The ICAME CD-ROM is currently available on one PC workstation at LETRS. It can be used by linguists, students and teachers of English as a foreign language, and anyone interested in English grammar and usage. This CD-ROM contains corpora distributed through the International Computer Archive of Modern English (ICAME), which is an organization of linguists and information scientists working with English machine-readable texts (see http://nora.hd.uib.no/corpora.html). Four corpora are included: Brown, Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen (LOB), Kolhapur, and Helsinki.
The CD-ROM contains MS-DOS, Mac and Unix versions of each corpus. However, the Mac and Unix software included is obsolete; thus, this QuickGuide only covers the MS-DOS software, WordCruncher (WC). This is a powerful text analysis program, which can be used for exploring any computerized texts (not only those on LETRS CD-ROMs). On the other hand, the texts contained on the ICAME CD-ROM can be retrieved and searched with the help of other text analysis programs (please ask a LETRS consultant about the options.)
More information about each corpus can be found in its subdirectory in the MS-DOS directory of the CD-ROM. LETRS also has printed manuals for some of the corpora (all except Brown and London-Lund).Return to Table of Contents
Suppose you wish to find out how the comma is used before who and which (in sentences like "I saw my brother, who recently married".) A big advantage of a tagged corpus is that you have a new way to specify a context for a word: i.e., you can search for "who" as a question word or as a relative pronoun. Also, with WC you can search for punctuation marks in any of the ICAME corpora.
Ask a consultant to insert the ICAME CD-ROM in drive E. Then double click on the ICAME icon in the Electronic Texts folder. Select LOBTAG from the BookShelf (in the top left corner of the screen). At the menu that appears, press <Enter> or select 1. Now, you are in the word index. Every word here has an underscore in it; what follows the underscore is a part-of-speech tag. Type in who_wpr, and the list will scroll down to that word. Press <Ins>, and the word will be inserted in your FIRST WORD LIST (you will see it in the bottom half of the screen.) Then add two more words, whom_wpor and which_wdtr, by typing them in and pressing <Ins>. Now, press <F2> to create another word list, which you will later combine with the first one. Type in ,_, (i.e., comma underscore comma), and press <Ins>. Next, press <Enter>. In the top half of the screen you will see a menu with three options, A, B, C. Type those letters to change corresponding options. Option A should read "Both... and ..."; option B "with ... after ...", and option C "and within 15 characters" (you have to enter 15 by hand). Press <Enter> twice. The search will find all the words in your first word list (who, whom, or which), when they occur after a comma (within 15 characters from it).Return to Table of Contents
To start ICAME Corpora with WordCruncher, ask a consultant to insert the CD-ROM in drive E; then double click on the ICAME icon in the Electronic Texts folder.
To cancel any command in WC, press <Escape>.
To select the corpus you need from the BookShelf, scroll to it using the down arrow key, and press <Enter>. In the BookShelf list, HCO, HCM, and HCE stand for the Old, Middle and Early Modern English parts of the Helsinki corpus; HKI represents the complete Helsinki corpus; LLC stands for London-Lund Corpus, and LLC_PRO for London-Lund Corpus with a prosodically marked word list (see more about this below); LOBTAG represents the tagged LOB corpus. At the menu that appears, select WORDS to look up words (you can simply press <Enter> to select it), REFERENCE to go to a specific place in the corpus, or CONCORD to create a concordance or index. This QuickGuide will be concerned with the first option only, since the CONCORD option does not offer any important advantages over the WORDS option and lacks interactivity.
For help with the WORDS environment, press <F9> at any screen.
To view all occurences of a word in context (a REFERENCE LIST), first select the word from the list: scroll to it using the arrow keys, or type it in, and the list will scroll. Every word in the list has next to it the number of times it occurs in the text. To retype a word, first use <Backspace> to back up. In LLC_PRO and LOBTAG, you may have to familiarize yourself with the markup prior to selecting words (see the reference materials for these corpora.) Once you have selected a word, press <Enter>.
To scroll through the Reference List, use arrow keys, <PgUp>, <PgDn>, <Home> and <End>.
To see more context around a word, press <Shift-down arrow>; to see less context, press <Shift-up arrow>.
To see the full text surrounding a reference, highlight it and press <Enter>.
To go to a specific page of references, press the left or right arrow key and enter the page number.
To select a list of references for viewing or saving, first highlight each reference you need using arrow keys, and press <Ins> to insert it in the Selected List. Then press <Shift-Insert> to discard the other references. N.B.: The <Shift-Del>, <Shift-Home> and <Shift-End> key combinations do not function properly.
To deselect all references you have selected, press 4. N.B.: There is no way to deselect an individual reference.
To delete a reference, highlight it using arrow keys, and press <Del>.Return to Table of Contents
WC searching results in the creation of one or more SELECTED LISTS. To view the results in context, press <Enter> once the search is completed.
To search for a group of words, select them from the list one by one by pressing <Ins>, then press <Enter>.
To search for two or more words near one another, type in the first word, press <Space>, <Alt-Space>, <Ctrl-Space>, or <Shift-Space>, type the second word, press the same key combination again, and repeat this for each word you want to add to the combination.
Pressing <Space> results in searching for an exact phrase; <Alt-Space> searches for words within 35 characters from one another, <Shift-Space> searches for them within the same paragraph, and <Ctrl-Space>, within 100 characters. Thus, great job finds this exact phrase only if you press <Space> after each word, but it finds great new job and other similar phrases if you press <Alt-Space> etc.
To search for all of the words in a group near any of the words in another group, first select all of the words in the first group, then press <F2>, select all of the words in the second group, and press <F2> or <Enter>. Next, you will see a menu with three options, A, B, C. Type those letters to change corresponding options. Under option C, PASSAGE means one text excerpt. When option C changes to “within ... characters”, you can enter a number you wish by hand. Next, press <Enter> to combine the lists, and press <Enter> again to view the results in context. This type of search is useful when you want to look up various forms or synonyms of a word. Thus, the first group may include man men boy* and the second, woman women girl*.
To search for all words with the same prefix, type it in, and press the * (asterisk) key near the numeric keypad. E.g., know* finds every word beginning with know. To search for all words with the same suffix, press the * (asterisk) key, type the suffix in, and press . (period). To search for all words with the same substring, do the same thing, but finish by typing another * instead of a period. Thus, *ing. finds words ending in , ing, and *ing* finds words containing ing anywhere in the word. In this type of search (as opposed to prefix search), after you are shown the first word in the list that satisfies your pattern, you have to press the down arrow to go through the rest of the results one by one and press <Ins> on each word you want to select for viewing. To select all of the words automatically, press <Shift-Insert>. This may take 5-10 min. with a large file. To cancel the selection process, press <Space>.Return to Table of Contents
To start printing or saving, press
To determine how much context to print or save, use the menu that will appear if you have selected REPORT. Use arrow keys to select one of the options. With the FIXED WINDOW option, press the left arrow to enter the number of lines by hand.
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