29, 1945
||French Shelling of Damascus
||In an attempt to regain control of Syria, the French army of occupation bombarded Damascus.
|May 30, 1945
||Iranian Request for Withdrawal of Allied Occupation Forces
||The Iranian government called on the American, British, and Soviet governments to withdraw their military occupation forces from Iran in response to the end of the fighting in the European theater.
|May 31, 1945
||British Demand for Cease Fire in Syria and Lebanon
||Prime Minister Winston Churchill demanded that General Charles De Gaulle order the French army of occupation to cease fire and end the fighting in Syria and Lebanon.
|June 1, 1945
||Continued Fighting in Damascus
||The French army of occupation continued to battle for control of Damascus as General Charles De Gaulle accused the British government of interference in French affairs. In response, the British declared that the French were using Lend-Lease equipment to fight the Syrians and Lebanese in violation of the terms of the American agreement. The French government denied the charge on June 2nd.
|June 4, 1945
||Northern Irish Elections
||Voters in Northern Ireland voted in favor of continued rule from Britain and Irish partition.
|June 5, 1945
||Establishment of the European Advisory Commission for Germany
||The European Advisory Commission assumed full control over Germany. Members included General Dwight Eisenhower for the U.S., Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery for Britain, and Marshal Gregory Zhukov for the Soviet Union. The commission delimited German territory, as of December 31, 1937, into four zones of occupation under American, British, French, and Soviet military administration for Germany proper and for Berlin.
|June 9, 1945
||Occupation of Venezia Giulia
||The U.S. Department of State announced that the territory of Venezia Giulia, which included the port of Trieste, would be placed under a temporary military administration composed of American, British, and Yugoslav forces.
|June 12, 1945
||Establishment of a Polish Government
||The U.S., British, and Soviet governments announced the establishment of a tri-partite commission to organize a new Polish government to govern post-war Poland.
|June 19, 1945
||United Nations Membership
||American, British, Chinese, French, and Russian representatives, meeting in San Francisco, decided that nations which had sided with the Axis during World War II would not be admitted to the United Nations until the UN Council invited them to become members. This decision precluded Spanish participation in the United Nations.
|June 28, 1945
||Polish Government of National Unity
||During World War II, two rival governments emerged with claims to rule Poland. The Polish government-in-exile represented the pre-war Polish government and established operations in London after the Germans overran the country in September 1939. The Soviet-sponsored Provisional Government arose after the German invasion of Russia in June 1941 and established its authority in Lublin after the Red Army invaded Poland in 1944. After lengthy negotiations between the Allies, the Poles formed a Government of National Unity under Premier Osobka-Morawski, a Socialist of the Lublin government. The new government also included five members from the Polish government-in-exile. The Western Allies recognized the new government, even though the new regime was clearly pro-Soviet.
|June 29, 1945
||Czechoslovak Cession of Ruthenia to USSR
||The Czechoslovak government ceded Ruthenia to the Soviet Union.
|June 29, 1945
||Deadlock in New Indian Government
||The All-India Congress failed to agree on a common list of ministers for the new Indian government. This marked a continuation of the deadlock between Muslim and Hindu leaders.
|July 1, 1945
||Byrnes Appointed U.S. Secretary of State
||President Harry Truman appointed James F. Byrnes as the new Secretary of State, replacing Edward R.
|July 3, 1945
||Allied Occupation of Berlin
||The Allied governments agreed to a three-way division of occupation of Berlin by American, British, and Soviet forces. This new plan replaced the sole occupation powers of the Red Army which had been established for two months.
|July 10-19, 1945
||Allied Attack on Japanese Home Islands
||The Allies mounted an air and naval attack on the Japanese Home Islands. Over 1,000 U.S. carrier planes attacked Tokyo on July 10th, and the U.S. fleet shelled Honshu and Hokkaido on July 14th-15th. The Royal Navy launched carrier raids on Japanese centers on July 17th, and U.S. and British fliers sank the remnants of the Imperial Japanese Navy in Tokyo Bay on July 19th.
