No special apparatus is needed for collecting Mryriapods. A delicate
pair of forceps will occasionally prove useful in drawing specimens from their
hiding places in the crevices of bark or of rotten wood. They may be put
immediately into alcohol, or as I prefer, killed in a cyanide bottle. If the
latter method is employed the specimens can be easily separated from the dirt
that is sure to be collected with them and much cleaner specimens will be
preserved. In either case the alcohol, which may be diluted from 25 to 50 per
cent., should be changed at least once, usually after two weeks or more. All
of the Chilognatha, (Myriapods with a horny shell and two pairs of feet to a
segment) will have their value as material for future study, infinitely
increased if, after they have soaked in alcohol for a few days, they are taken
out and straightened and allowed to dry in that position before they are
returned to their bottles. For studying them a good lens magnifying from five
to ten diameters will usually be all that is needed; but a higher power will
sometimes be found necessary in determining the number of eyes in Lithobius,
and other minute characters, They may be looked for in rotten wood and
stumps, under logs, rails, leaves in
2 Brookville Society of Natural History.
moist situations, or fragments of wood and bark, and under the bark of
partially decayed logs. Several species will be found most abundant
about door yards and gardens. As a rule they prefer high, dry and rich soils
to those that are low, moist or wet, or poor. No more useful work can be done
in this order than the study of the food, habits, and immature stages of the
different species as these data are extremely meager.
Are wingless terrestrial insects, with the body distinct, divided into two
regions, head and abdomen, the latter plainly segmented, each segment, being
provided with either one or two pairs of feet. Some of them at least undergo
metamorphosis and, unlike either Hexapodous or Arachnoid insects, they grow by
the addition of segments to the body. The segments which are added after
birth are developed immediately anterior to the ultimate segment. The organs
of special sense are well or moderately well developed. A single pair of
antennæ are always present but in the lowest suborder these are three
The number of joints in the antennæ vary from 5 to an indefinte
number. As a
rule the more joints the higher the organization, while the reverse is
the segments which vary in number from 6 to 173 or more. The eyes are of
little importance to them on account of the subterranean habits of the
species. They are present or wanting in very nearly related and almost
equally developed genera, and sometimes present in one genus and wanting in
another which is in many respects higher. The mouth-parts are usually well
developed and are fitted for seizing and holding prey, for gnawing or for
sucking. Insects belonging to this order are almost all either beneficial or
innoxious. They are usually grouped in three suborders, as follows:
1. (3.) Antennæ 5 jointed, bifid. with three long jointed
2. Body composed of 6-10 segments; nine pairs of legs; species minute 0.5 to
1.5 mil. long. - - - - - - - Pauropoda.
3 (1.) Antennæ more than 5 jointed; simple.
4. (5.) Body more or less cylindric or half cylindric; head normally composed
of three segments; antennæ 7-8 jointed; mouth-parts consisting of
protomalæ (mandibles) and dentomlæ (1st maxillæ); anal
opening a longitudinal
slit; legs two pairs to most of the segments. - - - - - - Chilognatha.
5. (4.) Body usually flattened; head composed of five modified segments;
antennæ 12 or more jointed; mouth-parts protomalæ, dentomalæ,
first and second
malapedes; one pair of legs to each segment. - - - - Chilopoda.
The First Suborder PAUROPODA.
Contains but two families and three species which have as yet only been
reported from three or four localities on the Atlantic coast. Some of these
species may be looked for here. They are likely to be under leaves or light
chips or the scaly bark of apple trees.
The Second Suborder CHILOGNATHA.
(Or Diplopoda.) In addition to the characters already mentioned
Brookville Society of Natural History. 3
is distinguished from the Chilopoda by having the genitalia always in the
front part of the body, while in the latter these organs are all attached to
the anal segment. As the head of Chilognaths is composed of but three
segments, they possess no organs homologous to the first and second malapedes
(foot jaws; the second pair being the so-called poison fangs) of Chilopods.
The organ, of special sense are much less perfectly developed in Chilognatha
than in Chilopoda. The eyes, frequently absent, are usually, triangular in
shape and but little elevated above the surrounding surface. According to
Cope the eyes in Petaserpes consist of a linear mass of black pigment not
divided into ocelli. The antennæ are usually short and clumsy. The
born with six legs and from seven to fourteen body segments. They probably
all undergo metamorphosis. Their food consists of decaying vegetable and
animal matter. Their haunts are principally about decaying logs and rails in
the open borders of woods and in clearings. They are entirely destitute of
offensive weapons; their sole defense being their hard shells. Almost all the
species belonging to this group, when disturbed roll themselves into a coil
with the head on the inside.
The Third Suborder CHILOPODA.
Is in many respects the highest. The typical forms are essentially
predaceous. Their powerful foot-jaws, generally provided with poison glands,
enable them to seize their prey and guide it to the mouth. Their long and
powerful legs make it possible for them to overtake any insect that is
obliged to depend upon its running powers for escape. Their soft, flat
bodies covered with a membranous or leathery integument are admirably fitted
for squeezing and wriggling through tight places. Their eyes, when present,
are so placed that they can see behind as well as ahead, and their
long tapering and very flexible, so that, within their range, they are a
terrible scourge to other insects. They make the struggle for existence as
hard in the cracks and crannies and dark corners of the world as it is in the
Is represented in the United States by six families.
6. (7.) Body small [2.5 mil. long] soft skinned, covered with penicillate
scales and fasicles of hairs; anus in the penultimate segment; 13 pairs of
Fam. 1. POLYXENIDW20198;.
