A LIST, WITH BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS OF ALL THE SPECIES, INCLUDING ONE NEW TO SCIENCE, OF MYRIAPODA OF FRANKLIN CO., IND.


By Jerome McNeill, Moline, Ill.


The present paper is based mainly on a small collection made by the writer, with the help of several friends, during the summer meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science at Brookville, in May 1886, and a second collection made subsequent to the first by Mr. Amos W. Butler and Mr. Edward Hughes, of Brookville. In addition to the forms contained in the above mentioned collections, a very considerable number have been included in this paper, whose occurrence in Franklin County, although not yet known is rendered almost certain from their presence in collections made in the Counties of Monroe, Brown, Bartholomew, Decatur, Union, Wayne, Henry and Fayette. Even with this help it is not possible to make the list complete, since insects of this order have been so little studied and collected that a considerable number, doubtless, remain to be described or recorded. With a view to the encouragement of this local observation, which is so much needed in almost every department of Natural Science, I have included with this list brief descriptions of all the species enumerated together with a key to species, genera and higher groups.
No special apparatus is needed for collecting Mryriapods. A delicate pair of forceps will occasionally prove useful in drawing specimens from their hiding places in the crevices of bark or of rotten wood. They may be put immediately into alcohol, or as I prefer, killed in a cyanide bottle. If the latter method is employed the specimens can be easily separated from the dirt that is sure to be collected with them and much cleaner specimens will be preserved. In either case the alcohol, which may be diluted from 25 to 50 per cent., should be changed at least once, usually after two weeks or more. All of the Chilognatha, (Myriapods with a horny shell and two pairs of feet to a segment) will have their value as material for future study, infinitely increased if, after they have soaked in alcohol for a few days, they are taken out and straightened and allowed to dry in that position before they are returned to their bottles. For studying them a good lens magnifying from five to ten diameters will usually be all that is needed; but a higher power will sometimes be found necessary in determining the number of eyes in Lithobius, and other minute characters, They may be looked for in rotten wood and stumps, under logs, rails, leaves in


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moist situations, or fragments of wood and bark, and under the bark of partially decayed logs. Several species will be found most abundant about door yards and gardens. As a rule they prefer high, dry and rich soils to those that are low, moist or wet, or poor. No more useful work can be done in this order than the study of the food, habits, and immature stages of the different species as these data are extremely meager.

MYRIAPODA.

Are wingless terrestrial insects, with the body distinct, divided into two regions, head and abdomen, the latter plainly segmented, each segment, being provided with either one or two pairs of feet. Some of them at least undergo metamorphosis and, unlike either Hexapodous or Arachnoid insects, they grow by the addition of segments to the body. The segments which are added after birth are developed immediately anterior to the ultimate segment. The organs of special sense are well or moderately well developed. A single pair of antennæ are always present but in the lowest suborder these are three forked. The number of joints in the antennæ vary from 5 to an indefinte number. As a rule the more joints the higher the organization, while the reverse is true of the segments which vary in number from 6 to 173 or more. The eyes are of little importance to them on account of the subterranean habits of the species. They are present or wanting in very nearly related and almost equally developed genera, and sometimes present in one genus and wanting in another which is in many respects higher. The mouth-parts are usually well developed and are fitted for seizing and holding prey, for gnawing or for sucking. Insects belonging to this order are almost all either beneficial or innoxious. They are usually grouped in three suborders, as follows:
1. (3.) Antennæ 5 jointed, bifid. with three long jointed appendages.
2. Body composed of 6-10 segments; nine pairs of legs; species minute 0.5 to 1.5 mil. long. - - - - - - - Pauropoda.
3 (1.) Antennæ more than 5 jointed; simple.
4. (5.) Body more or less cylindric or half cylindric; head normally composed of three segments; antennæ 7-8 jointed; mouth-parts consisting of protomalæ (mandibles) and dentomlæ (1st maxillæ); anal opening a longitudinal slit; legs two pairs to most of the segments. - - - - - - Chilognatha.
5. (4.) Body usually flattened; head composed of five modified segments; antennæ 12 or more jointed; mouth-parts protomalæ, dentomalæ, first and second malapedes; one pair of legs to each segment. - - - - Chilopoda.

The First Suborder PAUROPODA.

Contains but two families and three species which have as yet only been reported from three or four localities on the Atlantic coast. Some of these species may be looked for here. They are likely to be under leaves or light chips or the scaly bark of apple trees.

The Second Suborder CHILOGNATHA.

(Or Diplopoda.) In addition to the characters already mentioned


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is distinguished from the Chilopoda by having the genitalia always in the front part of the body, while in the latter these organs are all attached to the anal segment. As the head of Chilognaths is composed of but three segments, they possess no organs homologous to the first and second malapedes (foot jaws; the second pair being the so-called poison fangs) of Chilopods. The organ, of special sense are much less perfectly developed in Chilognatha than in Chilopoda. The eyes, frequently absent, are usually, triangular in shape and but little elevated above the surrounding surface. According to Cope the eyes in Petaserpes consist of a linear mass of black pigment not divided into ocelli. The antennæ are usually short and clumsy. The young are born with six legs and from seven to fourteen body segments. They probably all undergo metamorphosis. Their food consists of decaying vegetable and animal matter. Their haunts are principally about decaying logs and rails in the open borders of woods and in clearings. They are entirely destitute of offensive weapons; their sole defense being their hard shells. Almost all the species belonging to this group, when disturbed roll themselves into a coil with the head on the inside.

The Third Suborder CHILOPODA.

Is in many respects the highest. The typical forms are essentially predaceous. Their powerful foot-jaws, generally provided with poison glands, enable them to seize their prey and guide it to the mouth. Their long and powerful legs make it possible for them to overtake any insect that is obliged to depend upon its running powers for escape. Their soft, flat bodies covered with a membranous or leathery integument are admirably fitted for squeezing and wriggling through tight places. Their eyes, when present, are so placed that they can see behind as well as ahead, and their antennæ are long tapering and very flexible, so that, within their range, they are a terrible scourge to other insects. They make the struggle for existence as hard in the cracks and crannies and dark corners of the world as it is in the crowded sunshine.