|July 16, 1945
||Atomic Bomb Tested
||The U.S. tested the atomic bomb, detonating the weapon at Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16th. The test proved the feasibility of the weapon and the U.S. government took steps to deliver atomic weapons to the U.S. Army Air Force in the Pacific.
|July 17, 1945
||Return of King Leopold of Belgium
||After liberation by Allied forces in 1944, Belgium was ruled as a regency under Prince Charles. King Leopold announced that he planned to return to his throne, which caused a political crisis in Belgium. The Catholics supported his restoration, while the Socialists rejected his return in light of his surrender to the Germans in 1940. The Belgian parliament passed a law on July 17th making Leopold's restoration dependent on parliamentary approval.
|July 17-August 2, 1945
||President Harry Truman, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee (Prime Minister Attlee replaced Mr. Churchill during the conference as a result of the British general elections), and Premier Josef Stalin met in Berlin to confer on plans on the post-war world. The first issue of business was the announcement of the declaration of "unconditional surrender" by the Japanese on July 26th. The three leaders agreed to establish a Council of Foreign Ministers, which would represent the U.S., Britain, China, France, and the USSR, to continue the process of drafting peace settlements. Regarding Germany, the three leaders agreed at Potsdam that Germany was to be disarmed and demilitarized; National Socialists institutions would be dissolved; there would be a trial of war criminals; democratic ideals would be encouraged; resumption of local self-government and democratic political parties; and restoration of freedom of speech, the press, and religion, subject to the requirements of military security. The Allies agreed to a number of economic restrictions, drafted by the Conference for Germany, which included prohibition of the manufacture of war materials and arms; controlled production of metals, chemicals, and machinery essential for war; decentralization of the German cartels, syndicates, and trusts; emphasis on the development of agriculture and peaceful domestic industries; and the control of exports, imports, and scientific research. The process of enforcing these economic restrictions would be worked out later. The delegates made provision for the trail of war criminals, which became the International Military Tribunal. The Allies also agreed that the Germans must compensate the United Nations for their loss and suffering and, in principle, the disposal of the German navy and merchant marine. The Soviets abandoned their demand for $20 billion in reparations from Germany in exchange for a reparations schedule based on a perc
entage of the working capital equipment in the Western Zone and materials in the Eastern Zone. The Allies also set up plans for the mandatory transfer of 6.5 million Germans from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to Germany. Finally, the three leaders called for the rapid completion of peace treaties with Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Italy, and Romania.
|July 20, 1945
||Spanish Government Reorganization
||General Francisco Franco announced a reorganization in the Spanish government, filling several ministerial posts with royalists. General Franco announced that he planned to restore the Spanish monarchy sometime in the future.
|July 21, 1945
||U.S. Senate Approval of FAO Membership
||The United States Senate approved American participation in the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Approval of this treaty indicated strong Senate support for an internationalist post-war U.S. foreign policy.
|July 26, 1945
||Allied Demand for Japanese Surrender
||The American, British, and Chinese governments, on the basis of the Cairo Declaration, demanded that the Japanese government accept surrender terms unconditionally. The Japanese government rejected the ultimatum on July 29th.
|July 26, 1945
||Labour Party Victory in Britain
||The Labour Party won a majority of the seats in Parliament after a national election on July 5th (the ballots were counted three weeks later). Clement R. Atlee became the new prime minister, replacing the coalition war cabinet under Winston Churchill.
|July 28, 1945
||U.S. Senate Approval of UN Charter
||More than two-thirds of the U.S. Senate voted in favor of supporting the United Nations Charter. President Harry Truman signed the document on August 8th.
|August 1, 1945
||U.S. Announces End of Lend-Lease Operations
||President Harry Truman announced that Lend-Lease operations in support of the Allies would cease at the end of the month. The program had cost the United States a total of $48.5 billion. The American decision had serious economic effects on a number of Allied economies which relied heavily on the infusion of U.S. capital due to wartime devastation.
