Indiana University Bloomington

Kyojiro Kondo Collection


Location: Hokkaido, Japan
Dates
: c1957
Format: Open reel tape
Accession Numbers: 59-022-F

This collection holds narratives and songs of the Ainu people collected by Kyojiro Kondo (1913-1975). The Ainu are an ethnic group whose population numbers 23,782 (2006) in Japan’s northernmost prefecture, Hoikkaido. The Ainu have been increasingly assimilated by the predominant Japanese population and are regarded by some as an extinct people.

In the mid-20th century, musicologist and linguist, Dr. Kondo worked to preserve and disseminate Ainu folklore. In particular, he tried to popularize Ainu songs. He wrote articles on Ainu songs and contributed to Hokkaido Shimbun, a regional newspaper and these articles, issued in 1959, are documented in the Archives' collection with English translations. In addition, Kondo transcribed Ainu songs in musical notation, created Japanese versions and published records and anthologies of Ainu folk songs. The last song in this collection, which is called “Pirika Pirika,” has become widely known as choral music in Japan in part through his efforts.

Each song or narrative begins with a short introduction by William Anderson Murphy, who worked with Kondo in Hokkaido to study and document Ainu cultural heritage. Several songs in this collection contain prayer or celebrations for gods called kamuy. Ainu cosmology holds that everything in nature has kamuy and their life is blessed with the gods. For example, iyomante is a ceremony for sending bears’ spirits back to heaven. By performing various dances in the ceremony, Ainu express gratitude to the gods.

Such Ainu indigenous culture and customs originated in the 13th Century as the Okhotsk and Satsumon cultures merged on Hokkaido Island. The Ainu started trading with Wajin (dominant residents of mainland Japan) in the southern area of the Island. Consequently, after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the Ainu were oppressed by the Japanese Meiji government which passed an assimilation policy (the Hokkaido Aborigine Protection Act in 1899), labeling Ainu as former aborigines. They were prohibited from conducting daily customs and were colonized by increasing number of Wajin from mainland Japan.

In the late 1970s, an Ainu cultural revival movement developed and as a result, in 1997 Japan abolished the Hokkaido Aborigine Protection Act and replaced it with the Ainu Culture Law in order to preserve, maintain, and revive the Ainu culture. Kondo’s collection represents an early effort to preserve and disseminate the Ainu traditional culture.

Sample: "Pirika Pirika" ("Song of Beauty and Love"). c1957. Unidentified Ainu woman. Hokkaido, Japan.

Collections at the Archives of Traditional Music have inspired scholars to create histories that have remained unwritten or to explore the history behind the creation of the collection itself. Each of these audio documentaries or podcasts have used the collections of the Archives of Traditional Music as a key part of their story. As curated sound, they tell the story of the collections in the Archives and of the people with whom they were originally made.

Gaita musician, San Jacinto, Colombia

Cumbia: The Construction of a Musical Genre in the Mid-twentieth Century. May 2012. Juan Sebastian Rojas explores the history of the Colombian cumbia with generous examples from George List's field research in Colombia's Caribbean coast in the 1960s.

Ola Belle Reed

Ola Belle Reed and Henry Glassie. December 2012. Henry Glassie discusses his friendship and his research with Ola Belle Reed and the New River Boys and Girls in the mid 1960s in Pennsylvania. Produced by Nate Gibson.

Gennett Record label

The Starr Gennett Foundation and the Archives of Traditional Music. December 2012. This podcast produced by Nate Gibson introduces listeners to the impact of Gennett records, and the move of a large collection of Gennett 78 rpm records from the Starr Gennett Foundation to the Archives of Traditional Music.






















In the mid 1960's Henry Glassie became friends with Ola Belle Reed and made field recordings of her performances in Oxford, Pennsylvania, where Reed and the New River Boys and Girls performed at Campbell's Corner and on radio station WCOJ. Glassie discusses this history at length and the podcast includes samples from his field recordings which have recently been deposited at the Archives of Traditional Music. Photographs by Henry Glassie. The podcast runs for 15:39 and you can follow along with the script below.