CHILOGNATHA.

Is represented in the United States by six families.
6. (7.) Body small [2.5 mil. long] soft skinned, covered with penicillate scales and fasicles of hairs; anus in the penultimate segment; 13 pairs of legs.

Fam. 1. POLYXENID&#W20198;.

This fami y includes but a single genus and species P. fasciculatus Say, said by Wood to inhabit the Southern States. Underwood states that it is "distributed from Massachusetts to Georgia." It has never been reported from the Central States but its occurrence here is not improbable.


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7. (6.) Body covering crustaceous; legs not less than 17 pairs.
8. (17.) Head small, conical; protomalæ minute; dentomalæ obsolete; mouth suctorial.

Fam. 2 POLYZONIDÆ.
This family is divided into five genera, as follows:
9. (10.) Sixth and Seventh joints of the antennæ confluent with the fifth and with it forming a club.

ANDROGNATHUS Cope.

This genus contains a single species reported by Cope from Montgomery Co., Va. He makes it the type of a new family Andrognathidæ.
10. (9.) Joints of antennæ not forming a club.
11. (12.) Eyes wanting; rostrum shorter that antennæ.

PLATYDESMUS Lucas.

P. LeContei Wood, from Georgia.
P. rosea Murray, from California.
12. (11.) Eyes present, conspicuous.
13. [14.] [16.] Eyes 8; body segments about 45.

OCTOGLENA Wood.

Contains a single species O. bivirgata, Wood, found in the mountains of Ga.
14. [13.] [16.] Eyes 6, in two diverging rows; head concealed by first segment.

HEXOGLENA McNeill.

15. Segments about 46; light brown or parchment colored above, dirty white below; dorsum convex, venter, moderately concave. Legs when extended not reaching beyond the body. First scutum one-twenty first, last scutum one-tenth the width of the body. Length 18 mil., width 3 mil.

Hexoglena cryptocephalus McNeill.

This species is common about Bloomington, Ind., and its occurrence in Franklin County is almost certain. It will be found in small colonies in thoroughly decayed stumps.
16. [14.] [13.] Eyes 2; body segments 50-53.

PETASERPES Cope.

Contains a single species from the Cumberland mountains in East Tennessee.
17. (8.) Mouth-parts masticatory; protomalæ and dentomalæ well developed.
18. (37.) Body composed of 35 segments or fewer.
19. (28.) Body composed of 19-20 segments, scuta generally projecting laterally into laminæ ; legs 28-31 pairs; eyes wanting.

Fam. 3 POLYDESMIDÆ.

This family contains about twenty-five species all of which are still included in a single genus, Polydesmus. Though doubtless the genus will admit of being divided to advantage, this work would better be left until so large a proportion of the species are discovered and studied that the work may be done once for all. The absence of eyes, the small development of the antennæ, and the general habits of these species place them very near the lower end of the scale, in development, they scarcely rank above Polyzonidæ. Their food being, in every case but one, so far as I know, rotten wood. Dr. C. H. Wood says that P. impurus Wood, from Texas is to be found generally under old cow dung. The genitalia of female Polydesmidæ are situated in


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the third body segment just posterior to the third pair of legs. They are never conspicuous and often minute. The male genitalia on the contrary are usually large and quite easily seen. They are situated in the seventh segment occupying the place of the eighth pair of legs. These furnish by far the best specific characters for this family. The color and sculpturing of the scuta together with the size, position and color of the lateral laminæ are useful in classification. The character of the anal scutum is perhaps the most constant structural feature within a species and is very useful in determining immature forms.
20. (23.) Scuta sculptured; lateral laminæ horizontal.
21. [22.] Scuta covered with convex tuberculoid setatipped scales.

Polydesmus setiger Wood.

The lateral laminæ have their margins strongly and acutely serrate especially towards the head. The last scutum is triangular with the apex prolonged and decurved.
This species is very common and very widely distributed. Its habitat is probably the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. There are no specimens in the collection from Brookville, but it will certainly be found there. This is one of the species which is sometimes abundant in yards and old gardens. My friend, Mr. C. H. Bollman, of Bloomington, Ind., collected from under old boards placed about the premises and examined two or three times a day for three weeks, more than two thousand individuals of this species.
22. [21.] Scuta with eight scales arranged in two series; color brown.

P. canadensis Newport.

These scales or scale-like tubercles occupy the posterior half of the scuta, the anterior half is usually smooth and rather convex with a median furrow dividing it into two halves. In most specimens will also be found on either side of the double row of scales a large swelling situated partially upon the lateral laminæ. Last scutum triangular. Apex obtuse, decurved. Length 25 to 30 mil.
Its habitat is the same as that of P. setiger. It occurs in much the same situations as P. erythropygus and is scarcely less abundant.
23. [20.] Scuta smooth, particolored; dorsum convex.
24. [25.] Lateral laminæ large, horizontal; color olive chestnut, with the lateral laminæ and a large semicircular spot on the posterior margins of the scuta reddish orange.

P. erythropygus Brandt.

The anal scutum is broad and almost uncinate being nearly straight, broad at the tip and slightly rounded. Length 30-40 mil. This is the commonest Chilognath in the Mississippi valley. I have never seen it reported from east of the Alleghanies or west of the Rocky Mountains. I have reason to think it is replaced in Florida and the extreme South by closely allied forms. This form will probably be found less frequently in cultivated ground than the two preceeding species.
25. [24.] Lateral laminæ large, depressed.
26. [27.] Color blackish chestnut with yellowish lateral laminæ, legs and venter; and a yellowish line on the posterior margins of the scuta.


