Secretary General of the League of Nations Sir Eric Drummond








League of Nations Photo Archive Toolbar: Technical

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This page contains basic technical information regarding how this digital collection and web site were created.  In June of 2000, Jian Liu, Kris Bell, and Robert Goehlert went to the League of Nations Archives for two weeks to start a digital library project relating to the League of Nations Photo Collection.  In May 2001, they took a laptop computer, scanner, and CD's to Geneva and worked at the League of Nations Archive to scan the photos. In June 2001, Jian Liu, Sarah Hammill, and Robert Goehlert returned to Geneva to finish scanning the photo collection.

All black and white photographs were scanned in Windows 95 using the Epson Expression 1600 scanner, with Adobe Photoshop 5.5 and SilverFast Ai (Version: SilverFast Epson v4.5.0 with IT_8 calibration, by LaserSoft Imaging).

The basic settings under the "Options" button in SilverFast were as follows:

"General" tab__Colourmodel = RGB
Units of Measure = inch
Densitometer Radius = 3 Pixel
Default Setting = SilverFast Defaults
Gamma Gradation = 2.20
Q_Factor = 1.0
Reopen SF after scan = [not checked]
"Auto" tab__Auto Threshold Highlight = 2
Auto Threshold Shadow = 0
Highlight Offset = 3
Shadow Offset = 97
Autopip Middlefactor = [button not activated]
"CMS" tab__Scanner_> Internal = Calibration
Internal_> Monitor = Automatic
Internal_>Output = RGB
Plug & Play CMYK = Sep Euro UCR340.ast
"Special" tab__Colour Filter = White
Prescan Monochrome = [not checked]

The settings for the three main tabs in SilverFast were as follows:

"General" tab__Scan Mode = Normal
Original = Reflective
Pos/Neg = Positive
Frame_Set = Save
"Frame" tab__Scan_Type = 12 Bit Grayscale
Filter = None
Setting = Save
Image_Type = Standard
Original = in inches [varies with size of object]
Output = in inches [varies with size of object but will match Original]
Scale% = 100 [and] 100
Q_Factor = [varies with object]
Screen = in lpcm [varies with object]
MByte = [varies with object]
Name = untitled frame
Dpi = [varies with object: See Resolution Schedule]
"Densitometer" tab__Use CM

Once the computer was through scanning the image appeared in Photoshop. Most adjustments were made in SilverFast to avoid losing image information while modifying the scan. The image was then saved as a ".tif" file. The information for access photographs was then entered into the spreadsheet. The filenames are based on the index cards for the Photo Collection in the Archives. The files were later copied on to CD_Roms.

Resolution Schedule
The resolution schedule used to decide the DPI of each image applied only to the Epson Expression 1600, SilverFast with Adobe Photoshop 5.5 and Lasersoft SilverFast Ai with IT8 Calibration in Windows 95. It was as follows:

Range (Longest Side Measured) DPI used 2_5" 1200 5_8" 600 8_10" 400

Spreadsheet for Photographs
The spreadsheet for photographs was set up as follows:
Information at the top of the spreadsheet described the scanner and software used__" Epson Expression 1600, SilverFast Ai with IT8 Calibration, Photoshop 5.5 and Windows 95"__and identified the initials of the scanning technicians__"JL=Jian Liu, KB=Kris Bell."

Columns A_K labeled:
Scan Date Filename Software [SilverFast] Text/Description
Folder # [according to League of Nations] Photo # [according to League of Nations] DPI File Size Initials Notes 

Each photograph was entered separately and completely onto the spreadsheet. The Filename, File Size, and DPI turned out to be the most important pieces of information about each item.

Sidebar Photos
The Photographs for Wilson, Einstein, Curie, and Drummond are all taken from "The League of Nations in Pictures" by the Information Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations. Printed in Geneva by A. Kundig, 1927.

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League of Nations Archives, Palais des Nations, CH-1211, Geneva 10, Switzerland
Center for the Study of Global Change, 201 N. Indiana Avenue,  Bloomington, Indiana, 47408-4001,  USA
Last updated:  October, 2002 -  Send Comments to:
Blandine Blukacz-Louisfert, Chief, UNOG Registry, Records and Archives Unit, United Nations