Ola Belle Reed performing at Campbell's Corner in 1966.  Photo by Henry Glassie.Song: “I’ve Endured” – Ola Belle Reed

Narrator: In January of 1966, folklore graduate student Henry Glassie made the first professional solo recordings of Ola Belle Reed. Glassie would go on to become one of the most celebrated folklorists in the United States, a distinguished professor, and a renowned scholar throughout the world. Reed would go on to become one of the leading lights of the Folk Music Revival and winner of the prestigious National Heritage Fellowship. Glassie’s landmark collection of early Ola Belle Reed recordings were recently deposited in the Archives of Traditional Music, an ethnographic sound archive located at Indiana University in Bloomington. Current graduate student Nathan D. Gibson recently sat down with Professor Glassie to discuss his historic recordings.

Henry Glassie: From the time I was really a tiny child, I would search around the radio dial for country music stations. And what I enjoyed was the contemporary music that I could get on that, but it was always the kind of bluegrass hour that I was mostly looking for. So, when I was a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania, I would continue to do the same thing. One time by sheer accident, and it seems to me that it was very late on a Saturday night, I happened to get a broadcast which was from WCOJ, ‘The Voice of Chester County,’ and it was the New River Boys and Girls.

Recording: “Radio Introduction” - Alex Campbell

At that time I honestly didn’t know anything about that particular band, but nonetheless it was good kind of old-timey bluegrass. And I think I caught it maybe a couple times before I decided that I was gonna go and find this studio, find where the recording was happening because this recording was live. And the first time that I was in the studio, it was in the audience. Let’s say they’d have 30 or 40 people there. And it was in the back of a big country store, real kind of Southern in inflection, it had all Southern food available. And I can’t honestly remember whether it was the very first time I was there I fell into a conversation with Ola Belle, but I kinda think it was. And I think it was because she was a very extraverted person who greatly enjoyed talking to people and had developed for herself a kind of rural philosophy of endurance that she built into songs. She had those kind of songs that talked about a kinda tough life of endurance

Song: “I’ve Endured (alt. take)” – Ola Belle Reed

Born in the mountains 50 years ago.
From the hills and valleys, through the rain and snow

Seen the lightning flashing, heard the thunder roll

I’ve endured, I’ve endured. How long must a man endure?

She had no trouble whatsoever talking to someone she didn’t know and immediately got to philosophical issues that had political ramifications. You would call her a kind of native socialist. And I was maybe not a native socialist, but a learned socialist, and whenever the two of us started talking we got along immediately.

Song: “I’ve Endured (alt. take)” – Ola Belle Reed

Barefoot in the summer, on into the fall
Too many mouths to feed, they couldn’t clothe us all

Went to church on Sunday to learn the golden rule.

I’ve endured, I’ve endured. How long must a man endure?

During the performance, the normal performances, of the New River Boys, she played the 2nd guitar. What they performed were the kind of the standard bluegrass tunes that they would have put on Starday Records. And they played very well. It was good solid bluegrass. Musicianship was very high quality and I enjoyed it greatly. At the same time, when Ola Belle and I talked, certainly because of my interest, but also because of hers, a lot of the conversation went back to older musical forms.

Instrumental Song: “Shortenin’ Bread” – Ola Belle Reed

It didn’t take very long for us in our conversation to bring up old-time music. She then, uh, played the banjo in claw hammer style, but that wasn’t part of the performance on stage. It wasn’t part of the broadcast that they did. It’s just, she knew how to do that. We found ourselves agreeing that we loved the old-time music, which she did, and she had it right at the tip of her mind.

Instrumental Song: “Shortenin’ Bread” – Ola Belle Reed

I did record just a few broadcast sessions live and in the Campbell’s Corners store. But the more that Ola Belle and I talked about the old-time music, the more she was interested in recording that too. And sometimes, when we did that, I would often show up kind of late on an afternoon at Campbell’s Corner, she was working in the store, I mean that was part of her job, she was a manager at this big grocery store. And, uh, we would just go into the back room and there she would be remembering older ballads and songs and a few songs of her own composition were a part of that as well. And so that to some extent what we did when we were, the two of us together, is she was remembering what she thought of as the best of the old songs that she remembered.