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Polydesmus corrugatus Wood.

The coxæ as well as the femora are armed at the apex with the robust but acute spines. The sterna are smooth with no indication of lateral tubercles. The anal scutum is triangular, elongate and truncate. Length 40 to 50 mil; width 8 to 10 mil.
This is one of our handsomest species. It is common at Brookville and at Dublin, Ind., but rather rare at Bloomington, Ind. Its habitat is much the same as that of P. erythropygus, but is not nearly so common a species, its distribution being restricted to particular localities instead of being general.
27. [26.] Color dilute chestnut, with pinkish lateral laminæ and a narrow band of the same color on the posterior margins of the scuta.

Polydesmus butlerii. N. Sp.

This species bears a general resemblance to Polydesmus corrugatus Wood with which I at first placed it, as I had no males and was unwilling to risk a synonym until I had compared the male genitalia. As I received two male specimens in the second collection from Franklin Co., I am now able to figure the genitalia, which will be seen to be strikingly unlike the genitalia of P. corrugatus or any other species that I know of, figured or described.
Dorsum strongly convex; lateral luminæ large, depressed and extended into blunt processes posteriorly. The color is dilute chestnut with the venter and legs, lateral laminæ and a narrow band on the caudal margins of the scuta dull pink, fading in alcohol. The first scutum is banded anteriorly as well as posteriorly. All of the bands tend to widen near the medium line of the dorsum. The head is colored similarly to the body and the medium sulcus is distinct. The anal scutum is large, triangular, with the apex truncate. The sterna have their caudal margins produced at the sides into blunt tubercles. The coxæ of all the legs are unarmed, the femora are armed at the distal end with a short but generally acute spinous process.

Magnified 16 Diameters.

Fig. 1.
Lateral view of base and spinous processes of one-half of male genitalia.

Fig. 3.

Medial view of a portion of the base and the spinous processes of the male genitalia.


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Fig. 2.

Ventral view of spinous processes of male genitalia.

The genitalia of the male are composed of two smooth perpendicular subcylindrical basal pieces (Fig. 1. a.) from which extends forward the principle spinous process, (Fig. 1. b.) being at right angles to the base and parallel to the body. This process is quite robust, densely pilose at the proximal end on the inner side, less pilose on the upper side and along the inner margin to the base of the smaller, (Fig. 2. d.) of the two processes into which the distal end of the main process is divided. The smaller of these is smooth, robust at the base but slenderly accuminate at the apex; the larger is smooth, broad and thin, and slightly twisted. From the base of the main process arises another process, which is remarkably long, smooth and attenuated. It is concealed in the ventral view but is seen in the lateral and medium views (Fig. 1 & 3. c.). It extends as far forwards as the apex of the smaller distal process. From the distal end of the basal piece on its inner side arises a secondary spinous process (Fig. 2. & 3. f.) which is short, smooth, compressed and curved rapidly forward against the proximal end of the principal process. The length of the basal piece is one and one-fifth mil., of the main process two mil., of the slender process arising from the base of the main process, one and one-sixth mil. The length of the body is thirty min. (one and one-fifth inches), the width is 7 mil. (seven-twenty fifths of an inch.)
Habitat Franklin Co., Ind.
The description is based on 6 individuals, 4 males and 2 females. I have named this species in honor of Mr. Amos W. Butler.
28. [19.] Body with about 30 segments; scuta generally setose; eyes generally present and distinct.

Fam. 4. CHORDEUMIDÆ.

This family as at present constituted contains five genera. This number however will probably be diminished by a careful revision. The species are for the most part cave inhabiting.
29. [30] Body not setose; antennæ long; eighth pair of legs of male modified, six jointed; genitalia small.


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PSEVDOTREMIA Cope.

The single species P. cavernarum Cope has been reported from Wyandotte and Bradford caves, Indiana, Carter and Zwingler caves, Kentucky, and numerous small caves in Pennsylvania and Virginia.
30. [29.] Body setose.
31. [34.] Eyes present.
32. [33] Body short and thick; eyes triangular; antennæ slender; setæ one- fifth as long as the body is thick; legs long and slender, eighth pair modified in the male.

CRYPTOTRICHUS Packard.

C. caesioannulatus Wood, is the solitary species. The body is horn-brown in color varied with darker color. A medium pale dorsal groove runs the whole length of the body. The hind margin of each scuta is bordered by a silver-gray band. The scuta are furnished with 6-8 white, depressed, setiferous spots arranged in transverse lines. Length 15-25 mil. Habitat, the southern portion of the Mississippi valley. Not uncommon at Bloomington and at Dublin, Ind. It is found in much the same situations as P. setiger and has been reported as occurring in caves.
33. [32.] Body short and fusiform; eighth pair of legs of male two-jointed; setæ at least half as long as the body is thick.

TRICHOPETALUM Harger.

Dirty white, banded transversely and mottled with light brown anteriorly. Segments 28; male with 45, female with 46 legs. Eyes of 10 ocelli in a lunate group.

T. lunatum Harger.

The species like C. caesioannulatus has an impressed dorsal line. The scuta also bear three seteriferous tubercles on each side, the two lower being approximate. The two inner bristles on the anal scutum have thickened bases. The legs are slender, white, hairy, with the penultimate joint lengthened. Length 6 mil. Habitat Connecticut to Indiana. It is not uncommon at Dublin and Bloomington under leaves and bark in moist places. I have found it frequently associated with Scolopendrella. Besides the species already mentioned there have been described under Tricopetatum.

T. gomeratum, Harger.
From John Day River Oregon.
T. iuloides, Harger.
From the north shore of Lake Superior.
T. bollmani, McNeill.
From Mayfield's Cave, Monroe Co., Ind.

34. (32.) Eyes wanting; body slender.
35. (36.) Eighth pair of legs of male two-jointed ending in a claw; setæ very long.