This fami y includes but a single genus and species P. fasciculatus
said by Wood to inhabit the Southern States. Underwood states that it is
"distributed from Massachusetts to Georgia." It has never been reported from
the Central States but its occurrence here is not improbable.
4 Brookville Society of Natural History.
7. (6.) Body covering crustaceous; legs not less than 17 pairs.
8. (17.) Head small, conical; protomalæ minute; dentomalæ
obsolete; mouth suctorial.
Fam. 2 POLYZONIDÆ.
This family is divided into five genera, as follows:
9. (10.) Sixth and Seventh joints of the antennæ confluent with the
fifth and with it forming a club.
This genus contains a single species reported by Cope from Montgomery
Co., Va. He makes it the type of a new family Andrognathidæ.
10. (9.) Joints of antennæ not forming a club.
11. (12.) Eyes wanting; rostrum shorter that antennæ.
P. LeContei Wood, from Georgia.
P. rosea Murray, from California.
12. (11.) Eyes present, conspicuous.
13. [14.] [16.] Eyes 8; body segments about 45.
Contains a single species O. bivirgata, Wood, found in the mountains of
14. [13.] [16.] Eyes 6, in two diverging rows; head concealed by first
15. Segments about 46; light brown or parchment colored above, dirty white
below; dorsum convex, venter, moderately concave. Legs when extended not
reaching beyond the body. First scutum one-twenty first, last scutum one-tenth
the width of the body. Length 18 mil., width 3 mil.
Hexoglena cryptocephalus McNeill.
This species is common about Bloomington, Ind., and its occurrence in
Franklin County is almost certain. It will be found in small colonies in
thoroughly decayed stumps.
16. [14.] [13.] Eyes 2; body segments 50-53.
Contains a single species from the Cumberland mountains in East
17. (8.) Mouth-parts masticatory; protomalæ and dentomalæ well
18. (37.) Body composed of 35 segments or fewer.
19. (28.) Body composed of 19-20 segments, scuta generally projecting
laterally into laminæ ; legs 28-31 pairs; eyes wanting.
Fam. 3 POLYDESMIDÆ.
This family contains about twenty-five species all of which are still
included in a single genus, Polydesmus. Though doubtless the genus will admit
of being divided to advantage, this work would better be left until so large a
proportion of the species are discovered and studied that the work may be
once for all. The absence of eyes, the small development of the
the general habits of these species place them very near the lower end of the
scale, in development, they scarcely rank above Polyzonidæ. Their food
in every case but one, so far as I know, rotten wood. Dr. C. H. Wood says
that P. impurus Wood, from Texas is to be found generally under old
cow dung. The genitalia of female Polydesmidæ are situated in
Brookville Society of Natural History 5
the third body segment just posterior to the third pair of legs. They are
never conspicuous and often minute. The male genitalia on the contrary are
usually large and quite easily seen. They are situated in the seventh segment
occupying the place of the eighth pair of legs. These furnish by far the best
specific characters for this family. The color and sculpturing of the scuta
together with the size, position and color of the lateral laminæ are
classification. The character of the anal scutum is perhaps the most constant
structural feature within a species and is very useful in determining immature
20. (23.) Scuta sculptured; lateral laminæ horizontal.
21. [22.] Scuta covered with convex tuberculoid setatipped scales.
Polydesmus setiger Wood.
The lateral laminæ have their margins strongly and acutely serrate
especially towards the head. The last scutum is triangular with the apex
prolonged and decurved.
This species is very common and very widely distributed. Its habitat is
probably the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. There are no
specimens in the collection from Brookville, but it will certainly be found
there. This is one of the species which is sometimes abundant in yards and
old gardens. My friend, Mr. C. H. Bollman, of Bloomington, Ind., collected
from under old boards placed about the premises and examined two or three
times a day for three weeks, more than two thousand individuals of this
22. [21.] Scuta with eight scales arranged in two series; color brown.
P. canadensis Newport.
These scales or scale-like tubercles occupy the posterior half of the
scuta, the anterior half is usually smooth and rather convex with a median
furrow dividing it into two halves. In most specimens will also be found on
either side of the double row of scales a large swelling situated partially
upon the lateral laminæ. Last scutum triangular. Apex obtuse,
decurved. Length 25 to 30 mil.
Its habitat is the same as that of P. setiger.
It occurs in much the
same situations as P. erythropygus and is scarcely less abundant.
23. [20.] Scuta smooth, particolored; dorsum convex.
24. [25.] Lateral laminæ large, horizontal; color olive chestnut,
lateral laminæ and a large semicircular spot on the posterior margins
of the scuta reddish orange.
P. erythropygus Brandt.
The anal scutum is broad and almost uncinate being nearly straight, broad
at the tip and slightly rounded. Length 30-40 mil. This is the commonest
Chilognath in the Mississippi valley. I have never seen it reported
of the Alleghanies or west of the Rocky Mountains. I have reason to think it
is replaced in Florida and the extreme South by closely allied forms. This
form will probably be found less frequently in cultivated ground than the two
25. [24.] Lateral laminæ large, depressed.
26. [27.] Color blackish chestnut with yellowish lateral laminæ,
venter; and a yellowish line on the posterior margins of the scuta.
6 Brookville Society of Natural History.
Polydesmus corrugatus Wood.
The coxæ as well as the femora are armed at the apex with the
but acute spines. The sterna are smooth with no indication of lateral
The anal scutum is triangular, elongate and truncate. Length 40 to 50 mil;
width 8 to 10 mil.
This is one of our handsomest species. It is common at Brookville and at
Dublin, Ind., but rather rare at Bloomington, Ind. Its habitat is much the
same as that of P. erythropygus, but is not nearly so common a
distribution being restricted to particular localities instead of being
27. [26.] Color dilute chestnut, with pinkish lateral laminæ and a
narrow band of the same color on the posterior margins of the scuta.