|August 3, 1945
||Expulsion of Germans and Hungarians from Czechoslovakia
||To avoid the Sudeten crisis of 1938, the Czechoslovak government deprived all Germans and Hungarians of Czechoslovak citizenship and eventually expelled these minorities from the republic.
|August 6, 1945
||Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima
||The United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, which marked the advent of the Atomic Age. The single bomb killed 50,000 people, wounded another 50,000, and destroyed four square miles of homes and factories (over half of the city). A team of American and British scientists worked secretly to manufacture atomic weapons at a cost of $2 billion.
|August 8, 1945
||Soviet War Declaration against Japan
||The Soviet government officially declared war against the Japanese empire and Red Army units swept into Manchuria. The Japanese had seriously depleted their forces in Manchukuo in an attempt to bolster their defenses against U.S. and British offensives in other parts of the empire.
|August 8, 1945
||Allied Occupation of Austria
||The Allied Council for Austria completed the division of Austria and Vienna into four occupation zones, under American, British, French, and Soviet military authorities. The Allied Council for Austria also assumed authority over all issues which affected the country.
|August 9, 1945
||Atomic Bombing of Nagasaki
||The U.S. dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, destroying the city and port facilities. This attack convinced the imperial government to respond to the Allied surrender terms.
|August 10, 1945
||Japanese Surrender Terms
||In response to the second atomic bomb attack on Nagasaki, the Japanese government under Premier Suzuki, offered to surrender on the condition that Emperor Hirohito retain his throne.
|August 13, 1945
||World Zionist Congress
||The World Zionist Congress demanded that the British government open Palestine to one million Jewish immigrants.
|August 14, 1945
||Japanese Acceptance of Surrender Terms
||After receiving Allied confirmation that Emperor Hirohito could retain his throne, the Japanese government announced that they had accepted the Allies surrender terms.
|August 14, 1945
||Nationalist Chinese-Soviet Treaty of Alliance
||T.V. Soong, Premier of the Nationalist Chinese government, signed a Treaty of Friendship and Alliance with the Soviet government. In exchange for Soviet recognition of the Nationalist Chinese government, the Nationalist Chinese agreed to the independence of Outer Mongolia, gave the Soviets joint 30-year ownership of the Manchurian Railway and the port of Dalian (Darien), and agreed to the conversion of Lushun (Port Arthur) into a Chinese-Soviet naval base. This treaty formalized Nationalist Chinese consent to the Allied concessions granted to the Soviets at the Yalta Conference.
|August 15, 1945
||Proclamation of V-J Day
||President Harry Truman announced the end of the Pacific War with Victory over Japan (V-J) Day.
|August 15, 1945
||Treason Trial of Petain
||The High Court of Justice found Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain guilty of plotting against the French republic and of intelligence with the enemy. The court sentenced the former Vichy France leader to death. His sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment.
|August 17, 1945
||Proclamation of Indonesian Independence
||Indonesian leaders Achmed Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Indonesia from Dutch rule, two days after the Japanese surrender. The Dutch government refused to recognize the new government and took action to regain control of the colony.
|August 17, 1945
||Soviet-Polish Frontier Treaty
||The Soviet and Polish governments signed a treaty which delineated the new borders of Poland. The Poles agreed to cede former territory east of the Curzon Line to the Soviet Union and accepted sovereignty over the former German territory in southern East Prussia and east of the Oder River.
|August 21, 1945
||Termination of Lend-Lease Aid
||The U.S. government officially ended Lend-Lease assistance to the Allies, which would total $50.6 billion after the last programs ended in September 1946.
|August 23, 1945
||Soviet Occupation of Manchuria
||After declaring war on Japan on August 8th, Red Army forces invaded Manchukuo and completed the occupation of Manchuria by August 23rd.