SCOTERPES Cope.

The single species S. copei seems to be limited to Mammoth cave and other small caves in its vicinity.
36. (35.) Sitæ shorter than in S. copei; sixth pair of legs of male greatly swollen.


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ZYGONOPUS Ryder.

The solitary species Z. whitei Ryder, has been reported from New Market, Luray and Weyer's caves, Virginia.
37. (18.) Body composed of more than 32 segments.
38. (41.) Body long slender, tapering; scuta usually deeply furrowed, antennæ long and slender, the seventh segment short and conic; legs very long, the eighth pair only modified in the male, the seventh and ninth pairs normal; sterna free.

Fam. 5 LISIOPETALIDÆ.

This family as at present constituted consists of a single genus, LISIOPETATUM, Brandt, and two closely allied species. The second only of the species described below has been reported from Indiana, but I give a description of the other that the specimens found in Franklin County and elsewhere in Indiana, may be compared with each description.
39. (40.) Body not setose; body segments 61 with 115 pair of legs. Body and head horn color, usually mottled and banded with dark blackish horn color. The body with a medium dull yellowish dorsal stripe and with a lateral row of concolorous diffuse spots, one on each longest lateral ridge. [The spots vary much, sometimes covering four or five ridges and extending low down on the sides of the scuta.] Each scutum, except those near the head and at the end of the body, has about twenty-five prominent ridges. The dorsal, twelve larger than those on the sides; these ridges are high with concave valleys between them. The ends of the ridges are acutely conical and project over the ends of the scuta. Length of the entire body 35 mil; thickness 2 mil. Habitat Mass. to Iowa and south to Florida and Louisiana. The above is Dr. Packard's description wilh some of the less important characters omitted.

L. lactarium Say.

40. (39.) Body setose; setæ bristle like but easily visible to the naked eye; segments 58 with 102 pairs of legs. Body and head deep brown, almost black with a lighter brownish dorsal stripe, and a stripe of the same color along the sides. Each scutum except those near the extremities, has about 26 ridges situated upon the posterior two-thirds of cach segment. These ridges are of two very unequal sized, 14 small and 12 larger ones, alternating. The twelve larger ones are acutely conical and each projects over the following segment and ends in a short stiff bristle. Two of the small ridges are adjacent in the dorsal stripe. Immediately below the anal scutum on each side of the mediam line grow to very coarse setæ from whose extremities two fine long setæ proceed. Length 55 mil; width 3 mil. Habitat Indiana.

L. endasum McNeill.

This species is not uncommon at Bloomington, Brookville and Dublin, but it is very unequally distributed, at the first named point it is found in a very limited number of places, but in its favorite haunts is not shy. It is not unlikely that this is the species to which the specimen from New Grenada, in the Philadelphia Academy of Science should be referred. Dr. Packard remarks of the distribution of L. lactarium, "It probably ranges through Central into South America, as


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Dr. Wood remarks: 'I have seen a single specimen, a female labeled as from New Grenada, which apparently belongs to this species'. This specimen I have seen in the Philadelphia Academy of Science, but did not compare it closely with our species. It is much larger than individuals from the United States.
41. (38.) Scuta moderately if at all furrowed; both pairs of legs of seventh segment modified in the male; sterna, at least of anterior segments, united so as to form complete rings.

Fam. 6 IULIDÆ.

This family contains the highest forms of Chilognatha with the exception perhaps of the Lisiopetalidae. The antennæ and eyes are well developed except in the genus Spirobolus. This and the preceding family offer a marked exception to the rule that a large number of segments usually accompany and indicate a low organization. They are much better fitted for an active life than most other Chilognaths and it is very probable that their food is largely living instead of dead and decaying vegetable matter. These species are many of them nocturnal. I have seen Iulus impressus very late on summer evenings crawling over trees and fences, and in one case I found an individual clinging to the top of a long blade of grass, but it was too dark for me to learn what his particular business was there. It is not unlikely that some of them feed occasionally on the leaves as well as the roots of plants.
42. (44.) Scuta with distinct carinæ; body long and slender, segments 59; antennæ short and thick; eyes in linear series.

CAMBALA Gray.

This genus contains a single species C. annulata Say, confused often with Lisiopetalum lactarium, from which however it is easily distinguished by its linear eye-patches, and short thick antennæ
43. Eyes consisting each of six ocelli in linear series; middle segments of the body with six sharp ridges above succeeded on the sides by about 12 smaller ridges on each side, gradually becoming obsolete on the venter; color of the body horn-brown, with the head, feet and antennæ pale flesh-color. Length 30 mil.

Cambala annulata Say.

Habitat Central and Southern States. This is a common species in Indiana, not yet reported from Brookville. It is said by Cope to be one of the most abundant species in the mountain regions of Tennessee and North Carolina. It has also been found in many Indiana, Kentucky and Virginia caves.
44. (42.) Scuta not carinate.
45. (47.) Scutum of the second segment extending beyond the first scutum at the sides so as to reach the head; antennæ short and thick, usually fitting into depressions on the anterior surface of the head.

SPIROBOLUS Brandt.

46. Deep brown annulate with red; segments 50 to 57; scuta copiously minutely punctate; anal scale triangular.

Spirobolus marginatus Say.
Length 40 mil to 160 mil.


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Habitat United States east of Rocky Mountains. This is a very variable species in size and coloring, and is indistinguishable from S. uncigerus Wood except by the genital appendages. I am not sure that I have ever seen a specimen of S. uncigerus from the eastern part of the United States, although I have formerly thought I could distinguish this species by the number of segments and other characters which I have since concluded are very inconstant. At present it is not possible to say how many species are included in the genus.
47. (45.) Scutum of the second segment not produced forward at the sides; antennæ compared with those of Spirobulus, slender.

IULUS Brandt.