Song: “You Led Me to the Wrong” – Ola Belle Reed

Well some people born with silver and gold
Others have husbands and wifes
I never had a thing in this whole wide wicked world
Now I'm losing my life
Now I'm losing my life

Then we would set up whole recording sessions that were very formal and she would invite generally members, Burl Kilby played with her on a number of these I know, played bluegrass banjo with her. And Alex was on some of them. Sonny Miller was on some of them. But they were not… it was never the entire band. It was instead a group that Ola Belle had assembled that she thought would make good accompaniment for her voice. In other words, she was no longer one of the performers in the band, now she was really a solo act.

Song: “You Led Me to the Wrong” – Ola Belle Reed

….You caused me to shoot him down
You caused me to shoot him down

MacEdward Leach retirement announcement. March 1966. When MacEdward Leach, the great ballad scholar, retired as the chairman of the department at the University of Pennsylvania, it just sort of overlapped with my arrival. I took one class with him and that was all because then he retired. But in order to provide himself with something to do in his retirement, he’d actually lobbied through the state legislature of Pennsylvania the position of State Folklorist to Pennsylvania. Then, Leach learned that the job would require him to live in Harrisburg. Harrisburg was not an exciting city when compared to Philadelphia and he decided that he didn’t want that job at all. And I remember that I was in class and he just met me after class and he said, ‘I’ve got a great job for you. You’d be perfect for it. It’s gonna involve fieldwork,’ which is what I love. So, Leach gave me the job to be the State Folklorist of Pennsylvania. My vision of being State Folklorist would be to have been a full time folklore collector, like the Irish Folklore Commission. That was my dream. Instantaneously, I learned that that was hopeless. No government agency was going to pay me to wander around the hills of Pennsylvania and record. For the most part what they wanted was product, and the product was very often in the form of, uh, festivals. So I was tasked very quickly to put on performances. And, so, here I am with the obligation to put on folk festivals. I’ve got to do that. Ola Belle is my friend. Nothing could have been more logical than she would then become a performer in these festivals. That she had always had the, let’s say this, the ability to be a solo performer, performer even if that hadn’t been her normal mode of performance. But very quickly, I was thinking about my friend Ralph Rinzler who had discovered Doc Watson and launched Doc and I just said, ‘Ola Belle, you could be [a solo performer], let’s do this.’

Olla Belle Reed performing with the New River boys and Girls at Campbells Corner in Oxford, Pennsylvania. February 6, 1966. Photo by Henry Glassie

Song: “St. James Infirmary” – Ola Belle Reed

Way down at Big Kidd’s barroom, on a corner beyond the square.
Everybody drinkin liquor, the regular crowd was there.

I passed by the big infirmary, I heard my sweetheart moan,
Gee, it hurts me to see you here, when I know you used to be my own.

I had a small number of people that I had met in Pennsylvania. These obviously had to be Pennsylvania people. Ola Belle at that time was a Pennsylvania person, Campbell’s Corner was in Pennsylvania. And I had met, there was a Pennsylvania Dutch fiddler called Pop Hafler and a great Pennsylvania Dutch story teller called Johnny Brendel. And so I put together a, kind of a little folklore troupe as the State Folklorist of Pennsylvania and I would say without question Ola Belle was the star of it.

Song: “St. James Infirmary” 2nd verse – Ola Belle Reed

She’s gone, she’s gone, God bless her, she’s mine wherever she may be.
She may ramble this wide world over, but she’ll never find a friend like me.

Song: “St. James Infirmary” 2nd verse – Ola Belle Reed

She’s gone, she’s gone, God bless her, she’s mine wherever she may be.
She may ramble this wide world over, but she’ll never find a friend like me.