|August 26-October 11, 1945
||Nationalist-Communist Chinese Talks
||With the end of the war against Japan, the Nationalist Chinese and Communist Chinese focused on the future rule of China. The sudden Japanese collapse allowed the Communist Chinese to seize most of the northern provinces. Chiang Kai-Sheik and Mao Zedong began negotiations on August 28th to settle their differences, but the talks proved fruitless. By the end of October, heavy fighting broke out between Nationalist and Communist forces in North China as each side attempted to gain control of Manchuria as Soviet forces evacuated the region.
|August 28-September 2, 1945
||U.S. Occupation of Japan
||American occupation forces landed in the Home Islands, beginning on August 28th, in accordance with the Japanese surrender terms. The U.S. forces occupied strategic Japanese centers and supervised the surrender and disarmament of Japanese military, naval, and air forces. The surrender process proceeded swiftly.
|August 31, 1945
||U.S. Support for Jewish Immigration to Palestine
||President Harry Truman requested that the British government admit 100,000 Jewish displaced persons in Europe into Palestine.
|September 2, 1945
||Formal Japanese Surrender
||Civil and military delegates of the Japanese government signed the formal terms of surrender on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. A U.S. Army of Occupation would rule the Japanese Home Islands, but Emperor Hirohito remained the head of state and Japanese political and police officials maintained their positions. The Americans progressively disbanded the high command and military organizations. U.S. forces occupied island possessions in the Pacific. Korea was placed under American and Soviet occupation, pending the establishment of a democratic Korean government. The Japanese ceded the Kurile Islands and the southern half of Sakhalin to the USSR. Outer Mongolia became part of the Soviet sphere of influence and the Russians shared the facilities and supervision of Lushun (Port Arthur) and the Manchurian railways with China. The Chinese regained sovereignty over Inner Mongolia and Manchuria, as well as the islands of Taiwan (Formosa) and Hainan. The British regained control of Hong Kong.
|September 2, 1945
||Proclamation of Vietnamese Independence
||Nationalist President Ho Chi Minh declared the independence of the Viet Nam Republic from French rule. Although the French were willing to extend limited government to the Vietnamese, they sought to keep Vietnam under French colonial rule. Fighting soon took place between the French and Vietnamese nationalists.
|September 9, 1945
||Surrender of Japanese Forces in China
||Japanese commanders signed capitulation terms in Nanjing (Nanking) to representatives of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. This agreement marked the surrender of one million Japanese troops in China.
|September 10, 1945
||Treason Trial of Quisling
||A Norwegian court tried Vidkun Quisling for treason and found him guilty. He was sentenced to death and executed on October 24th.
|September 11-October 2, 1945
||The Council of Foreign Ministers met for the first time but were unable to reach any agreements on the peace treaties with Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, or Romania. The conference broke up over the issue of Chinese and French participation in the negotiations and revealed a growing rift between the Soviet and Western Allies.
|September 12, 1945
||Surrender of Japanese Forces in Southeast Asia
||The British accepted the formal surrender in Singapore of Japanese forces in Southeast Asia and the Dutch East Indies. Approximately 585,000 Japanese surrendered in this agreement.
|September 13, 1945
||Withdrawal of Allied Forces from Iran
||In response to the Iranian government's demand for the withdrawal of American, British, and Soviet occupation forces, the Allied governments assured the Iranians that Allied forces would complete their evacuation by March 2, 1946.
|September 19, 1945
||British Offer of Indian Autonomy
||The new Labour government in Britain made a proposal to begin negotiations on Indian autonomy based on the plan offered by Sir Stafford Cripps in 1942.
|September 20-23, 1945
||All-India Congress Meeting
||The All-India Congress met in Bombay, under the leadership of Mohandas K. Gandhi and Pandit Jawarharlal Nehru, to consider the British government's offer of India autonomy. The delegates called the plan unsatisfactory and demanded the British to "quit India."