The body in species belonging to this genus is always slender and usually less than three inches in length. The sexes are very readily distinguished by the form of the first scutum and the first pair of legs as well as by the genital appendages. This last mentioned character as in Polydesmus is often the best and not unfrequently the only means of distinguishing species. The secondary sexual characters just mentioned consist of the very conspicuous enlargement of the first pair of legs in the male and a modification in their form which probably serves a useful purpose in copulation. The antero-posterior diameter of the first scutum is also much greater in the male than the female, in the latter the anterior and posterior margins of this scutum meet at an acute angle, often more or less rounded at the apex; in the former, these margins meet the lateral margins nearly at right angles. This genus like Spirobolus is greatly in need of revision and it is difficult to say how many valid species it contains, but probably the number is not far from twenty-five. Except the genitalia, the most reliable specific characters are, in order of importance, the number of segments, the color and markings of the scuta, and the character of the anal scutum, i.e., whether mucronate or not and if mucronate the size and position of the mucro.
48. (51.) Last scutum mucronate.
49. (50) Mucro small; segments 50-53; scuta scarcely at all pilose.

IULUS IMPRESSUS Say.

The color is generally reddish chestnut, with a black dorsal line and lateral series of blackish spots, but in many specimens the color is almost uniformly deep chestnut with the dorsal line and lateral spots almost obsolete. Frequently the scuta are ornamental with whitish or light-red blotches on each side of the dorsal line. Length 35 to 50 mil.
Habitat United States east of the Rocky Mountains. This is a very abundant and wide spread species and in the Central States the handsomest as well as the commonest Iulus.
50. (49) Mucro large and straight; segments 63, scuta on the upper surface distantly and obsoletely canaliculate; posterior segments decidedly pilose.


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I. pennsylvanicus Brandt.

The general color of the species is dark chestnut brown, with a lateral series of black spots, more or less distinct, around which the color is lighter than the body color. Length 50 mil. to 60 mil.
Habitat Pennsylvania to Iowa and south to Florida. In Indiana and Illinois, a much less common species than the preceding.
51. (48.) Last scutum not mucronate.
52. (53.) Segments 42; body brownish with lateral series of strongly pronounced black spots; scuta canaliculate above and below.

I. hortensis Wood.

When examined with a magnifier the deep brown of the body is seen to be very beautifully varied with brighter color. In young individuals and adults that have recently moulted the color is very much lighter and the black spots more distinct. The black spots on the sides begin about the fifth or sixth segment and end about the thirty-ninth. Length 12 mil. to 15 mil.
Habitat Pennsylvania to Indiana. This species is rare at Bloomington. It is more likely to be found in cultivated than in uncultivated ground.
53. (52.) Segments 35; color deep brown with the dorsum yellowish, ornamented with a median black line; scuta closely canaliculate above and below.

I. virgatus Wood.

The coloring of this species makes it easily recognizable, in spite of its small size. Length 12 mil. to 18 mil.
Habitat Pennsylvania and Maryland to Indiana. It is not less rare in Indiana than the preceding species and is found in similar situations.

CHILOPODA.

54. (103.) Dorsal scuta 15 or more; tarsus three-jointed.
55. [83.] Feet-bearing segments 20 or more.
56. [72.] Feet-bearing segments 31 to 173; antennæ 14 jointed.

Fam. 1 GEOPHILIDÆ.

This is a very homogenious family as, in addition to the characters given above, the species agree in the total absence of eyes and the character of the segments which are each composed of a complete leg-bearing segment and an incomplete footless segment closely coalesced with the first, but plainly indicated by the alternate smaller scuta. There are in the family upwards of thirty nominal species divided among five genera, most of the species live in the ground and are found rarely under old bark. The absence of good specific characters makes identification of the species a matter of considerable difficulty. The number of segments is probably the best guide, but this number varies within limits of from four to six, (as indicated by the feet.) The feet are invariably an odd number of pairs and generally the male have two pairs fewer than the lowest number the female of the same species have, and the female have two more pairs than the highest number the male have in the same species. The males are usually distinguished from the females by having the anal feet elongated and swollen.


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57. [63.] Body narrowed anteriorly and posteriorly; head narrowed in front; claw of the second malapedes armed at the base with a strong tooth.

SCOLIOPLANES B & M.

58. [61.] Frontal lamina of the head separated from the cephalic lamina by an impressed line.
59. [60.] Feet of male pp 39-41, of female pp 37-41; decidedly attenuate before and behind; fulvous, with the head and antennæ dilute brown; sparsely clothed with short hairs; feet sparsely covered with long hairs; spiracles round, in front small, in the middle and behind minute.

S. chionophilus Wood.

Præscuta in front, short or very short, in the middle and posteriorly long or very long. The coxæ of the anal feet are swollen and impressed with nine to thirteen large pits arranged in oblique, nearly straight lines. The anal sternum is triangular. Length 22 to 25 mil.
Habitat Massachusetts to Indiana. Not common, under stones or other small bodies in hilly pasture land.
60. [59.] Feet of male pp 47-51, of female pp 49 to 53; much narrowed before and behind; fulvous, with the head dilute brown; body sparcely pilose with short hair, legs densely pilose; spiracles round, large, slightly smaller posteriorly.

S. bothriopus Wood.

The praescuta are long or very long. The coxæ of the anal feet are swollen and slightly pilose as well as impressed with 13 to 16 large and small pits arranged around one large pit removed from the others. The anal sterna is narrow with the sides rounded and converging posteriorly. Length female 24 mil., male 35 mil.
Habitat Massachusetts to Indiana. I have found bothriopus more common than chionophilus, but still not abundant by any means. It is found in much the same situations as the last.
61. [58.] Frontal lamina not distinct at all from the cephalic lamina.
62. Feet of the female pp 71 to 75, of the male pp 69 to 73; before much, behind plainly attenuate; yellow or fulvous at the extremities; smooth.