Polydesmus butlerii. N. Sp.
This species bears a general resemblance to Polydesmus corrugatus
with which I at first placed it, as I had no males and was unwilling to risk a
synonym until I had compared the male genitalia. As I received two male
specimens in the second collection from Franklin Co., I am now able to figure
the genitalia, which will be seen to be strikingly unlike the genitalia
corrugatus or any other species that I know of, figured or described.
Dorsum strongly convex; lateral luminæ large, depressed and
blunt processes posteriorly. The color is dilute chestnut with the venter and
legs, lateral laminæ and a narrow band on the caudal margins of the
pink, fading in alcohol. The first scutum is banded anteriorly as well as
posteriorly. All of the bands tend to widen near the medium line of the
dorsum. The head is colored similarly to the body and the medium sulcus is
distinct. The anal scutum is large, triangular, with the apex truncate. The
sterna have their caudal margins produced at the sides into blunt tubercles.
The coxæ of all the legs are unarmed, the femora are armed at the
distal end with a short but generally acute spinous process.
Magnified 16 Diameters.
Lateral view of base and spinous processes of one-half of male
Fig. 3. Medial view of a portion of the base and the spinous processes of the
Brookville Society of Natural History. 7
Ventral view of spinous processes of male genitalia.
The genitalia of the male are composed of two smooth perpendicular
subcylindrical basal pieces (Fig. 1. a.) from which extends forward the
principle spinous process, (Fig. 1. b.) being at right angles to the base and
parallel to the body. This process is quite robust, densely pilose at the
proximal end on the inner side, less pilose on the upper side and along the
inner margin to the base of the smaller, (Fig. 2. d.) of the two processes
into which the distal end of the main process is divided. The smaller of
these is smooth, robust at the base but slenderly accuminate at the apex; the
larger is smooth, broad and thin, and slightly twisted. From the base of the
main process arises another process, which is remarkably long, smooth and
attenuated. It is concealed in the ventral view but is seen in the lateral
and medium views (Fig. 1 & 3. c.). It extends as far forwards as the apex of
the smaller distal process. From the distal end of the basal piece on its
inner side arises a secondary spinous process (Fig. 2. & 3. f.) which is
short, smooth, compressed and curved rapidly forward against the proximal end
of the principal process. The length of the basal piece is one and one-fifth
mil., of the main process two mil., of the slender process arising from the
base of the main process, one and one-sixth mil. The length of the body is
thirty min. (one and one-fifth inches), the width is 7 mil. (seven-twenty
fifths of an inch.)
Habitat Franklin Co., Ind.
The description is based on 6 individuals, 4 males and 2 females. I have
named this species in honor of Mr. Amos W. Butler.
28. [19.] Body with about 30 segments; scuta generally setose; eyes generally
present and distinct.
Fam. 4. CHORDEUMIDÆ.
This family as at present constituted contains five genera. This number
however will probably be diminished by a careful revision. The species are
for the most part cave inhabiting.
29.  Body not setose; antennæ long; eighth pair of legs of male
modified, six jointed; genitalia small.
8 Brookville Society of Natural History.
The single species P. cavernarum Cope has been reported from
and Bradford caves, Indiana, Carter and Zwingler caves, Kentucky, and numerous
small caves in Pennsylvania and Virginia.
30. [29.] Body setose.
31. [34.] Eyes present.
32.  Body short and thick; eyes triangular; antennæ slender;
fifth as long as the body is thick; legs long and slender, eighth pair
modified in the male.
C. caesioannulatus Wood, is the solitary species. The body is
in color varied with darker color. A medium pale dorsal groove runs the whole
length of the body. The hind margin of each scuta is bordered by a
silver-gray band. The scuta are furnished with 6-8 white, depressed,
arranged in transverse lines. Length 15-25 mil. Habitat, the southern
portion of the Mississippi valley. Not uncommon at Bloomington and at Dublin,
Ind. It is found in much the same situations as P. setiger and has
been reported as occurring in caves.
33. [32.] Body short and fusiform; eighth pair of legs of male two-jointed;
setæ at least half as long as the body is thick.
Dirty white, banded transversely and mottled with light brown anteriorly.
Segments 28; male with 45, female with 46 legs. Eyes of 10 ocelli in a lunate
T. lunatum Harger.
The species like C. caesioannulatus has an impressed dorsal
scuta also bear three seteriferous tubercles on each side, the two lower being
approximate. The two inner bristles on the anal scutum have thickened
The legs are slender, white, hairy, with the penultimate joint lengthened.
Length 6 mil. Habitat Connecticut to Indiana. It is not uncommon at Dublin
and Bloomington under leaves and bark in moist places. I have found it
frequently associated with Scolopendrella. Besides the species
already mentioned there have been described under Tricopetatum.
T. gomeratum, Harger.
From John Day River Oregon.
T. iuloides, Harger.
From the north shore of Lake Superior.
T. bollmani, McNeill.
From Mayfield's Cave, Monroe Co., Ind.
34. (32.) Eyes wanting; body slender.
35. (36.) Eighth pair of legs of male two-jointed ending in a claw;
setæ very long.
The single species S. copei seems to be limited to Mammoth cave
and other small caves in its vicinity.
36. (35.) Sitæ shorter than in S. copei; sixth pair of legs of
male greatly swollen.
Brookville Society of Natural History. 9
The solitary species Z. whitei Ryder, has been reported from New
Market, Luray and Weyer's caves, Virginia.
37. (18.) Body composed of more than 32 segments.
