The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 13


By O. M. Meyncke.

The following list embraces the indigenous, naturalized, and adventive plants growing in Franklin County, Indiana. The list is more especially confined to the territory within the immediate vicinity of the Town of Brookville.

The author set out with the determination to exclude all from the list which he himself had not seen growing in the County. Hence some species whose existence here was supported by good authority, and which fact the author was reasonably certain, were omitted on the principle that it is much easier afterwards to add to the list than to take from it. Though he has botanized in the region for several years, he feels sure that there are a number of plants growing in the limits which have not been noticed. With the exception of a partial list of the trees reported by Dr. Rufus Haymond (1869) in making the observations of the local Flora no support has been derived from a predecessor in this branch of natural history.

Observations on the Flora of this County are reserved for a future number of the Bulletin of the Brookville Society of Natural History.

As far as the Order Caprifoliaceæ the nomenclature and arrangement corresponds with that of Watson's Bibliographical Index to North American Botany, thereafter with that given in the latest edition of Gray's Manual of the Northern United States.

14 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

Some of the more recent changes are indicated by the placing of the synonyms in parenthesis.

RANUNCULACEÆ. (Crowfoot Family).
Clematis, L.
C. Viorna, L. Leather-Flower. Frequent.
C. Virginiana, L. Common Virgin's Bower.
Anemone, L.
A. Virginiana, L. Virginian Anemone. Frequent.
A. dichotoma, L. Pennsylvanian Anemone. Woods and Meadows. Common.
A. acutiloba, Lawson. Sharp-lobed Hepatica. Common.
Thalictrum, Tourn.
T. anemonoides, Michx. Rue-Anemone. Common.
T. dioicum, L. Early Meadow-Rue. Common in rocky woods.
T. purpuracens, L. Purple Meadow-Rue.
T. Cornuti, L. Tall Meadow-Rue.
Ranunculus, L.
R. abortivus, L. Small-flowered Crowfoot. Very common.
R. abortivus. L., var. micranthus, Gr.
R. recurvatus, Poir. Hooked Crowfoot.
R. fascicularis, Muhl. Early Crowfoot. Very common.
R. repens, L. Creeping Crowfoot. Common in damp places.
Isopyrum, L.
I. biternatum, Torr. & Gray. False Rue-Anemone. Frequent in moist shady places.
Caltha, L.
C. palustris, L. Marsh Marigold. Rare.
Aquilegia, Tourn.
A. Canadensis, L. Wild Columbine.
Delphinium, Tourn.
D. tricorne, Michx. Dwarf Larkspur. Very common.
D. Consolida, L. Field Larkspur.
Hydrastis, L.
H. Canadensis, L. Yellow-Root. Abundant.
Actæa, L.
A. alba, Bigel. White Baneberry. Frequent.
Cimicifuga, L.
C. racemosa, Nutt. Black Snakeroot. Common.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 15

MAGNOLIACEÆ. (Magnolia Family).

Magnolia, L.
M. acuminata, L. Cucumber-tree. Rare.
Liriodendron, L.
L. Tulipifera, L. Tulip-tree. Common.

ANONACEÆ. (Custard-Apple Family).
Asimina, Adans.
A. triloba, Dunal. Common Pawpaw.

MENISPERMACEÆ. (Moonseed Family).
Menispermum, L.
M. Canadensis, L. Common.

BERBERIDACEÆ. (Barberry Family).
Berberis, L.
B. vulgaris, L. Common Barberry.
Jeffersonia, Barton.
J. diphylla, Pers. Twin-leaf. Abundant.
Podophyllum, L.
P. peltatum, L. May Apple. Mandrake. Common.

PAPAVERACEÆ. (Poppy Family).
Papaver, L.
P. somniferum, L. Common Poppy. Spontaneous near dwellings.
Stylophorum, Nutt.
S. diphyllum, Nutt. Celandine Poppy. Common.
Sanguinaria, Dill.
S. Canadensis, L. Blood-root. Common.

FUMARIACEÆ. (Fumitory Family).
Dicentra, Bork.
D. Cucullaria, D. C. Dutchmans Breeches. Common.
D. Canadensis, D. C. Squirrel-Corn.
Corydalis, Vent.
C. flavula, Raf. Pale Corydalis. Common.
Fumaria, L.
F. officinalis, L. Common Fumitory. About dwellings.

CRUCIFERÆ. (Mustard Family).
Nasturtium, R. Br.
N. officinale, R. Br. Water Cress. Rare.

16 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

N. palustre, D. C. Marsh Cress. Common.
N. Armoracia, Fries. Horse Radish.
Dentaria, L.
D. lacinata, Muhl. Cut-leaved Toothwort. Common.
Cardamine, L.
C. rhomboidea, D. C. Spring Cress. Common.
C. purpurea, Cham. & Schlecht. Purple Cress.
C. hirsuta, L. Small Bitter Cress. Not rare.
Arabis, L.
A. dentata, Torr. & Gray.
A. loevigata, D. C. Common.
A. Canadensis, L. Sickle-pod.
A. hesperidoides, Gr. Frequent.
Sisymbrium, L.
S. officinale, Scop. Hedge Mustard.
S. canescens, Nutt. Tansy Mustard. Frequent.
Brassica, Tourn.
B. Sinapistrum, Boisseur. English Charlock. Common.
B. alba, Gr. White Mustard.
B. nigra, Gr. Black Mustard.
Capsella, Vent.
C. Bursa-pastoris, Moench. Shepherd's Purse. Abundant.
Lepidium, L.
L. Virginicum, L. Wild Pepper-grass. Common.