S. parviceps Wood.

The praescuta are rather short or short anteriorly, and somewhat longer posteriorly. The spiracles are large or very large in the front segments and gradually decrease in size until on the middle and posterior segments they are small. The anal coxæ are plainly swollen and smooth and impressed with about thirty large and small pores. Anal sternum narrow, with the sides nearly straight and rapidly converging behind. Length 47 mil. to 60 mil.
Habitat Pennsylvania to Indiana. Parviceps is much commoner than either of the preceding species. It is found in similar localities and also along the roadsides and in open woods under stones and logs.
63. [57.] Body scarcely or not at all narrowed in front, moderately narrowed behind; scuta bisulcate.
65. [66.] Cephalic laminæ elongate, not narrowed in front more than behind; frontal laminæ separated from the cephalic by an impressed line, basal lamina narrow, with the sides converging a little in front; praebasal lamina concealed. Coxal pores numerous, situated upon the dorsal as well as the ventral surface of the coxæ.

Mecistocephalus Newport.

There are almost no easily discernible, constant characters to distinguish this from the following genus. Wood gives the "cephalic seg-


14 Brookville Society of Natural History


ment twice as long as broad; antennæ approximate;" but I know of no Mecistocephalus that has the cephalic segment more than once and a half as long as broad, and in the only illustration Wood gives of the head of this genus, the length is not more than I have stated. The whole head however is certainly longer and narrower than Geophilus.
None of this genus have yet been discovered in Franklin Co.. and as I have found none of the five or six species comprising the genus at all common in Indiana. I do not feel justified in inserting the name of any of them in a list of those certain to be found in Franklin County.
66. [65.] Cephalic lamina subquadrate, not narrowed in front more than behind; frontal lamina frequently separated from the cephalic lamina by an impressed line; basal lamina not very broad or narrow, converging in front; praebasal lamina partly or wholly concealed; coxal pores many, few or none, upon the ventral surface alone or upon the dorsal surface also; anal sterna narrow or broad, praescuta very large, or large.

Geophilus Leach.

Of the ten species reported from the United States as belonging to this genus, four are pretty sure to occur at Brookville, two are contained in the collections already made.
67. [70.] Frontal lamina separated from the cephalic by an impressed line.
68. [69.] Body robust, testaceous; head and antennæ dilute brown; cephalic lamina almost as long as broad; spiracles round, on the anterior segments large, on the posterior and middle segments minute; anal sterna very broad, with strongly convex converging sides.

G. cephalicus Wood.

This species is not uncommon in Indiana. It's robust body is an easily recognized character that will make it readily distinguishable among Geophilidæ. The claw of the 2nd malapede is armed with a minute or very minute tooth. The coxæ are impressed with two oblique, poriferous, half obsolete depressions. Feet pp female 51-53, map pp 49. Length female 47 mil., male 37 mil.
Habitat United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Meinert says 'One specimen in the Cambridge Museum is labelled Zanzibar.'
69. [68.] Body not very robust; fulvus, feet yellow; rather smooth; cephalic lamina about equally long and broad; spiracles in front oval or suboval, vertical, large or very large, gradually decreasing until on the middle and posterior scuta they are round and minute; anal sterna narrower than in the preceding species, with the nearly straight sides plainly converging.

G. mordax Meinert.

In this species the 2nd malapedes are also armed with a minute tooth. Legs of female 51. Length 25 mil.
There is a single specimen in the collection which I refer to this species, but one other specimen is known, and for that no more distinct locality is given than U. S. A.
70. [67.] Frontal lamina of the head not separated from the cephalic by a depressed line.


Brookville Society of Natural History. 15


71. Light orange, slender; cephalic segment deep orange; teeth of each of the 2nd malapedes 4, one of two larger others small or minute; feet very sparsely pilose, in female pp 63, in male 61.

G. bipuncticeps Wood.

I have found Woods description of the arrangement of the punctation on the head to be good. "On each side of the posterior mesial portion there is a longitudinal series of punctations; on each side of the latter is a broad patch of the same, and anteriorly they are disposed in transverse series." Length 40 mil. Habitat Illinois, Sonora, D. T. There is a single specimen in the collection.
73. [56.] Feet-bearing segments 20-25; antennæ 27-30 jointed.

Fam. 2. SCOLOPENDRIDÆ.

To this family belong the much dreaded centipedes. There is no doubt but the stories concerning Scolopendra heros Girard are very much exaggerated, but they are not without some foundation, in fact, it seems to be pretty well agreed now that the bite of this myriapod produces an ulcer in which the flesh is sloughed off so that a hollow scar is left. This species is common in Texas and is found as far north as Kansas, it is also found in the Southern States but is not so common there as in Texas and does not grow so large. It is quite probable that all the larger species of the genus, some of which are nearly a foot long, are capable of inflicting an equally serious wound. There is not much doubt indeed but that all the species in this and the succeeding family possess poison fangs, although their existence has never been, so far as I know, demonstrated. Mr. Wood speaks of having felt the pain of a bite from Scolopocryptops sexpinosus for several hours. Mr. Cope says Opisthemega postica can inflict a painful wound with either the malapedes or the jaw-like anal feet. I have myself experienced the pain of a nip from the jaws of Lithobius multidentatus. In collecting this species, the only safe way to seize them is by the head, they can then be put into the bottle tail first. The Lithobii run so quickly that no time is left the collector for hesitation. If he wants his specimen he must put the end of his finger directly on its head and the thumb under the head. This seems like taking the bull by the horns but it is not so dangerous as it appears. All the genera of Scolopendridoe found in the United States are represented in the fauna of Indiana.
73. [81.] Eyes wanting.
74. [79.] Feet-bearing segments 21.
75. [77.] Last scutum not larger than the others.

CRYPTOPS Leach.