38. (41.) Body long slender, tapering; scuta usually deeply furrowed,
antennæ long and slender, the seventh segment short and conic; legs
very long, the
eighth pair only modified in the male, the seventh and ninth pairs normal;
Fam. 5 LISIOPETALIDÆ.
This family as at present constituted consists of a single genus,
LISIOPETATUM, Brandt, and two closely allied species. The second only of the
species described below has been reported from Indiana, but I give a
description of the other that the specimens found in Franklin County and
elsewhere in Indiana, may be compared with each description.
39. (40.) Body not setose; body segments 61 with 115 pair of legs. Body and
head horn color, usually mottled and banded with dark blackish horn color.
The body with a medium dull yellowish dorsal stripe and with a lateral row of
concolorous diffuse spots, one on each longest lateral ridge. [The spots vary
much, sometimes covering four or five ridges and extending low down on the
sides of the scuta.] Each scutum, except those near the head and at the end of
the body, has about twenty-five prominent ridges. The dorsal, twelve larger
than those on the sides; these ridges are high with concave valleys between
them. The ends of the ridges are acutely conical and project over the ends of
the scuta. Length of the entire body 35 mil; thickness 2 mil. Habitat Mass.
to Iowa and south to Florida and Louisiana. The above is Dr. Packard's
description wilh some of the less important characters omitted.
L. lactarium Say.
40. (39.) Body setose; setæ bristle like but easily visible to the
segments 58 with 102 pairs of legs. Body and head deep brown, almost black
with a lighter brownish dorsal stripe, and a stripe of the same color along
the sides. Each scutum except those near the extremities, has about 26 ridges
situated upon the posterior two-thirds of cach segment. These ridges are of
two very unequal sized, 14 small and 12 larger ones, alternating. The twelve
larger ones are acutely conical and each projects over the following segment
and ends in a short stiff bristle. Two of the small ridges are adjacent in
the dorsal stripe. Immediately below the anal scutum on each side of the
mediam line grow to very coarse setæ from whose extremities two fine
long setæ proceed. Length 55 mil; width 3 mil. Habitat Indiana.
L. endasum McNeill.
This species is not uncommon at Bloomington, Brookville and Dublin, but it
is very unequally distributed, at the first named point it is found in a very
limited number of places, but in its favorite haunts is not shy. It is not
unlikely that this is the species to which the specimen from New Grenada, in
the Philadelphia Academy of Science should be referred. Dr. Packard remarks
of the distribution of L. lactarium, "It probably ranges through
Central into South America, as
10 Brookville Society of Natural History.
Dr. Wood remarks: 'I have seen a single specimen, a female labeled as from New
Grenada, which apparently belongs to this species'. This specimen I have seen
in the Philadelphia Academy of Science, but did not compare it closely with
our species. It is much larger than individuals from the United States.
41. (38.) Scuta moderately if at all furrowed; both pairs of legs of seventh
segment modified in the male; sterna, at least of anterior segments, united so
as to form complete rings.
Fam. 6 IULIDÆ.
This family contains the highest forms of Chilognatha with the exception
perhaps of the Lisiopetalidae. The antennæ and eyes are well developed
in the genus Spirobolus. This and the preceding family offer a marked
exception to the rule that a large number of segments usually accompany and
indicate a low organization. They are much better fitted for an active life
than most other Chilognaths and it is very probable that their food is largely
living instead of dead and decaying vegetable matter. These species are many
of them nocturnal. I have seen Iulus impressus very late on summer evenings
crawling over trees and fences, and in one case I found an individual clinging
to the top of a long blade of grass, but it was too dark for me to learn what
his particular business was there. It is not unlikely that some of them feed
occasionally on the leaves as well as the roots of plants.
42. (44.) Scuta with distinct carinæ; body long and slender,
segments 59; antennæ short and thick; eyes in linear series.
This genus contains a single species C. annulata Say, confused
Lisiopetalum lactarium, from which however it is easily distinguished
by its linear eye-patches, and short thick antennæ
43. Eyes consisting each of six ocelli in linear series; middle segments of
the body with six sharp ridges above succeeded on the sides by about 12
smaller ridges on each side, gradually becoming obsolete on the venter; color
of the body horn-brown, with the head, feet and antennæ pale
flesh-color. Length 30 mil.
Cambala annulata Say.
Habitat Central and Southern States. This is a common species in
Indiana, not yet reported from Brookville. It is said by Cope to be one of
the most abundant species in the mountain regions of Tennessee and North
Carolina. It has also been found in many Indiana, Kentucky and Virginia
44. (42.) Scuta not carinate.
45. (47.) Scutum of the second segment extending beyond the first scutum at
the sides so as to reach the head; antennæ short and thick, usually
fitting into depressions on the anterior surface of the head.
46. Deep brown annulate with red; segments 50 to 57; scuta copiously minutely
punctate; anal scale triangular.
Spirobolus marginatus Say.
Length 40 mil to 160 mil.
Brookville Society of Natural History. 11
Habitat United States east of Rocky Mountains. This is a very variable
species in size and coloring, and is indistinguishable from S. uncigerus
except by the genital appendages. I am not sure that I have ever seen a
specimen of S. uncigerus from the eastern part of the United States,
I have formerly thought I could distinguish this species by the number of
segments and other characters which I have since concluded are very
inconstant. At present it is not possible to say how many species are
included in the genus.
47. (45.) Scutum of the second segment not produced forward at the sides;
antennæ compared with those of Spirobulus, slender.