And so that’s really the moment in which she, that was the environment in which she really took off as a solo performer and then developed a career that expanded from that time onward. She was, I was there in Washington, I mean I went to be with her when she got the National Heritage Fellowship. And that was a wonderful moment for her, for her husband. I mean, I said one time when, I remember it was on the radio and somebody said, ‘You know, are you proud of Ola Belle getting this? It’s a big honor.’ I said, ‘It’s not a big honor. It’s the biggest conceivable honor that she could get. This is the Nobel Prize for banjo pickers.’ I mean, you can’t go higher than that award as a traditional musician.

Song: “I’ve Endured” – Ola Belle Reed

Barefoot in the summer, on into the fall
Too many mouths to feed, they couldn’t clothe us all

Went to church on Sunday, were taught the golden rule.

I’ve endured, I’ve endured. How long must a man endure?

The little story that’s, that’s implicit in these recordings is about Ola Belle Reed. The big story that’s implicit in it is what do you do when those different musical forms come into a kind of fusion of what today is called old-time music, and country music, and the folk song revivial? And I think that story is in Ola Belle.

Song: “I’ve Endured” – Ola Belle Reed

Worked for the rich, and I’ve lived with the poor
Shared many pleasures, had burdens by the score

Lived loved and sorrowed, been to success’s door,

I’ve endured, I’ve endured. How long must a man endure?

Narrator: This segment was produced by Nathan D. Gibson on behalf of the Archives of Traditional Music at Indiana University. More information can be obtained by visiting the archives in Morrison Hall on the Bloomington campus, or by visiting on the web at http://www.indiana.edu/~libarchm


Narrator – Nathan D. Gibson


Tracks Used:

“I’ve Endured” – Tape Two, Track Four

“Radio Introduction” – Tape One, Side B, Track Three

“I’ve Endured” (alt take) – Tape Two, Track Twenty-Two

“St. James Infirmary” – Tape Two, Track Two

“Shortenin’ Bread” – Tape Two, Track Twenty-Four

“You Led Me to the Wrong” – Tape One, Side A, Track Nine

In the small midwestern town of Richmond, Indiana, an incredible diversity of recordings were made by the Starr Gennett company in the first part of the 20th century. Recording the most important artists of the day as well as a host of musicians from a wide spectrum of American vernacular musics, Gennett records left a legacy that is a priceless documentation of American popular and regional musics. This podcast produced by Nate Gibson introduces the history of Gennett records, its impact, and the move of a large collection of Gennett 78 rpm records from the Starr Gennett Foundation to the stewardship of the Archives of Traditional Music. The podcast is 16:23 long and you can follow along with the transcript below.


Music: “Chimes Blues” – King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band (with Louis Armstrong) – Gennett 5135

Narrator: That’s “Chimes Blues,” 1923, from the first recording session of the legendary Louis Armstrong, playing 2nd trumpet with King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band. It’s the sound of New Orleans. It’s also the sound of Chicago in the early ‘20s. And it’s also the sound of Richmond, Indiana. This recording, along with thousands of other important recordings made for the independent Gennett label, comprise some of America’s earliest and most important jazz, blues, old-time, and popular music contributions.

Music: “Chimes Blues” – King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band (with Louis Armstrong) – Gennett 5135

Narrator: The Archives of Traditional Music, a sound archive located on the campus of Indiana University in Bloomington, recently added to its holdings more than 600 recordings produced for Gennett Records of Richmond, Indiana. My name is Betsy Shepard and this segment highlights both the significance and impact of Gennett Records, as well as the recent partnership between the Starr-Gennett Foundation and the Archives of Traditional Music. Former Starr-Gennett Foundation President and acting Treasurer, David Fulton, explains…

David Fulton: Henry Gennett created the Gennett Records company and was president of Starr Piano Company. This company was, I like to refer to it as, one of the first businesses in home entertainment systems. They were originally a piano company back in the 19th century when the entertainment system in anybody’s home was the piano. They didn’t have much else. So people learned how to play the piano. But as technology changed, people realized that you could create a piano that played its own music, that’s the player piano. And then when they developed the phonograph, Gennett started making the casework for phonographs. Well the Gennetts said, ‘Why don’t we just get the machinery to put inside as well?’ And so they began producing the whole package, not just the cabinetry. And, then at one point they decided, again, the home entertainment business, ‘We can actually record our own records here if we got the equipment, and so they acquired the recording equipment and started recording the music. And this was all happening in the 1910s.