CAPPARIDACEÆ. (Caper Family).
Polanisia, Raf.
P. graveolens, Raf. Common along river banks.

VIOLACEÆ. (Violet Family).
I. concolor, Benth. & Hook. Green Violet. Frequent on rich hillsides.
Viola, L.
V. cucullata, Ait. Common Blue Violet.
V. cucullata, Ait., var. palmata, Gr. Hand-leaf Violet. Common.
V. striata, Ait. Pale Violet. Frequent.
V. pubescens, Ait. Downy Yellow Violet. Common.
V. tricolor, L, var., arvensis, Gr. Pansy, Hearts Ease.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 17

POLYGALACEÆ. (Milkwort Family).

Polygala, Tourn.
P. Senega, L. Seneca Snakeroot.
P. Senega, L., var. latifolia, Torr. & Gray.

Saponaria, L.
S. officinalis, L. Soapwort, Bouncing Bet. Common.
Silene, L.
S. stellata, Ait. Starry Campion. Frequent.
S. Virginica, L. Fire Pink. Common.
S. antirrhina, L. Sleepy Catch-fly. Frequent.
Lychnis, Tourn.
L. Githago, Lam. Corn Cockle. Common in grain fields.
Arenaria, L.
A. serpyllifolia, L. Thyme-leaved Sandwort.
Stellaria, L.
S. Media, Smith. Common Chickweed. Abundant.
S. pubera, Michx. Great Chickweed. Not common.
Cerastium, L.
C. nutans, Raf. Common.
C. arvense, L. Field Chickweed.Common.

Anychia, Michx.
A. dichotoma, Michx. Forked Chickwood. Frequent in woods.

PORTULACACEÆ. (Purslane Family).
Portulaca, Tourn.
P. oleracea, L. Common Purslane. Abundant.
Claytonia, L.
C. Virginica, L. Spring Beauty. Common.
C. Caroliniana, Michx.

HYPERICACEÆ. (St. John's-wort Family).
Hypericum, L.
H. prolificum, L. Shrubby St. John's-wort. Frequent on dry banks and in thickets.
H. perforatum, L. Common St. John's-wort. Frequent in fields.
H. corymbosum, Muhl.
H. mutilum, L. Dwarf St. John's-wort. Common in low ground.

18 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens

MALVACEÆ. (Mallow Family).

Malva, L.
M. rotundifolia, L. Common Mallow.
Sida, L.
S. spinosa, L. Common everywhere.
Abutilon, Tourn.
A. Avicennæ, Gaertn. Velvet Leaf. Common.

TILIACEÆ. (Linden Family).
Tilia, L.
T. Americana, L. Basswood Linden. Common.

LINACEÆ. (Flax Family).
Linum, L.
L. Virginicum, L. Wild Flax. Frequent in dense woods.
L. usitatissimum, L. Common Flax. Escaped cultivation.

GERANIACEÆ. (Geranium Family).
Geranium, L.
G. maculatum, L. Wild Geranium. Common.
Impatiens, L.
I. pallida, Nutt. Pale Touch-me-not. Common.
I. fulva, Nutt, Spotted Touch-me-not. Frequent.
Oxalis, L.
O. violaceæ, L. Violet Wood-sorrel.
O. corniculata, L., var. stricta, Sav. Yellow Wood-sorrel. Frequent.

RUTACEÆ. (Rue Family).
Zanthoxylum, Colden.
Z. Americana, Mill, Northern Prickly Ash. Common.
Ptelea, L.
P.trifoliata, L. Shrubby Trefoil, Hop-tree. Common.

Ailanthus, Desf.
A. grandulosus, Desf. Tree of Heaven.

ILICINEÆ. (Holly Family).
Ilex, L.
I. verticillata, Gr. Black Alder. Winter Berry. Rare.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 19

CELASTRACEÆ. (Staff-tree Family).

Celastrus, L.
C. scandens, L. Waxwork, Climbing Bitter Sweet. Common.
Euonymus, Tourn.
E. atropurpureus, Jacq. Burning Bush. Waaho. Common.
E. Americanus, L., var. obovatus, Torr. & Gr. Frequent on rich hillsides.

RHAMNACEÆ. (Buckthorn Family).
Rhamnus, Tourn.
R. lanceolatus, Pursh. Buckthorn. Rare.

VITACEÆ. (Vine Family).
Vitus, Tourn.
V. Labrusca, L. Northern Fox Grape. Rare.
V. æstivalis, Michx. Summer Grape. Common.
V. cordifolia, Michx. Winter or Frost Grape. Common.
Ampelopsis, Michx.
A. quinquefolia, Michx. Virginia Creeper. Common.

SAPINDACEÆ. (Soapberry Family).
Staphylea, L.
S. trifolia, L. American Bladdernut. Not common.
Æsculus, L.
Æ. glabra, Willd. Fetid or Ohio Buckeye. Common.
Acer, Tourn.
A. saccharinum, Wang. Sugar Maple. Abundant.
A. saccharinum, Wang, var. nigrum, Gr. Black Sugar Maple. Common.
A. dasycarpum, Ehrhart. White or Silver Maple. Common along streams.
A. rubrum, L. Red Maple. Common in wet woods.
Negundo, Moench.
N. aceroides, Moench. Box Elder. Common.

ANACARDIACEÆ. (Cashew Family).
Rhus, L.
R. typhina, L. Staghorn Sumach. Common.
R. glabra, L. Smooth Sumach. Frequent.
R. copallina, L. Dwarf Sumach.
R. Toxicodendron, L. Poison Ivy. Common.
R. aromatica, Ait. Fragrant Sumach. Not rare.