The body in species belonging to this genus is always slender and
usually less than three inches in length. The sexes are very readily
distinguished by the form of the first scutum and the first pair of legs as
well as by the genital appendages. This last mentioned character as in
Polydesmus is often the best and not unfrequently the only means of
distinguishing species. The secondary sexual characters just mentioned
consist of the very conspicuous enlargement of the first pair of legs in the
male and a modification in their form which probably serves a useful purpose
in copulation. The antero-posterior diameter of the first scutum is also much
greater in the male than the female, in the latter the anterior and posterior
margins of this scutum meet at an acute angle, often more or less rounded at
the apex; in the former, these margins meet the lateral margins nearly at
right angles. This genus like Spirobolus is greatly in need of
it is difficult to say how many valid species it contains, but probably the
number is not far from twenty-five. Except the genitalia, the most reliable
specific characters are, in order of importance, the number of segments, the
color and markings of the scuta, and the character of the anal scutum, i.e.,
whether mucronate or not and if mucronate the size and position of the
48. (51.) Last scutum mucronate.
49. (50) Mucro small; segments 50-53; scuta scarcely at all pilose.
IULUS IMPRESSUS Say.
The color is generally reddish chestnut, with a black dorsal line and
lateral series of blackish spots, but in many specimens the color is almost
uniformly deep chestnut with the dorsal line and lateral spots almost
obsolete. Frequently the scuta are ornamental with whitish or light-red
blotches on each side of the dorsal line. Length 35 to 50 mil.
Habitat United States east of the Rocky Mountains. This is a very
abundant and wide spread species and in the Central States the handsomest as
well as the commonest Iulus.
50. (49) Mucro large and straight; segments 63, scuta on the upper surface
distantly and obsoletely canaliculate; posterior segments decidedly pilose.
12 Brookville Society of Natural History.
I. pennsylvanicus Brandt.
The general color of the species is dark chestnut brown, with a lateral
series of black spots, more or less distinct, around which the color is
lighter than the body color. Length 50 mil. to 60 mil.
Habitat Pennsylvania to Iowa and south to Florida. In Indiana and
Illinois, a much less common species than the preceding.
51. (48.) Last scutum not mucronate.
52. (53.) Segments 42; body brownish with lateral series of strongly
pronounced black spots; scuta canaliculate above and below.
I. hortensis Wood.
When examined with a magnifier the deep brown of the body is seen to be
very beautifully varied with brighter color. In young individuals and adults
that have recently moulted the color is very much lighter and the black spots
more distinct. The black spots on the sides begin about the fifth or sixth
segment and end about the thirty-ninth. Length 12 mil. to 15 mil.
Habitat Pennsylvania to Indiana. This species is rare at Bloomington.
It is more likely to be found in cultivated than in uncultivated ground.
53. (52.) Segments 35; color deep brown with the dorsum yellowish, ornamented
with a median black line; scuta closely canaliculate above and below.
I. virgatus Wood.
The coloring of this species makes it easily recognizable, in spite of
its small size. Length 12 mil. to 18 mil.
Habitat Pennsylvania and Maryland to Indiana. It is not less rare in
Indiana than the preceding species and is found in similar situations.
54. (103.) Dorsal scuta 15 or more; tarsus three-jointed.
55. [83.] Feet-bearing segments 20 or more.
56. [72.] Feet-bearing segments 31 to 173; antennæ 14 jointed.
Fam. 1 GEOPHILIDÆ.
This is a very homogenious family as, in addition to the characters given
above, the species agree in the total absence of eyes and the character of
the segments which are each composed of a complete leg-bearing segment and an
incomplete footless segment closely coalesced with the first, but plainly
indicated by the alternate smaller scuta. There are in the family upwards of
thirty nominal species divided among five genera, most of the species live in
the ground and are found rarely under old bark. The absence of good specific
characters makes identification of the species a matter of considerable
difficulty. The number of segments is probably the best guide, but this
number varies within limits of from four to six, (as indicated by the feet.)
The feet are invariably an odd number of pairs and generally the male have two
pairs fewer than the lowest number the female of the same species have, and
the female have two more pairs than the highest number the male have in the
same species. The males are usually distinguished from the females by having
the anal feet elongated and swollen.
Brookville Society of Natural History. 13
57. [63.] Body narrowed anteriorly and posteriorly; head narrowed in front;
claw of the second malapedes armed at the base with a strong tooth.
SCOLIOPLANES B & M.
58. [61.] Frontal lamina of the head separated from the cephalic lamina by an
59. [60.] Feet of male pp 39-41, of female pp 37-41; decidedly attenuate
before and behind; fulvous, with the head and antennæ dilute brown;
clothed with short hairs; feet sparsely covered with long hairs; spiracles
round, in front small, in the middle and behind minute.
S. chionophilus Wood.
Præscuta in front, short or very short, in the middle and
long or very long. The coxæ of the anal feet are swollen and impressed
nine to thirteen large pits arranged in oblique, nearly straight lines. The
anal sternum is triangular. Length 22 to 25 mil.
Habitat Massachusetts to Indiana. Not common, under stones or other
small bodies in hilly pasture land.
60. [59.] Feet of male pp 47-51, of female pp 49 to 53; much narrowed before
and behind; fulvous, with the head dilute brown; body sparcely pilose with
short hair, legs densely pilose; spiracles round, large, slightly smaller
S. bothriopus Wood.
The praescuta are long or very long. The coxæ of the anal feet are
swollen and slightly pilose as well as impressed with 13 to 16 large and small
pits arranged around one large pit removed from the others. The anal sterna
is narrow with the sides rounded and converging posteriorly. Length
female 24 mil., male 35 mil.
Habitat Massachusetts to Indiana. I have found bothriopus more
than chionophilus, but still not abundant by any means. It is
found in much the same situations as the last.