Music: “Chimes Blues” – King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band (with Louis Armstrong) – Gennett 5135

Music: ”Julian” – Angel Romero – Gennett 3190

David Fulton: They were not interested in just recording a certain kind of music. They were wanting to record any kind of music that people might be interested in purchasing in the form of a record. And so they would encourage people to come to Richmond to record. They had an outlet in Chicago, and one of the Gennetts, Fred Gennett, was responsible for that operation. He was very interested in the music scene in Chicago and became familiar with the jazz groups that were starting to perform in the ‘20s there. And so, one way or another he was able to get those folks to come down, to take the train and come to Richmond and record here and so that’s where folks like King Oliver and Louis Armstrong made their first recordings. Hoagy Carmichael is another one. He’s an Indiana guy, from Bloomington, and he made his first recordings. He’d come to Richmond and record in the studio and the rest is history.

Gennett Electrobeam label


Music: “Star Dust” – Hoagy Carmichael & His Pals – Gennett 6311

Narrator: Alan Burdette, Director of the Archives of Traditional Music, discusses some of the further connections between Richmond and Bloomington, Indiana…

Alan Burdette: Hoagy is one of several connections between the artists that recorded on Starr-Gennett and other collections we have here at the Archives of Traditional Music. We are the home of the Hoagy Carmichael collection, the largest collection of Hoagy Carmichael material in any institution in the world. Hoagy is, of course, one of the most important jazz and pop songwriters of the 1920s through the 1950s. First recordings he ever made were at the Gennett studios there in Richmond and we have recordings of interviews with Hoagy where he talks about his experience recording at Gennett. Another connection between Gennett artists and the Archives of Traditional Music is Scrapper Blackwell, the great blues guitarist who lived for much of his life in Indianapolis. He made his first recordings at the Gennett studios.

Music: “Second Hand Woman Blues” – Georgia Tom (with Scrapper Blackwell) – Gennett 7130

Alan Burdette: Blackwell was also recorded some years later in Indianapolis by Art Rosenbaum and those field recordings are also here at the Archives of Traditional Music.

David Fulton: Back in the early 1920s, they were making, uh, pressing up to three million records a year and distributing them all around the country. They also were placing those records under various labels in other stores and through Sears catalogs and all the outlets you might want to think about. So, the Gennett records and Starr piano were very significant industries here in Richmond, Indiana at that time.

Narrator: Current Starr-Gennett Foundation President, Bob Jacobsen…

Bob Jakobson: Many of the people that they recorded were quite young and became very famous like Jelly Roll Morton, Louis Armstrong, Bix Beiderbecke. We also were the first ones to record Charlie Patton. We recorded the last songs of Blind Lemon Jefferson. Um, let’s see, we also did some gospel.

Music: “I Know I Got Religion” – Rev. J.M. Gates and his Congregation, Gennett 6034

David Fulton: They were not interested in just recording a certain kind of music. They were wanting to record any type of music that people might be interested in purchasing in the form of a record.

Gennett record label Bob Jakobson: You know, it’d be the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band, uh Jelly Roll Morton’s first solos. Hoagy Carmichael’s ‘Star Dust.’ The first songs by the Wolverines with Bix Biederbecke. We got songs by Big Bill Broonzy, blues man out of Chicago. Uncle Dave Macon. We’ve got some recordings by the Stonemans. And there’s quite a few wonderful fiddler players too. Doc Roberts is one of them. Asa Martin played along with him. A lot of wonderful performers.

Music: “Sweet Lovin’ Man” - New Orleans Rhythm Kings, Gennett 5104

David Fulton: They recorded not only jazz back then, but they also recorded country. They recorded some of the original blues artists like Scrapper Blackwell and Lonnie Johnson. And country [music] is Dave Macon, so they recorded people from all over the central United States so to speak, and that’s the mark of the Gennett Records, that’s the reason it’s historically significant in American music.