20 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

LEGUMINOSÆ. (Pulse Family).

Trifolium, L.
T. pratense, L. Red Clover.
T. reflexum, L. Buffalo Clover.
T. repens, L. White Clover.
T. procumbens, L. Yellow or Hop-Clover. Frequent.
Melilotus, Tourn.
M. alba, Lam. While Melilotus. Common.
Medicago, L.
M. lupulina, L. Black Medick.
Amphora, L.
A. fruiticosa, L. False Indigo. Rare.
Robinia, L.
R. Pseudacacia, L. Common Locust Tree.
Astragalus, L.
A. Canadensis, L. Milk Vetch.
Desmodium, D. C.
D. nudiflorum, D. C.
D. acuminatum, D. C.
D. pauciflorum, D. C.
D. rotundifolium, D. C.
D. canescens, D. C.
D. cuspidatum, Torr. & Gr. Frequent.
D. paniculatum, D. C.
D. Canadense, D. C.
Vicia, Tourn.
V. Caroliniana, Walt. Frequent on rocky hillsides.
Aspios, Boerhaave.
A. tuberosa, Moench. Ground-nut.
Phaseolus, L.
P. diversifolius, Pers. Kidney Bean. Common.
Amphicarpæa, Ell.
A. monoica, Nutt. Hog Pea-nut.
Baptisia, Vent.
B. leucantha, Torr. & Gr. False Indigo. Frequent on alluvial soil.
Cercis, L.
C. Canadensis, L. Red Bud. Common.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 21

Cassia, L.

C. Marylandica. L. Wild Senna. Common.
C chamæcrista, L. Partridge Pea. Very common.
Gymnocladus, Lam.
G. Canadensis, Lam. Kentucky Coffee Tree.
Gleditschia, L.
G. triacanthas, L. Honey Locust.

ROSACEÆ. (Rose Family).
Prunus, Tourn.
P. Americana, Marshall. Wild, Yellow or Red Plum. Common.
P. serotina, Ehrh. Wild Black Cherry.
Neillia, Don.
N. opulifolia, Benth. & Hook. Nine-bark.
Spirea, L.
S. tomentosa, L. Hardhack, Steeple Bush.
Geum, L.
G. album, Gmelin. White Avens.
G. Virginianum, L.
G. vernum, Torr. & Gr.
Potentilla, L.
P. Norvegica, L.
P. Canadensis, L. Common Cinquefoil or Five Finger.
Fragaria, Tourn.
F. Virginiana, Duch. var. Illinoensis, Gr. Wild Strawberry
Rubus, Tourn.
R. strigosus, Michx. Wild Red Raspberry.
R. occidentalis, L. Black Raspberry. Common.
R. villosus, Ait. Common or High Blackberry.
R. villosus, Ait. var. humifusus, Gr.
R. Canadensis, L. Low Blackberry. Dewberry. Common.
Rosa, Tourn.
R. setigera, Michx. Climbing or Prairie Rose.
R. lucida, Ehrh. Dwarf Wild Rose. Frequent.
R. rubiginosa, L. Eglantine. Sweet Brier.
Cratægus, L.
C. coccinea, L. Scarlet Fruited Thorn.
C. tomentosa, L. Black Thorn. Common.
C. tomentosa, L. var. mollis, Gr.
C. Crus-galli, L. Cockspur Thorn. Frequent.

22 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

Pirus, L.

P. coronaria, L. American Crab Apple. Common.
Amelanchier, Medic.
A. Canadensis, Torr. & Gr. Service Berry. Not rare.

SAXIFRAGACEÆ. (Saxifrage Family).
Ribes, L.
R. Cynosbati, L. Wild Gooseberry. Common.
R. floridum, L'Her. Wild Black Currant. Rare.
Hydrangea, Gronov.
H. arborescens, L. Wild Hydrangea. Frequent.
Heuchera, L.
H. Americana, L. Common Alum Root. Frequent in rocky woodlands.

CRASSULACEÆ. (Orpine Family).
Penthorum, Gronov.
P. sedoides, L. Ditch Stone Crop.
Sedum, Tourn.
S. ternatum, Michx. Stone Crop. Common.
S. Telephinum, L. Live-for-ever. Escaped cultivation.

HAMAMELACEÆ. (Witch Hazel Family).
Hamamelis, L.
H. Virginica, L. Witch Hazel. Rare.
Liquidamber, L.
L. Styraciflua, L. Sweet Gum. Bilsted. Rather common in moist woods.

LYTHRACEÆ. (Loosestrife Family).
Lythrum, L.
L. alatum, Pursh. Loosestrife.

ONAGRACEÆ. (Evening Primrose Family).
Circæa, Tourn.
C. Lutetiana, L. Enchanters Nightshade. Common in rich woods.
Gaura, L.
G. biennis, L., Gaura. Not common.
Epilobium, L.
E. coloratum, Muhl. Willowherb.
OEnothera, L.
OE. biennis, L. Evening Primrose. Very common in old fields.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 23

Ludwigia, L.

L. alternifolia, L. Seed-Box. Frequent.
L.palustris, Ell.

CURCUBITACEÆ. (Gourd Family).
Sicyos, L.
S. angulatus, L. One-seeded Star Cucumber. Common along river banks.
Echinocystis, Torr. & Gr.
E. lobata, Torr. & Gr. Wild Balsam Apple. Common in rich soil along streams.