61. [58.] Frontal lamina not distinct at all from the cephalic lamina.
62. Feet of the female pp 71 to 75, of the male pp 69 to 73; before much,
behind plainly attenuate; yellow or fulvous at the extremities; smooth.
S. parviceps Wood.
The praescuta are rather short or short anteriorly, and somewhat longer
posteriorly. The spiracles are large or very large in the front segments and
gradually decrease in size until on the middle and posterior segments they
are small. The anal coxæ are plainly swollen and smooth and impressed
about thirty large and small pores. Anal sternum narrow, with the sides
nearly straight and rapidly converging behind. Length 47 mil. to 60 mil.
Habitat Pennsylvania to Indiana. Parviceps is much commoner than
of the preceding species. It is found in similar localities and also along
the roadsides and in open woods under stones and logs.
63. [57.] Body scarcely or not at all narrowed in front, moderately narrowed
behind; scuta bisulcate.
65. [66.] Cephalic laminæ elongate, not narrowed in front more than
frontal laminæ separated from the cephalic by an impressed line, basal
narrow, with the sides converging a little in front; praebasal lamina
concealed. Coxal pores numerous, situated upon the dorsal as well as the
ventral surface of the coxæ.
There are almost no easily discernible, constant characters to
distinguish this from the following genus. Wood gives the "cephalic seg-
14 Brookville Society of Natural History
ment twice as long as broad; antennæ approximate;" but I know of no
Mecistocephalus that has the cephalic segment more than once and a
long as broad, and in the only illustration Wood gives of the head of this
genus, the length is not more than I have stated. The whole head however is
certainly longer and narrower than Geophilus.
None of this genus have yet been discovered in Franklin Co.. and as I
have found none of the five or six species comprising the genus at all common
in Indiana. I do not feel justified in inserting the name of any of them in a
list of those certain to be found in Franklin County.
66. [65.] Cephalic lamina subquadrate, not narrowed in front more than behind;
frontal lamina frequently separated from the cephalic lamina by an impressed
line; basal lamina not very broad or narrow, converging in front; praebasal
lamina partly or wholly concealed; coxal pores many, few or none, upon the
ventral surface alone or upon the dorsal surface also; anal sterna narrow or
broad, praescuta very large, or large.
Of the ten species reported from the United States as belonging to this
genus, four are pretty sure to occur at Brookville, two are contained in the
collections already made.
67. [70.] Frontal lamina separated from the cephalic by an impressed line.
68. [69.] Body robust, testaceous; head and antennæ dilute brown;
lamina almost as long as broad; spiracles round, on the anterior segments
large, on the posterior and middle segments minute; anal sterna very broad,
with strongly convex converging sides.
G. cephalicus Wood.
This species is not uncommon in Indiana. It's robust body is an easily
recognized character that will make it readily distinguishable among
The claw of the 2nd malapede is armed with a minute or very minute tooth. The
coxæ are impressed with two oblique, poriferous, half obsolete
Feet pp female 51-53, map pp 49. Length female 47 mil., male 37 mil.
Habitat United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Meinert says 'One
specimen in the Cambridge Museum is labelled Zanzibar.'
69. [68.] Body not very robust; fulvus, feet yellow; rather smooth; cephalic
lamina about equally long and broad; spiracles in front oval or suboval,
vertical, large or very large, gradually decreasing until on the middle and
posterior scuta they are round and minute; anal sterna narrower than in the
preceding species, with the nearly straight sides plainly converging.
G. mordax Meinert.
In this species the 2nd malapedes are also armed with a minute tooth.
Legs of female 51. Length 25 mil.
There is a single specimen in the collection which I refer to this
species, but one other specimen is known, and for that no more distinct
locality is given than U. S. A.
70. [67.] Frontal lamina of the head not separated from the cephalic by a
Brookville Society of Natural History. 15
71. Light orange, slender; cephalic segment deep orange; teeth of each of the
2nd malapedes 4, one of two larger others small or minute; feet very sparsely
pilose, in female pp 63, in male 61.
G. bipuncticeps Wood.
I have found Woods description of the arrangement of the punctation on
the head to be good. "On each side of the posterior mesial portion there is a
longitudinal series of punctations; on each side of the latter is a broad
patch of the same, and anteriorly they are disposed in transverse series."
Length 40 mil. Habitat Illinois, Sonora, D. T. There is a single specimen in
73. [56.] Feet-bearing segments 20-25; antennæ 27-30 jointed.
Fam. 2. SCOLOPENDRIDÆ.
To this family belong the much dreaded centipedes. There is no doubt but
the stories concerning Scolopendra heros Girard are very much
they are not without some foundation, in fact, it seems to be pretty well
agreed now that the bite of this myriapod produces an ulcer in which the flesh
is sloughed off so that a hollow scar is left. This species is common in
Texas and is found as far north as Kansas, it is also found in the Southern
States but is not so common there as in Texas and does not grow so large. It
is quite probable that all the larger species of the genus, some of which are
nearly a foot long, are capable of inflicting an equally serious wound. There
is not much doubt indeed but that all the species in this and the succeeding
family possess poison fangs, although their existence has never been, so far
as I know, demonstrated. Mr. Wood speaks of having felt the pain of a bite
from Scolopocryptops sexpinosus for several hours. Mr. Cope says
postica can inflict a painful wound with either the malapedes or the
anal feet. I have myself experienced the pain of a nip from the jaws of
Lithobius multidentatus. In collecting this species, the only safe
seize them is by the head, they can then be put into the bottle tail first.
The Lithobii run so quickly that no time is left the collector for hesitation.