|September 23, 1945
||Egyptian Revision of Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936
||The Egyptian government demanded that Britain revise the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The Egyptians called for an end of the British military occupation of Egypt and the transfer of Sudan to full Egyptian control.
|September 29-October 3, 1945
||Arrival of Anglo-Dutch Forces in the East Indies
||British and Dutch forces landed on Batavia to disarm Japanese forces in the East Indies and repatriate these troops back to Japan. Fighting soon erupted between the Anglo-Dutch forces and the Indonesian People's Army. The Indonesians mounted a revolution to force the Dutch to evacuate the archipelago.
||Final Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice
||The Permanent Court of International Justice held its final session, meeting in the Hague. During the San Francisco Conference in June, the United Nations delegates decided to establish a new Court of International Justice as one of the principle organs of the new United Nations Organization. On January 31, 1946, the judges of the Permanent Court of International Justice resigned, ending the PCIJ's operations.
|October 9, 1945
||Treason Trial of Laval
||A French court sentenced Pierre Laval, the Vice Premier of Vichy France, to death for collaborating with the Germans during World War II. He was executed on October 15th.
|October 11, 1945
||New International Administration in Tangier
||The U.S., British, and Soviet governments set up a new international administration to govern Tangier.
|October 12, 1945
||Dutch Offer of Commonwealth Status to Indonesians
||The Dutch government offered to negotiate with Indonesian nationalists who were willing to agree to self-government for Indonesia under the Dutch crown.
|October 15, 1945
||Extension of British Wartime Emergency Powers
||The House of Commons voted to extend the British government's wartime emergency powers for five years in an effort to recover from the cancellation of Lend-Lease support. The British economy relied heavily on the transfusion of American aid and the British had to maintain austere economic measures to prevent financial collapse.
|October 15-November 5, 1945
||Twenty-Seventh Session of the International Labor Conference
||The International Labor Conference (BIT) held its twenty-seventh session in Paris. With the end of World War II, the BIT moved its base of operations back to Geneva from Montreal. During the session, the delegates addressed a recommendation on the standards of social policy in dependent territories. With the demise of the League of Nations, the BIT established a working relationship with the United Nations Organization.
|October 20, 1945
||Arab Warning on Jewish Immigration into Palestine
||The Egyptian, Iraqi, Lebanese, and Syrian governments warned the Truman administration that the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine would lead to war in the region.
|October 24, 1945
||Opening of the United Nations
||The United Nations was officially established after 29 nations ratified the United Nations Charter. The members agreed that the United Nations Organization would be set up in the United States.
|November 1-16, 1945
||The United Nations Educational and Cultural Conference met in London and adopted a constitution for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
|November 3, 1945
||The Hungarians held general elections which resulted in an absolute majority for the anti-Communist Smallholders' Party, led by Zoltan Tildy. Prime Minister Tildy formed a coalition government but had to deal with an economic crisis, due to wartime destruction, serious food shortages, rampant inflation, and Soviet requisitions.
|November 10, 1945
||Recognition of Albanian Government
||The Soviet Union and the Western Allies recognized the Communist-dominated government of Premier Enver Hoxha. The Albanian government held elections on December 2nd, which returned a single list of official candidates.
|November 11, 1945
||Yugoslav Constituent Elections
||Yugoslav voters gave a substantial majority to Marshal Tito's Communist-dominated National Front in the country's elections for a Constituent Assembly.
|November 13, 1945
||De Gaulle Elected French President
||General Charles De Gaulle was unanimously elected the President of the French Provisional Government by the Constituent Assembly.
|November 13, 1945
||New Indonesian Government
||Soetan Sjahrir, a Socialist, became the premier of the Indonesian republic, while Achmed Soekarno became the president.
|November 18, 1945
||Revolt in Iranian Azerbaijan
||The Tudeh Party, a Communist dominated organization, fomented a rebellion in the Iranian province of Azerbaijan. When the Iranian government attempted to intervene against the rebels, Soviet military forces in the region supported the uprising and Red Army troops refused to evacuate Iranian territory.