CACTACEÆ. (Cactus Family).
Opuntia, Tourn.
O. vulgaris, Haworth. Prickly Pear. Rare.

FICOIDEÆ. (Carpet-weed Family).
Mollugo, L.
M. verticillata, L. Carpet-weed.

UMBELLIFERÆ. (Parsley Family).
Sanicula, Tourn.
S. Canadensis, L., Sanicle. Black Snakeroot.
S. Marylandica, L.
Daucus, Tourn.
D. Carota, L. Common Carrot. Very abundant in old fields.
Pastinaca, Tourn.
P. Sativa, L. Common Parsnip. Abundant.
Archemora, D. C.
A. rigida, D. C. Cowbane.
Thaspium, Nutt.
T. barbinode, Nutt.
T. aureum, Nutt.
T. trifoliatum, Gr.
Pimpinella, Benth. & Hook.
P. integerrina, Benth. & Hook.
Cryptotænia, D. C.
C. Canadensis, D. C. Honewort.
Chærophyllum, L.
C. procumbeus, Crantz. Chervil. Frequent.
Osmorrhiza, Raf.
O. longistylis, D. C. Smoother Sweet Cicely. Frequent.
O. brevistylis, D. C. Hairy Sweet Cicely. Common.

24 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

Conium, L.

C. maculatum, L. Poison Hemlock. Not uncommon.
Erigenia, Nutt.
E. bulbosa. Nutt. Harbinger of Spring. Common.

ARALIACEÆ. (Ginseng Family).
Aralia, Tourn.
A. spinosa, L. Angelica Tree. Hercules Club. Rare.
A. racemosa, L. Spikenard. Frequent.
A. quinquefolia, Dec. & Planch. Ginseng. Common.

CORNACEÆ. (Dogwood Family).
Cornus, Tourn.
C. florida, L. Flowering Dogwood. Common.
C. sericea, L. Silky Cornel.
C. paniculata, L'Her. Panicled Cornel. Common in thickets and on river banks.
C. alternafolia, L. Alternate-leaved Cornel. Not common.
Nyssa, L.
N. multiflora, Wang. Tupelo. Black or Sour Gum. Common.

CAPRIFOLIACEÆ. (Honeysuckle Family).
Symphoricarpus, Dill.
S. racemosus, Michx. Snowberry. Escaped cultivation.
S. vulgaris, Michx. Indian Currant. Coral Berry.
Lonicera, L.
L. sempervirens, Ait. Trumpet Honeysuckle.
Triosteum, L.
T. perfoliatum, L. Feverwort. Horse Gentian. Common in rich woods.
T. Augustifoliatum, L. Frequent.
Sambucus, Tourn.
S. Canadensis, L. Common Elder.
Viburnum, L.
V. prunifolium, L. Black Haw. Common.
V. acerifolium, L. Maple-leaved Arrow-wood. Frequent.
V. dentatum, L. Arrow-wood. Frequent in wet places.

RUBIACEÆ. (Madder Family).
Galium, L.
G. Aparine, L. Cleavers. Goose-grass. Common.
G. trifidum, L. Small Bedstraw. Variable. Common.
G. triflorum, Michx. Sweet-scented Bedstraw.
G. circæzens, Michx. Wild Liquorice.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 25

Cephalanthus, L.

C. occidentalis, L. Button Bush. Frequent in wet places.
Mitchella, L.
M. repens, L. Partridge-berry. Common in dense woods.
Houstonia, L.
H. purpurea, L. Common in woods and meadows.
H. cærulea, L. Bluets. Abundant in moist fields.

VALERIANACEÆ. (Valerian Family).
Valeriana, Tourn.
V. pauciflora, Michx. Small-flowered Valerian. Common.
Valerianella, (Fedia, Gaertn.)
V. radiata, (Fedia radiata, Michx.) Corn Salad. Lambs Lettuce. Frequent in moist soil.

DIPSACEÆ. (Teasel Family).
Dipsacus, Tourn.
D. sylvestris, Mill. Wild Teasel. Common.

COMPOSITÆ:. (Composite Family).
Veronia, Schreb.
V. Noveboracensis, Willd. Iron Weed. Very common.
V. fasciculata, Michx. Variable, passing into the above species.
Kuhnia, L.
K. eupatorioides, L.
Eupatorium, Tourn.
E. purpureum, L. Joe-Pye weed. Common.
E. altissimum, L.
E. sessilifolium, L. Upland Boneset. Not common.
E. perfoliatum, L. Common Boneset.
E. ageratoides, L. White Snake-root. Very common along rich hillsides.
E. coelestinum, L. (Conoclinium coelestinum, D. C.) Mist Flower.
Aster, L.
A. Shortii, Booth. Common.
A. undulatus, L. Frequent.
A. cordifolius, Willd.
A. sagittifolius, Willd.
A. ericoides, L. Common.
A. ericoides, L. var. villosus, Gr.
A. multiflorus, Ait. Common in dry fields.
A. vimineus, Lam. (A. Tradescanti, L.)
A. vimineus, Lam. var. foliolosus, Gr. (A. miser, Ait.)