If he wants his specimen he must put the end of his finger directly on its
head and the thumb under the head. This seems like taking the bull by the
horns but it is not so dangerous as it appears. All the genera of
Scolopendridoe found in the United States are represented in the
fauna of Indiana.
73. [81.] Eyes wanting.
74. [79.] Feet-bearing segments 21.
75. [77.] Last scutum not larger than the others.
This genus is represented in the United States by four nominal species,
one of which has been found at Bloomington and Dublin.
16 Brookville Society of Natural History.
76. Color orange; antennæ with about 19 joints; sterna marked with a
cross, formed by a median and a transverse sulcus; anal feet of the male
longer than the others, slender, pilose, with the basal joints thickly covered
with small brown acute recurved hooks.
C. asperites Wood.
The blackish or brown spines found on the anal legs of the male are also
present on the two or three pairs just anterior to these. Length 20 mil.
Habitat Florida, Indiana and the mountains of Virginia. The species is common
and wide spread, though easily overlooked on account of its small size and
resemblance to young Scolopocryptops.
77. [75.] Last scutum the largest, quadrate
In addition to the character given above the genus is distinguishable
(according to Meinert) by the absence of spiracles in the seventh segment.
The anal legs are also very characteristic being short, very much swollen,
having the appearance of jaws. There are said to be three species in the
United States but the specimens I have examined are so variable that I should
not be surprised to find that a large series from different localities would
show a complete gradation from one species to another.
78. Reddish brown or orange, venter paler, feet and antennæ yellow,
lightly punctate, last segment and anal legs, thickly, profoundly punctate;
first scuta with a strongly pronounced transverse triangular depression.
O. crassipes Meinert.
The teeth are broad and flat and so variable in number that no dependance
can be placed in them for specific characters. There are from four to ten.
The anal legs have the superior and inferior inner margins carinate. This
last character is about the only point of importance that distinguishes this
species from O. postica Wood. Length 36 mil. Habitat Florida,
Indiana. This species is rare at Bloomington and Dublin, but is common at
Brookville under stones on the wooded hills about the town.
79. [74.] Feet-bearing segments 23; last scutum narrow; antennæ 17
There are four species in the United States, one of which has been found
80. Anal feet long smooth, femora with a large spine on the inferior surface,
and a small spine on the inner side.
S. sexpinoeus Say.
The color is yellowish brown or reddish, paler below with the head and
first scuta reddish chestnut. The last scutum is rather broad, strongly
narrowed behind with the posterior margin nearly straight. Length 65 mil.
Habitat the whole United States. This species so common that at some seasons
of the year you can scarcely turn a log in the woods without seeing one or
more of them scampering off.
81. [73.] Eyes distinct; feet-bearing segments 21; antennæ attenuate
Brookville Society of Natural History. 17
This is the only genus of Scolopendridoe, having eyes, known to
inhabit the United States.
82. Femora of the penultimate feet unarmed at the apex; first scuta with a
deep transverse sulcus near the front margin; second [considered by Meinert
the first] tarsal joint of all the feet not armed with a spine;
antennæ rather short, a little swollen at the base, 17 jointed.
S. woodii Meinert.
The body is yellow or brown more or less varied with olivaceous or green.
The anal feet are rather short and somewhat swollen, with five large spines on
the superior interior margins of each thigh, arranged in two rows. The apical
angle of thigh is produced into a short acute spine, simple or bifid, while
the lower surface is armed with six or seven large spines arranged in three
rows. Length 60 mil. Habitat Central, Southern and Eastern States as far
north as Massachusetts. This species is very rare at Bloomington.
S. heros has never yet been reported from Indiana but I think its
existence in that State is almost certain. Stories are told in Bloomington of
large black centipedes five or six inches long that have been seen about old
cellars and houses, in one case such an individual was killed on the staircase
where it was discovered by the gentleman who related to me the incident as he
was going up stairs at night with a lamp.
83. (55.) Feet-bearing segments less than 20; scuta in two sets, a smaller
scutum generally alternating with a larger.
Fam. 3. LITHOBIIDÆ.
This family is further characterized by the presence of excretorial pores
on the coxæ of the last four or five pairs of feet. These pores
specific and generic characters by their size and arrangement. The eyes are
composed of from one to fifty or more ocelli. The antennæ are
multiarticulate. The genitalia of the female consist, externally of a forceps
like apparatus. In the male the same organs are small two-jointed styliform
appendages which are not at all conspicuous and are quite constant in their
84. (85.) A single large ocellus each side of the head, labrum one-toothed in
This genus is represented in the United States by a single species H.
fulvicornus Meinert, said by Stuxberg to occur at Mt. Lebanon.
85. (84.) Eyes composed of few or many ocelli, all or nearly all the feet
armed with spines; claw of the female genitalia concave within and whole or
bi-lobed or tri-lobed.
This genus contains at the present time about twenty-five species which
are included in six sub-genera.
18 Brookville Society of Natural History.
86. (89.) The angles of the posterior margins of none of the scuta produced,
either rounded or nearly right angled; coxal pores present in the 12, 13, 14,
Subgenus ARCHILITHOBIUS Stuxberg.
87. (88.) Scuta with the posterior angles right angled; coxal pores few
arranged in a single row; coxæ of anal feet armed with a single spine
L. jowensis Meinert.
Brown, with the head and antennæ darker, sterna lighter and legs
rather slender; nearly smooth; feet densely pilose; antennæ 23 jointed;
12, 15, arranged in three or four rows; prosternal teeth, 4, 4; coxal pores,
4, 5, 5, 4, round; claw of female genitalia simple; length, 13.5m.