This genus is represented in the United States by four nominal species, one of which has been found at Bloomington and Dublin.


16 Brookville Society of Natural History.


76. Color orange; antennæ with about 19 joints; sterna marked with a plain cross, formed by a median and a transverse sulcus; anal feet of the male longer than the others, slender, pilose, with the basal joints thickly covered with small brown acute recurved hooks.

C. asperites Wood.

The blackish or brown spines found on the anal legs of the male are also present on the two or three pairs just anterior to these. Length 20 mil. Habitat Florida, Indiana and the mountains of Virginia. The species is common and wide spread, though easily overlooked on account of its small size and resemblance to young Scolopocryptops.
77. [75.] Last scutum the largest, quadrate

OPISTHEMEGA Wood.

In addition to the character given above the genus is distinguishable (according to Meinert) by the absence of spiracles in the seventh segment. The anal legs are also very characteristic being short, very much swollen, having the appearance of jaws. There are said to be three species in the United States but the specimens I have examined are so variable that I should not be surprised to find that a large series from different localities would show a complete gradation from one species to another.
78. Reddish brown or orange, venter paler, feet and antennæ yellow, sparsely lightly punctate, last segment and anal legs, thickly, profoundly punctate; first scuta with a strongly pronounced transverse triangular depression.

O. crassipes Meinert.

The teeth are broad and flat and so variable in number that no dependance can be placed in them for specific characters. There are from four to ten. The anal legs have the superior and inferior inner margins carinate. This last character is about the only point of importance that distinguishes this species from O. postica Wood. Length 36 mil. Habitat Florida, Kentucky, Indiana. This species is rare at Bloomington and Dublin, but is common at Brookville under stones on the wooded hills about the town.
79. [74.] Feet-bearing segments 23; last scutum narrow; antennæ 17 jointed.

SCOLOPOCRYPTOPS Newport.

There are four species in the United States, one of which has been found at Brookville.
80. Anal feet long smooth, femora with a large spine on the inferior surface, and a small spine on the inner side.

S. sexpinoeus Say.

The color is yellowish brown or reddish, paler below with the head and first scuta reddish chestnut. The last scutum is rather broad, strongly narrowed behind with the posterior margin nearly straight. Length 65 mil. Habitat the whole United States. This species so common that at some seasons of the year you can scarcely turn a log in the woods without seeing one or more of them scampering off.
81. [73.] Eyes distinct; feet-bearing segments 21; antennæ attenuate 17-30 jointed.


Brookville Society of Natural History. 17


SCOLOPENDRA Newport.

This is the only genus of Scolopendridoe, having eyes, known to inhabit the United States.
82. Femora of the penultimate feet unarmed at the apex; first scuta with a deep transverse sulcus near the front margin; second [considered by Meinert the first] tarsal joint of all the feet not armed with a spine; antennæ rather short, a little swollen at the base, 17 jointed.

S. woodii Meinert.

The body is yellow or brown more or less varied with olivaceous or green. The anal feet are rather short and somewhat swollen, with five large spines on the superior interior margins of each thigh, arranged in two rows. The apical angle of thigh is produced into a short acute spine, simple or bifid, while the lower surface is armed with six or seven large spines arranged in three rows. Length 60 mil. Habitat Central, Southern and Eastern States as far north as Massachusetts. This species is very rare at Bloomington.
S. heros has never yet been reported from Indiana but I think its existence in that State is almost certain. Stories are told in Bloomington of large black centipedes five or six inches long that have been seen about old cellars and houses, in one case such an individual was killed on the staircase where it was discovered by the gentleman who related to me the incident as he was going up stairs at night with a lamp.
83. (55.) Feet-bearing segments less than 20; scuta in two sets, a smaller scutum generally alternating with a larger.

Fam. 3. LITHOBIIDÆ.

This family is further characterized by the presence of excretorial pores on the coxæ of the last four or five pairs of feet. These pores furnish good specific and generic characters by their size and arrangement. The eyes are composed of from one to fifty or more ocelli. The antennæ are multiarticulate. The genitalia of the female consist, externally of a forceps like apparatus. In the male the same organs are small two-jointed styliform appendages which are not at all conspicuous and are quite constant in their structure.
84. (85.) A single large ocellus each side of the head, labrum one-toothed in the middle

Henicops Newport.

This genus is represented in the United States by a single species H. fulvicornus Meinert, said by Stuxberg to occur at Mt. Lebanon.
85. (84.) Eyes composed of few or many ocelli, all or nearly all the feet armed with spines; claw of the female genitalia concave within and whole or bi-lobed or tri-lobed.

Lithobius Leach.

This genus contains at the present time about twenty-five species which are included in six sub-genera.


18 Brookville Society of Natural History.


86. (89.) The angles of the posterior margins of none of the scuta produced, either rounded or nearly right angled; coxal pores present in the 12, 13, 14, 15 feet.

Subgenus ARCHILITHOBIUS Stuxberg.

87. (88.) Scuta with the posterior angles right angled; coxal pores few arranged in a single row; coxæ of anal feet armed with a single spine (inferior).

L. jowensis Meinert.

Brown, with the head and antennæ darker, sterna lighter and legs yellow; rather slender; nearly smooth; feet densely pilose; antennæ 23 jointed; ocelli 12, 15, arranged in three or four rows; prosternal teeth, 4, 4; coxal pores, 4, 5, 5, 4, round; claw of female genitalia simple; length, 13.5m.
Habitat, Meinert has not given any locality for the single specimen from which his description was taken.
There is a single mutilated specimen in the colleciion whose identity I am unable to determine. It belongs to this subgenus, however, and other specimens will doubtless be found.
89. (86.) Angles of the posterior margins of the scuta some of them produced.
90. (91.) Coxal pores present in the 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 pairs of legs; angles of 9, 11, 13, scuta produced.

Subgenus PSEUDOLITHOBIUS Stuxberg.