Music: “Sweet Lovin’ Man” – New Orleans Rhythm Kings, Gennett 5104

David Fulton: Over the years we have acquired a large number of Gennett Records, but we do not have the capacity to store or preserve them.

Bob Jakobson: There are folks around that, that donate things to us. We’ve had, uh, records at the local library. They held ‘em for us. We had some in a bank for a while. Also at Indiana University East, held some. But what we wanted to do was of course get them digitized so that they can be more accessible to a broader range of people and last longer. ‘Cause it’s the music itself that’s important and not necessarily the 78 records.

Music: “Adam and Eve” – Otto Gray’s Oklahoma Cowboy Band – Gennett 6376

David Fulton: Well, we had established a relationship with Indiana University libraries to talk to them about ways and means of doing this and that’s what led us to the Archive of Traditional Music which is a place that not only has the capacity but also the expertise and the mission to preserve these kinds of things.

Gennett Record label Alan Burdette: While the Archives of Traditional Music is primarily an ethnographic sound archive, we hold more than 2,700 field collections from all over the world, we also have a large number of commercial recordings that include collections in early jazz and blues and American vernacular musics of all different kinds. Documenting the cultural and musical history of Indiana is also important to what we do, so the Starr-Gennett collection fits very nicely into our mission and our other holdings. The Starr-Gennett story is such an interesting story both as a way to understand the growth of middle-class musical entertainment and home entertainment in the late 19th and early 20th century, but also to try and understand the early recording industry. When you think about it, it boggles the mind to consider that Louis Armstrong, Charley Patton, Gene Autry, and Hoagy Carmichael, and so many others all made their first recordings in this small Indiana town.

David Fulton: The other thing is, it’s a nice thing that it’s in Indiana. And so, this is an Indiana company with major historical significance to American music and so it should be kept in Indiana.

Alan Burdette: I think it is important to keep the collection in Indiana. There’s a feeling of wanting to keep the collection connected to the place where this history took place. Unfortunately very little is left of the old Starr-Gennett factory and nothing is left of the studios there in Richmond, but the foundation has done a great job of trying to memorialize that place through the Walk of Fame. When it comes to the recordings, the reality is that taking care of recordings requires a certain infrastructure and it’s an expensive infrastructure to maintain so partnering with us here at the Archives of Traditional Music, where that infrastructure and that expertise already exists, makes a lot of sense. And of course, that keeps the collection in Indiana and part of the Indiana University system of which IU East and Richmond is a part.

Music: “San” – Husk O’Hare’s Super Orchestra of Chicago – Gennett 5009

David Fulton: Bloomington has, I believe, has the only collection that is now digitized and there’s something in the neighborhood of 1,200 recordings down there that people can access if they go to Bloomington or if they come here to IU East. IU East has the capacity to access the software in Bloomington.

Alan Burdette: We’re already making a large number of the recordings available online through the Variations system within Indiana University. Now neither us nor the Starr-Gennett Foundation own the copyrights on any of these recordings, so there are constraints as to what we can make broadly available, but we can make them available for educational use and for research use here at the Archives of Traditional Music and we’ve been doing that kind of thing for over 60 years. And of course, we can provide reference help to anybody who is interested in the collection and wants to know more about certain sections of this, it’s just a matter of talking to our librarian or archivist and just contact us here at the Archives and we can help you out.

David Fulton: I think it’s a good relationship between us, the Starr-Gennett Foundation, and the archive because we have a huge mutual interest and a broad capacity given the resources of the archive.

Bob Jakobson: We’re indebted to Indiana University for helping preserve this American history that we’ve helped record.

Alan Burdette: And we are cooperating with the Starr-Gennett Foundation for whatever uses they want to have for the recordings for events or promotions or educational activities. In many ways it’s not simply a matter of the foundation giving the recordings to the Archives, but rather a partnership where we’re providing support for the collection long-term but are working with the foundation to promote this very special legacy of Richmond and the Starr-Gennett company. We’re working now to digitize the recordings that haven’t already been digitized and that will improve their accessibility to users of all kinds.