26 The Flora of Franklin County. --Exogens.

A. tenufolius, L.
A. puniceus, L.
A. prenathoides, Muhl.
A. Novæ-Angliæ, L.
Erigeron, L.
E. Canadense, L. Horse-weed. Butter-weed. Very common.
E. bellidifolium, Muhl. Robin's Plantain. Common.
E. Philadelphicum, L. Common Fleabane.
E. annum, Pers. Daisy Fleabane. Sweet Scabious. Common.
E. Strigosum, Muhl. Common.
Solidago, L. Golden-rod.
S. latifolia, L.
S. cæsia, L. Common.
S. rugosa, Mill. (S. altissima, L.)
S. ulmifolia, Muhl. Frequent.
S. nemoralis, Ait.
S. Canadensis, L. Very common.
S. serotina, Ait. (S. gigantea, Ait.)
S. serotina, Ait. var gigantea, Gr. (S. serotina, Ait.)
S. lanceolata, L. Frequent.
Inula, L.
I. Helenium, L. Common Elecampane.
Polymnia, L.
P. Canadensis, L. Leaf-cup. Abundant along shady ravines.
P. Uvedalia, L.
Silphium, L.
S. perfoliatum, L. Cup-plant. Not common.
Ambrosia, Tourn.
A. trifida, L. Great Ragweed. Very common.
A. trifida, L. var. integrifolia, Gr.
A. artemisiæfolia, L. Roman Wormwood. Bitterweed. Common everywhere.
Xanthium, Tourn.
X. Canadense, Mill. (X. strumarium, L.) Common Cocklebur.
X. spinosum, L. Spiny Clotbur. Rare.
Heliopsis, Pers.
H. loevis, Pers. var. scabra, Gr. Common in thickets.
Echinacea, Moench.
E. purpurea, Moench. Purple Cone-Flower. Very rare.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 27

Rudbeckia, L.

R. laciniata, L. Cone-Flower.
R. triloba, L. Common.
R. hirta, L. Very common in meadows.
Helianthus, L.
H. annus, L. Common Sunflower. Escaped from cultivation.
H. parviflorus, Bernh. (H. microcephalus, Torr. & Gr.) Frequent in woods.
H. divaricatus, L.
H. decapetalus, L. Frequent.
H. tuberosus, L. (H. doronicoides, Lam.) Common.
Actinomeris, Nutt.
A. squarrosa, Nutt. Common along streams.
Coreopsis, L.
C. tripteris, L. Tall Coreopsis. Common.
C. trichosperma, Michx. Tickseed Sunflower.
Bidens, L.
B. frondosa, L. Common Beggar- ticks.
B. connata, Muhl. Swamp Beggar-ticks.
B. chrysanthoides, Michx. Larger Bur-Marigold. Frequent.
B. cernua, L. Smaller Bur-Marigold.
B. bipinnata, L. Spanish Needles. Common.
Verbesina, L.
V. helianthoides, Michx. (Actinomeris helianthoides, Nutt.)
Dysodia, Car.
D. chrysanthemoides, Lag. Fetid Marigold.
Helenium, L.
H. autumnale, L. Sneeze-weed. Not common.
Anthemis, L.
A. Cotula, L. (Maruta Cotula, D. C.) Common Mayweed.
Achillea, L.
A. Millefolium, L. Common Yarrow or Milfoil.
Chrysanthemum, L.
C. Leucanthemum, L. (Leucanthemum vulgare, Lam.) Ox-eye, or White Daisy. Whiteweed. Common.
Tanacetum, L.
T. vulgare, L. Common Tansy.
Artemisia, L.
A. biennis, Willd. Biennial wormwood. Frequent.

28 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

Gnaphalium, L.

G. polycephalum, Michx. Common Everlasting.
G. purpureum, L. Purple Cudweed.
Antennaria, Gaertn.
A. plantaginifolia, Hook. Plantain-leaved Everlasting. Common.
Erechthites, Raf.
E. hieracifolia, Raf. Fire-weed. Common.
Cacalia, L.
C. atriplicifolia, Muhl. Great Indian Plantain. Frequent in rich woods.
Senecio, L.
S. aureus, L. Golden Ragwort. Very common.
S. aureus, L. var. obovatus, Torr. & Gr.
Cnicus, Vaill.
C. lanceolatus, Hoffm. (Cirsium lanceolatum, Scop.) Common Thistle.
C. altissimus, Willd. (Cirsium altissimum, Spreng.)
Arctium, L.
A. Lappa, L. (Lappa officinalis, Allioni.) Common Burdock.
Krigia, Schreber.
K. amplexicaulis, Nutt. (Cynthia Virginica, Don.) Dwarf Dandelion. Cynthia. Frequent.
Hieracium, Tourn.
H. scabrum, Michx. Rough Hawk-weed.
P. crepidinea, Michx. (Nabalus crepidinea, Cass.) Rattlesnake-root. Not common.
Taraxacum, Haller,
T. officinale, Weber. (T. Densleonis, Desf.) Common Dandelion.
Lactuca, Tourn.
L. Canadensis, L. Wild Lettuce.
L. integrifolia, Bigel. (L. Canadensis, L. var. integrifolia, Torr. & Gr.)
L. Floridana, Gaertn. (Mulgedium Floridanum, D. C.)
Sonchus, L.
S. oleraceus, L. Common Sow Thistle.
S. asper, Vill. Spiny-leaved Sow Thistle.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 29

LOBELIACEÆ. (Lobelia Family).

Lobelia, L.
L. cardinalis, L. Cardinal Flower. Rare.
L. syphilitica, L. Great Lobelia. Common.
L. inflata, L. Indian Tobacco. Very abundant.
L. spicata, Lam. Not common.

CAMPANULACEÆ. (Campanula Family).
Campanula, Tourn.
C. Americana, L. Tall Bellflower. Common.
Specularia, Heister.
S. perfoliata, A. D. C. Venus Looking Glass. Common.