L. megalaporus Stuxberg from San Francisco is the only species reported.
91. (90.) Coxal pores present in the 12, 13, 14, 15 pairs of feet.
92. (96) Angles of three or fewer of the scuta produced.
93. (94.) Angles of the 11, 13 scuta produced.

Subgenus HEMILITHOBIUS Stuxberg.

This subgenus contains two species neither of which have been found in Indiana, L. eucuemis Stuxberg, Mt. Lebanon, and L. cantabrigensis Meinert, Massachusetts.
94. (93.) Angles of the 9, 11, 11, 13 scuta produced.

Subgenus LITHOBIUS Leach.

95. Anal feet armed with a single claw; coxal pores few, arranged in one row; penultimate feet armed with two claws; coxæ of anal feet with no inferior spines.

L. forficatus Linnaeus.

Chestnut or brown with the sterna and feet yellow; rather robust. Antennæ rather long, 36-48 jointed; eyes with 22-35 ocelli, arranged in 5-8 rows; prosternal teeth 5-5 to 7-7; coxal pores, 6, 6, 6, 5-12, 10, 9, 8; joints of the anal feet armed respectively with 1, 3, 3, 2 spines on the lower surface; claw of the female genitalia three lobed; length 14-26 mil.
Habitat United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Meinert says


Brookville Society of Natural History. 19


it is the most abundant species in the Eastern States. It is outnumbered twenty to one in the Central Sates by L. multidentatus. It is common at Brookville.
96. (92.) Angles of more than three of the scuta produced.
97. (101.) Angles of the 7, 9, 11, 13 scuta produced.

Subgenus NEOLITHOBIUS Stuxberg.

98. Anal feet armed with a single claw; coxal pores few, in a single row; penultimate feet armed with two claws.
99. (100.) Eyes with 45-48 ocelli in 8-9 oblique rows.

Lithobius latzellii Meinert.

Chestnut or reddish brown with venter and legs yellowish; antennæ rather short and slender, 32 jointed; prosternal teeth, 8-8; coxal pores, 5,7,6,4-5, 6, 6, 5, large, mostly oval; anal feet armed with 1, 3, 3, 2 spines, with the femora and tibia sulcate below; length, 23-28 m.
Habitat Virginia and Indiana. A little less common at Bloomington than the preceding.
100. (99.) Eyes with 22-28 ocelli in 5-6 longitudinal rows.

L. mordax Koch.

Yellowish brown, with the venter and legs paler; antennæ 32-37 jointed; prosternal teeth 6-6 to 7-7; coxal pores 7, 8, 9, 6-8 10, 11,6 oval; anal feet armed with 1, 3, 3, 2 spines; length, 20-26 m.
Habitat Southern States as far north as Indiana. Less common in Bloomington than the preceding species.
101 (97.) Angles of the 6, 7, 9, 11, 13 scuta produced.

Subgenus EULITHOBIUS Stuxberg.

This subgenus includes a single very common species.
102. Anal feet armed with a single claw; coxal pores many in several rows; female genitalia with the claw three lobed; anal coxæ armed with one small lateral and one larger ventral spine.

L. mulidentatus Newport.

Brown, in varying shades of chestnut and olive; antennæ rather long, joints long. 20-22; eyes with 22-30 ocelli in 4-6 rows; anal feet armed with 1, 3, 2, 1 spines; length, 22-58 m.
Habitat Eastern United States. This species is probably a Northern rather than a Southern form. It is very abundant in the Central States.
103. [14.] Dorsal scuta, 8; antennæ as long as the body or longer; tarsi, many jointed; eyes compound.

Fam. 1. SCUTIGERIDÆ.

This family contains a single genus, Scutigera, and two species from the United States. These species differ from other Chilipods so widely


20 Brookville Society of Natural History.


that it seems to me they should constitute a higher group than a family. According to Brandt, whose classification Wood accepted also, the family constituted the suborder Schizotarsia, of equal rank with Holotarsia which included all the rest of Chilopoda. Meinert at one time was unwilling to place Scutigera higher than a subfamily, Scutigerini of Lithobiidae, but now admits that it should constitute a family equal in rank with the other families of Chilopoda, but nearer to Lithobiidæ than to Scolopendridæ or Geophilidæ. The head in Scutigeridæ is large, the eyes compound and very prominent, the second pair of malapedes very much elongated, with very large spinous processes; the scuta are eight, one or two sterna, with their posterior margins very emarginate where they are furnished with slit like stoma; the anal segment of the female is furnished with a pair of forceps, the external organs of generation, which in the male they are replaced by styloform appendages.
104. Antennæ very slender, 2 or 3 times as long as the body -- female 9, 11, 7, to 5, 3

Scutigera forceps Roffinesgue.

The body is rather broad, scarcely narrowed anteriorly, but slightly posteriorly, more or less convex, greenish, yellow above, with three narrow bluish or fuscous longitudinal stripes; length, 28m.
Habitat East of the Rocky Mountains and north of Texas. This species frequents old houses and wells, as well as shady hollows and ravines. They are not uncommon at Bloomington and Dublin. The second species is S. linceci Wood from Texas.
It will be noticed that the number of species likely or known to occur in this county is placed in this paper at thirty-three. Of this number sixteen are known to occur, and of the other seventeen species all are found in Indiana. The collection is very meagre in Geophilidae and Lithobiidae, two of the largest families, and a good collection of these forms will add a considerable number of new species to the list.


ERRATA.

Page 7, for "medium" read "medial."
Page 7, for "min." read "mil."
Page 8, for "Psevdotremia" read "Pseudotremia."
Page 8, for "gomeratum" read "glomeratum."
Page 8, for "Sitæ" read "Setæ."
Page 16, for "sexpinoeus" read "sexpinosus."
Page 16, for "scuta" read "scutum."
Page 19, omit one "11."

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