|November 18, 1945
||The Bulgarians conducted their first post-war general election and rendered overwhelming support to the single list of the Fatherland Front. The Fatherland Front was a wartime coalition of the major political parties, but was now controlled by the Communists.
|November 20, 1945-October 1, 1946
||International Military Tribunal/Nuremberg Trials
||Acting under a charter negotiated in London in August 1945, an Inter-Allied Tribunal opened a war crimes trial in Nuremberg on November 20th to determine the fate of 24 major National Socialist leaders. Twelve were sentenced to hang, six received jail sentences, three were acquitted, and three escaped trial. In addition, thousands of lesser National Socialist officials were removed from office and held for trial. The U.S. conducted a series of twelve trials and convicted over 500,000 former National Socialists of war crimes resulting in prison sentences, fines, and property confiscation.
|November 20, 1945
||Transfer of German Minorities from Eastern Europe
||The Allied Control Council approved the transfer of 6.65 million Germans from Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and the German regions east of the Oder-Niesse Line, which had been transferred to Poland at the Potsdam Conference, pending a final peace settlement. Through the expulsion of the German minorities, these East European countries hoped to avoid future German claims to their territories.
|November 29, 1945
||Establishment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
||The Constituent Assembly proclaimed the establishment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, rejecting the pre-war monarchy.
|December 2, 1945
||With increased demands for a more liberal government, President Getulio Vargas resigned on October 25th, after fifteen years as dictator. In national elections on December 2nd, General Enrico Dutra, leader of the Social Democratic Party, became the new president. The new government pledged continued cooperation with the United States and the elimination of totalitarianism at home.
|December 4, 1945
||U.S. Senate Approval of UN Membership
||In a clear rejection of post-World War I isolationism, the Senate approved U.S. participation in the United Nations, which marked the last step in full American participation in the UNO.
|December 6, 1945
||U.S. Loan to Britain
||In an effort to revitalize the failing British economy, the U.S. government granted a loan of $3.75 billion to the British government. The Canadian government subsequently provided a loan of $1.25 billion to the British as well. By the end of 1947, the British had exhausted both of these loans due to high prices on the American market.
|December 12, 1945
||East African High Commission
||The British government announced the establishment of an East African High Commission, composed of the governors of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanganyika. The new commission began operations on January 1, 1948.
|December 13, 1945
||French Evacuation from Syria
||Under a Anglo-French agreement with the Syrian government, the British and French governments agreed to evacuate their military forces from Syria. The evacuation was completed by April 15, 1946.
|December 14, 1945
||Marshall Mission to China
||The Truman administration intervened in the Chinese Civil War by dispatching General George Marshall to negotiate a truce between the Nationalist and Communist Chinese.
|December 16-26, 1945
||The Council of Foreign Ministers met for the second time in Moscow to consider the international control of nuclear energy, a new four-power control commission for Japan, a trusteeship for Korea, and the drafting of European peace treaties by a five-power conference. This conference would submit the peace plans to the 21 Allied nations for consideration.
|December 27, 1945
||Indian Legislative Elections
||Indian voters in the Central Legislative Assembly elections gave the largest numbers of seats in the body to the All-India Congress and the Moslem League.
|December 27, 1945
||Allied Occupation of Korea
||Under the terms of the Moscow Conference, between the U.S., Britain, and the Soviet Union, the three allies and China would form a provisional Korean democratic government under a five-year trusteeship. Attempts by a Joint Russo-American Commission to implement this agreement failed because the Soviets and Americans could not define democracy. As a result, Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel, with the U.S. occupying the agricultural southern part of the country and the Soviets controlling the industrial northern part. Each occupying power installed Korean advisors in local government positions, with the U.S. appointing conservative elements and the Soviets recruiting pro-Communist advisors.