ERICACEÆ. (Heath Family).
Chimaphila, Pursh.
C. maculata, Pursh. Spotted Wintergreen. Not common.
Monotropa, L.
M. uniflora, L. Indian Pipe. Corpse Plant. Frequent.
M. Hypopitys, L. Pine-sap. False Beech-drops. Rare.

AQUIFOLIACEÆ. (Holly Family).
Ilex, L.
I. verticillata, Gr. Black Adder. Winterberry.

EBENACEÆ. (Ebony Family).
Diospyros, L.
D. Virginiana, L. Common Persimmon.

PLANTAGINACEÆ. (Plantain Family).
Plantago, L.
P. major, L. Common Plantain.
P. lanceolata, L. Rib-grass. Ripple-grass. English Plantain. Common.
P. Virginica, L. Frequent.

PRIMULACEÆ. (Primrose Family).
Dodecatheon, L.
D. Meadia, L. Shooting Star. American Cowslip.
Lysimachia, Tourn.
L. quadrifolia, L.
L. nummularia, L. Moneywort. Escaped cultivation.
Steironema, Raf.
S. lanceolatum, Walt.
S. lanceolatum, Walt. var. augustifolia, Gr.

30 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

Samolus, L.

S. valerandi, L. var. Americanus, Gr. Water Pimpernel. Brook-weed. Not common.

BIGNONIACEÆ. (Bignonian Family).
Tecoma, Juss.
T. radicans, Juss. Trumpet Creeper. Frequent.
Catalpa, Scop. Walt.
C. bignonioides, Walt. Catalpa. Indian Bean. Frequent.
Martynia, L.
M. proboscidea, Glox. Unicorn Plant. Rare.

OROBANCHACEÆ. (Broom-rape Family).
Epiphegus, Nutt.
E. Virginica, Bart. Beech-drops. Common.
Conophalia, Wallroth. Squaw-root. Cancer-root. Common.

SCROPHULARICEÆ. (Figwort Family).
Verbascum, L.
V. Thapsus, L. Common Mullein.
V. Blattaria, L. Moth Mullein. Common.
Linaria, Tourn.
L. vulgaris, Mill. Toad-flax. Butter and Eggs.
Scrophularia, Tourn.
S. nodosa, L. Figwort. Common.
Collinsia, Nutt.
C. verna, Nutt. Collinsia. Innocence. Not common.
Pentstemon, Mitchell.
P. pubescens, Solander. Common.
Mimulus, L.
M. ringens, L. Monkey Flower.
M. alatus, Ait.
Conobea, Aublet.
C. multifida, Benth.
Gratiola, L.
G. Virginiana, L. Common.
G. sphærocarpa, Ell. Rare.
Ilysanthes, Raf.
I. gratioloides, Benth. False Pimpernel.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 31

Veronica, L.

V. Virginica, L. Culvers-root. Culvers Physic.
V. Americana, Schweinitz. American Brooklime.
V. serpyllifolia, L. Thyme-leaved Speedwell.
V. peregrina, L. Neckweed. Purslane Speedwell.
V. arvensis, L. Corn Speedwell.
Seymaria, Pursh.
S. macrophylla, Nutt. Mullein Foxglove. Common.
Gerardia, L.
G. purpurea, L. Purple Gerardia.
G. tenuifolia, Vahl. Slender Gerardia.
G. quercifolia, Pursh. Smooth False Foxglove.
Pedicularis, Tourn.
P. Canadensis, L. Common Lousewort. Wood Betony.

ACANTHACEÆ. (Acanthus Family).
Dianthera, Gronov.
D. Americana, L. Water willow. Common along the river, growing in water.
Ruellia, L.
R. strepens, L. Common.

VERBENACEÆ. (Vervian Family).
Verbena, L.
V. augustifolia, Michx.
V. hastata, L. Blue Vervian. Very common.
V. utricifolia, L. Nettle-leaved, or White Vervian. Very common.
V. stricta, Vent. Hoary Vervian.
V. Aubletia, L. Escaped cultivation.
Lippa, L.
L. lanceolata, Michx. Fog-fruit. Frequent on river banks.

LABIATÆ. (Mint Family).
Teucrium, L.
T. Canadense, L. American Germander. Wood Sage.
Isanthes, Michx.
I. Coeruleus, Michx. Common.
Mentha, L.
M. viridis, L. Spearmint.
M. piperata, L. Peppermint.
M. Canadensis, L. Wild Mint.

32 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

Pycanthemum, Michx.

P. linifolium, Pursh. Mountain Mint. Frequent on clay soil.
Calamintha, Moench.
C. Nepeta, Link. Basil-Thyme.
Hedeoma, Pers.
H. pulegioides, Pers. American Pennyroyal.Common.
Collinsonia, L.
C. Canadensis, L. Rich-weed. Stone-root.
Monarda, L.
M. fistulosa, L. Wild Bergamot. Common.
M. Bradburiana, Beck.
Blephilla, Raf.
B. hirsuta, Benth.
Lopanthus, Benth.
L. nepetoides, Benth. Giant Hyssop. Common.
Nepeta, L.
N. Cataria, L. Catnip. Very common.
N. Glechoma, Benth. Ground Ivy. Gill. Very abundant.
Synandra, Nutt.
S. grandiflora, Nutt. Abundant in rich woods.
Physotegia, Benth.
P. Virginiana, Benth. False Dragon-head. Frequent.
Brunella, Tourn.
B. vulgaris, L. Common Self-heal or Heal-all.
Scutellaria, L.
S. versicolor, Nutt. Skullcap.Common.
S. canescens, Nutt.
Marrubium, L.
M. vulgare, L. Common Horehound.
Galeopis, L.
G. Tretahit, L. Common Hemp-Nettle.
Stachys, L.
S. palustris, L. Hedge Nettle.
S. aspera, Michx.
S. cordata, Riddell.
Leonurus, L.
L. cardiaca, L. Common Motherwort.
Lamium, L.
L. amplexicaule, L. Dead Nettle. Frequent.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 33

BORAGINACEÆ. (Borage Family).