Music: “Caroline” – Fess Williams and his Royal Flush Orchestra – Gennett 3210

Narrator: This segment was produced by Nathan D. Gibson on behalf of the Archives of Traditional Music at Indiana University. More information can be obtained by visiting the Archives in Morrison Hall on the Bloomington campus, or by visiting on the web at www.indiana.edu/~libarchm

Music: “Caroline” – Fess Williams and his Royal Flush Orchestra – Gennett 3210



Music Used:

“Chimes Blues” – King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band (with Louis Armstrong) – Gennett 5135
Shelf #: CD919
Accession #: 02-028-C

“Julian” – Angel Romero, Gennett 3190
Shelf #: EC10” 4750
Accession #: 03-044.205-C
ATL 18408

“Star Dust” – Hoagy Carmichael & His Pals – Gennett 6311
Shelf #: EC10” 4265
Accession #: 86-234-C
ATL 15301

“Second Hand Woman Blues” – Georgia Tom (with Scrapper Blackwell) – Gennett 7130

“I Know I Got Religion” – Rev. J.M. Gates and his Congregation, Gennett 6034
Shelf #: EC10” 4679
Accession #: 72-148.352-C
ATL 18271

“Sweet Lovin’ Man” – New Orleans Rhythm Kings, Gennett 5104
Shelf #: EC10” 4687
Accession #: 73-103.2533-C
ATL 18275

“Adam and Eve” – Otto Gray’s Oklahoma Cowboy Band, Gennett 6376
Shelf #: EC10” 4679
Accession #: 72-148.354-C
ATL 18271

“San” – Husk O’Hare’s Super Orchestra of Chicago – Gennett 5009
Shelf #: EC10” 4688
Accession #: 73-103.2539-C
ATL 18275

“Caroline” – Fess Williams and his Royal Flush Orchestra – Gennett 3210
Shelf #: EC10” 4691
Accession #: 95-447.0703-C
ATL 18277

Henry Robert Antoine, head drummer in the Rada community

Location: Belmont, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad
Dates
: 1953, 1954
Formats: lacquer discs and open reel tape
Accession Numbers: 70-159-F, 71-189-F

Passionate about art, culture, politics and natural history, Andrew Thomas Carr (1902-1976) was an award-winning folklorist and a cultural icon from Trinidad and Tobago. Carr was a native Trinidadian who worked with the Trinidad Building & Loan Association for 46 years, rising to become secretary-treasurer before his retirement in 1967. He worked extensively with the local arts and tourism sector, co-founding the Trinidad and Tobago Ethnographic Society dedicated to the study of the twin-island republic's folklore, the Trinidad Art Society, the Zoological Society and the Carnival Development Committee. He earned Fulbright scholarship in 1953 to pursue folklore studies at Northwestern University where he met and worked with Melville Herskovits.

ATM holds two collections of recordings made by Andrew Carr in Belmont, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad.  In 1953 he made a two 16” lacquer disc recordings of songs and drumming performed during cult ceremonies of the Rada community.  These became part of his article, "A Rada Community in Trinidad" (Caribbean Quarterly 3:1, 1953). The Rada are an ethnic group in Trinidad linked linguistically to Ewe-Fon peoples of Dahomey (now the Republic of Benin). Carr and the British sociologist Andrew Pearse also made a series of open-reel tape recordings of a night-long Rada ceremony in 1954. Ethnomusicologist Alan P. Merriam used Carr's recordings from this collection to write the book Songs of a Rada Community in Trinidad, in 1956 with Sara Whinery and B.G. Fred. Many of Carr's extensive writings, memos, letters and reports have been included in his daughter’s 2010 book about his life entitled, He Served His Fellow Man–The Life & Work Andrew Thomas Carr.

Sample: "Song to Dangbwe," May 6, 1953. This listening sample, sung by an unidentified singer, is devoted to the diety, Dangbwe (serpent diety), and was composed by Andrew George, who was a leader of the Rada community of Belmont, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, at the time of this recording.