Lithospermum, Tourn.
L. officinale, L. Common Gromwell.
L. latifolium Michx.
Mertensia, Roth.
M. Virginica, D. C. Virginian Cowslip. Lungwort. Common.
Myosotis, L.
M. verna, Nutt. Forget-me-not.
Echinospermum, Swartz.
E. Lappula, Lehm.
E. Virginicum, Lehm. (Cynoglossum Morisoni, D. C.) Beggar's Lice. Very common.
Cynoglossum, Tourn.
C. officinale, L. Common Hound's Tongue.
C. Virginicum, L. Wild Comfrey.

HYDROPHYLLACEÆ. (Waterleaf Family).
Hydrophyllum, L.
H. macrophyllum, Nutt. Common.
H. Virginicum, L. Frequent.
H. apendiculatum, Michx.
Phacelia, L.
P. bipinnatifida, Michx. Common.
P. Purshii, Buckley. "Miami Mist." Very common.

POLEMONIACEÆ. (Polemonium Family).
Polemonium, Tourn.
P. reptans, L. Greek Valerian. Common.
Phlox, L.
P. divaricata, L. Common Phlox.
P. paniculata, L. Cultivated.

CONVOLVULACEÆ. (Convolvulus Family).
Ipomoea, L.
I. purpurea, Lam. Common Morning Glory.
I. Nil, Roth. Smaller Morning Glory. Frequent.
I. lacunosa, L.
I. pandurata, Meyer. Wild Potato Vine. Man-of-the-Earth. Common.
Convolvulus, L.
C. sepium, L. (Calystegia sepium, R. Br.) Common along river banks.

34 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

Cuscuta, Tourn.

C. Gronovii, Willd. Dodder. Common on low grounds.

SOLANACEÆ. (Nightshade Family).
Solanum, Tourn.
S. nigrum. L. Common Nightshade.
S. Carolinense, L. Horse Nettle. Common.
Physalis, L.
P. pubescens, L.
P. Virginica, Mill. (P. viscosa, L.)
P. lanceolata. (P. Pennsylvanica.)
Nicandra, Adams.
N. physaloides, Gaertn. Apple of Peru. Frequent.
Datura, L.
D. Stramonium, L. Thorn Apple. Jamestown-weed.
D. Tatula, L. Purple Thorn Apple. More abundant than the other species.

GENTIANACEÆ. (Gentian Family).
Sabbatia, Adams.
S. angularis, Pursh. Not common.
Frasera, Walt.
F. Carolinensis, Walt. American Columbo. Common on dry hilly points.
Gentiana, L.
G. quinqueflora, Lam. Five Flowered Gentian. Not common.
G. Andrewsii, Griseb. Closed Gentian. Not common.

APOCYNACEÆ. (Dogbane Family).
Apocynum, Tourn.
A. cannabinum, L. Indian Hemp. Common.
A. cannabinum, L. var. hypercifolium, Gr.

ASCLEPIADACEÆ. (Milkweed Family).
Asclepias, L.
A. Cornuti, Descainse. Common Milkweed. Silkweed.
A. phytolaccoides, Pursh. Poke Milkweed.
A. purpurascens, L. Purple Milkweed. Frequent.
A. quadrifolia, Jacq. Four-leaved Milkweed. Common in the woods.
A. incarnata, L. Swamp Milkweed. Common.
A. tuberosa, L. Butterflyweed. Pleurisy-root. Common.
Enselina, Nutt.
E. albida, Nutt. Common along river banks.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 35

OLEACEÆ. (Olive Family).

Fraxinus, Tourn.
F. Americana, L. White or Gray Ash. Very common.
F. viridis, Michx. Green Ash. Frequent along streams.
F. sambucifolia, Lam. Black or Water Ash.
F. quarangulata, Michx. Blue Ash. Common.

ARISTOLOCHIACEÆ. (Birthwort Family).
Asarum, Tourn.
A. Canadense, L. Wild Ginger. Abundant on rich hillsides.

PHYTOLACCACEÆ. (Pokeweed Family).
Phytolacca, Tourn.
P. decandra. Common Poke or Scoke. Garget. Pigeon Berry.

CHENOPODIACEÆ. (Goosefoot Family).
Chenopodium, L.
C. album, L. Lamb's Quarter. Common.
C. Botrys, L. Jerusalem Oak. Feather Geranium.

AMARANTACEÆ. (Amaranth Family).
Amarantus, Tourn.
A. Hypochondriacus. L.
A. retroflexus, L. Common.
A. albus, L.

POLYGONACEÆ. (Buckwheat Family).
Polygonum, L.
P. orientale, L. Prince's Feather. Escaped cultivation.
P. Pennsylvanicum, L.
P. Persicaria, L. Lady's Thumb.
P. Hydropiper, L. Common Smartweed.
P. acre, H. B. K. Water Smartweed.
P. hydropiperoides, Michx. Wild Water Pepper.
P. Virginianum, L. Common.
P. aviculare, L. Knotgrass. Goosegrass. Doorweed. Very common.
P. erectum, L. Common.
P. sagittatum, L. Arrow-leaved. Tear Thumb.
P. dumetorum, L. var. scandens, Gr. Climbing False Buckwheat. Common.
Fagopyrum, Tourn.
F. esculentum, Moench. Buckwheat. Escaped cultivation.

36 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

Rumex, L.

R. Britannica, L. (R. orbicularis, Gr.) Great Water Dock.
R. crispus, L. Curled Dock. Common.
R. obtusifolius, L. Bitter Dock.
R. Acetosella, L. Field or Sheep Sorrel. Common in cultivated fields.

LAURACEÆ. (Laurel Family).
Sassafras, Nees.
S. officinale, Nees. Sassafras. Common.
Lindera, Thunberg.
L. Benzoin, Meisner. Spicebush. Benjamin-Bush. Common.

THYMELEACEÆ. (Mezereum Family).
Dirca, L.
D. palustris, L. Leatherwood. Moosewood.

SANTALACEÆ. (Sandalwood Family).
Comandra, Nutt.
C. umbellata, Nutt. Bastard Toad-flax. Not common.

EUPHORBIACEÆ. (Spurge Family).
Euphorbia, L.
E. maculata, L. Common.
E. hypercifolia, L.
E. marginata, Pursh. Escaped cultivation.
E. corollata, L. Not common.
E. dentata, Michx.
E. commutata, Engelm. Common.
Acalyphia, L.
A. Virginica. L. Three-seeded Mercury. Common.
Crotonopsis, Michx.
C. linearis, Michx. Common.

URTICACEÆ. (Nettle Family).
Ulmus, L.
U. fulva, Michx. Slippery or Red Elm. Common.
U. Americana, L. American or White Elm. Common.
U. racemosa, Thomas. Corky White Elm. Frequent.
Celtis, Tourn.
C. occidentalis, L. Sugarberry. Hackberry. Common.
Morus, Tourn.
M. rubra, L. Red Mulberry.
M. alba, L. White Mulberry.

The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens. 37

Maclura, Nutt.

M. aurantiaca, Nutt. Osage Orange. Frequent.
Urtica, Tourn.
U. gracilis, Ait. Nettle.
U. dioica, L.
Laportea, Gaudichard.
L. Canadensis, Gaudichard. Wood Nettle. Common in rich woods.
Pilea, Lindl.
P. pumila, Gr. Richweed. Clearweed.
Boehmeria, Jacq.
B. cylindrica, Willd. False Nettle. Common.
Cannabis, Tourn.
C. sativa, L. Hemp.
Humulus, L.
H. Turpulus, L. Common Hop.

PLATANACEÆ. (Plane-tree Family).
Platanus, L.
P. occidentalis, L. American Plane or Sycamore.

JUGLANDACEÆ. (Walnut Family).
Juglans, L.
J. cinerea, L. Butternut.
J. nigra, L. Black Walnut.
Carya, Nutt.
C. olivæformis, Nutt. Pecan-nut. Escaped cultivation. Rare.
C. alba, Nutt. Shellbark or Shagbark Hickory. Very common.
C. microcarpa, Nutt. Small-fruited Hickory. Not common.
C. sulcata, Nutt. Western Shellbark Hickory. Frequent.
C. tomentosa, Nutt. Mocker-nut. White-heart Hickory. Common.
C. porcina, Nutt. Pig-nut Hickory. Very common on uplands.
C. amara, Nutt. Bitter Pig-nut Hickory. Common.

CULPULIFERÆ. (Oak Family).
Quercus, L.
Q. alba, L. White Oak. Very common.
Q. macrocarpa, Michx. Bur-Oak. Mossy-cup While Oak. Common on rich soil.
Q. bicolor, Willd. Swamp White Oak. Frequent on low grounds.
Q. Prinus, L. Chestnut Oak. Rare.

38 The Flora of Franklin County. -- Exogens.

Q. Prinus, L. var. acuminata, Michx. Yellow Chestnut Oak. Common on rich soil.
Q. imbricaria, Michx. Laurel or Shingle Oak.
Q. coccinea, Wang. Scarlet Oak. Frequent.
Q. coccinea, Wang. var. tinctoria, Gr. Yellow-barked or Black Oak. Common.
Q. rubra, L. Red Oak. Common.
Q. palustris, Du Roi. Swamp, Spanish or Pin Oak. Common on wet land.
Fagus, Tourn.
F. ferruginea, Ait. American Beech. Common.
Corylus, Tourn.
C. Americana, Walt. Wild Hazel-nut. Frequent.
Ostyra, Micheli.
O. Virginica, Willd. American Hop-Hornbeam. Leverwood.
Carpinus, L.
C. Americana, Michx. Blue or Water Beech. American Hornbeam.

SALICACEÆ. (Willow Family).
Salix, Tourn.
S. discolor, Muhl. Glaucus Willow.
S. purpurea, L. Purple Willow.
S. viminalis, L. Basket Willow.
S. nigra, Marsh. Black Willow.
S. alba, L. var. vitellina, Gr. White willow. Yellow Willow.
S. Babylonica. Tourn. Weeping Willow.
Populus, Tourn.
P. tremuloides, Michx. American Aspen. Common.
P. Grandidentata, Michx. Large-toothed Aspen.
P. Monilifera, Ait. Cottonwood. Necklace Poplar. Very common.
P. balsamifera, L. var. candicans, Gr. Balm of Gilead.
P. dilatata, Ait. Lombard Poplar.
P. alba, L. White Poplar. Silver Poplar.

CONIFERÆ. (Pine Family).
Juniperus, L.
J. Virginiana, L. Red Cedar. Frequent.

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