Habitat, Meinert has not given any locality for the single specimen from
which his description was taken.
There is a single mutilated specimen in the colleciion whose identity I
am unable to determine. It belongs to this subgenus, however, and other
specimens will doubtless be found.
89. (86.) Angles of the posterior margins of the scuta some of them
90. (91.) Coxal pores present in the 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 pairs of legs; angles
of 9, 11, 13, scuta produced.
Subgenus PSEUDOLITHOBIUS Stuxberg.
L. megalaporus Stuxberg from San Francisco is the only species
91. (90.) Coxal pores present in the 12, 13, 14, 15 pairs of feet.
92. (96) Angles of three or fewer of the scuta produced.
93. (94.) Angles of the 11, 13 scuta produced.
Subgenus HEMILITHOBIUS Stuxberg.
This subgenus contains two species neither of which have been found in
Indiana, L. eucuemis Stuxberg, Mt. Lebanon, and L. cantabrigensis
94. (93.) Angles of the 9, 11, 11, 13 scuta produced.
Subgenus LITHOBIUS Leach.
95. Anal feet armed with a single claw; coxal pores few, arranged in one row;
penultimate feet armed with two claws; coxæ of anal feet with no
L. forficatus Linnaeus.
Chestnut or brown with the sterna and feet yellow; rather robust.
Antennæ rather long, 36-48 jointed; eyes with 22-35 ocelli, arranged
rows; prosternal teeth 5-5 to 7-7; coxal pores, 6, 6, 6, 5-12, 10, 9, 8;
joints of the anal feet armed respectively with 1, 3, 3, 2 spines on the lower
surface; claw of the female genitalia three lobed; length 14-26 mil.
Habitat United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Meinert says
Brookville Society of Natural History. 19
it is the most abundant species in the Eastern States. It is outnumbered
twenty to one in the Central Sates by L. multidentatus. It is common at
96. (92.) Angles of more than three of the scuta produced.
97. (101.) Angles of the 7, 9, 11, 13 scuta produced.
Subgenus NEOLITHOBIUS Stuxberg.
98. Anal feet armed with a single claw; coxal pores few, in a single row;
penultimate feet armed with two claws.
99. (100.) Eyes with 45-48 ocelli in 8-9 oblique rows.
Lithobius latzellii Meinert.
Chestnut or reddish brown with venter and legs yellowish;
short and slender, 32 jointed; prosternal teeth, 8-8; coxal pores, 5,7,6,4-5,
6, 6, 5, large, mostly oval; anal feet armed with 1, 3, 3, 2 spines, with the
femora and tibia sulcate below; length, 23-28 m.
Habitat Virginia and Indiana. A little less common at Bloomington than
100. (99.) Eyes with 22-28 ocelli in 5-6 longitudinal rows.
L. mordax Koch.
Yellowish brown, with the venter and legs paler; antennæ 32-37
prosternal teeth 6-6 to 7-7; coxal pores 7, 8, 9, 6-8 10, 11,6 oval; anal
feet armed with 1, 3, 3, 2 spines; length, 20-26 m.
Habitat Southern States as far north as Indiana. Less common in
Bloomington than the preceding species.
101 (97.) Angles of the 6, 7, 9, 11, 13 scuta produced.
Subgenus EULITHOBIUS Stuxberg.
This subgenus includes a single very common species.
102. Anal feet armed with a single claw; coxal pores many in several rows;
female genitalia with the claw three lobed; anal coxæ armed with one
small lateral and one larger ventral spine.
L. mulidentatus Newport.
Brown, in varying
shades of chestnut and
olive; antennæ rather long, joints long. 20-22; eyes with 22-30 ocelli
in 4-6 rows; anal feet armed with 1, 3, 2, 1 spines; length, 22-58 m.
Habitat Eastern United States. This species is probably a Northern
rather than a Southern form. It is very abundant in the Central States.
103. [14.] Dorsal scuta, 8; antennæ as long as the body or longer;
tarsi, many jointed; eyes compound.
Fam. 1. SCUTIGERIDÆ.
This family contains a single genus, Scutigera, and two species
United States. These species differ from other Chilipods so widely
20 Brookville Society of Natural History.
that it seems to me they should constitute a higher group than a family.
According to Brandt, whose classification Wood accepted also, the family
constituted the suborder Schizotarsia, of equal rank with
included all the rest of Chilopoda. Meinert at one time was
place Scutigera higher than a subfamily, Scutigerini of
Lithobiidae, but now
admits that it should constitute a family equal in rank with the other
families of Chilopoda, but nearer to Lithobiidæ than to
Geophilidæ. The head in Scutigeridæ is large, the eyes compound
prominent, the second pair of malapedes very much elongated, with very large
spinous processes; the scuta are eight, one or two sterna, with their
posterior margins very emarginate where they are furnished with slit like
stoma; the anal segment of the female is furnished with a pair of forceps, the
external organs of generation, which in the male they are replaced by
104. Antennæ very slender, 2 or 3 times as long as the body -- female
9, 11, 7, to 5, 3
Scutigera forceps Roffinesgue.
The body is rather broad, scarcely narrowed anteriorly, but slightly
posteriorly, more or less convex, greenish, yellow above, with three narrow
bluish or fuscous longitudinal stripes; length, 28m.
Habitat East of the Rocky Mountains and north of Texas. This species
frequents old houses and wells, as well as shady hollows and ravines. They
are not uncommon at Bloomington and Dublin. The second species is S.
linceci Wood from Texas.
It will be noticed that the number of species likely or known to occur in
this county is placed in this paper at thirty-three. Of this number sixteen
are known to occur, and of the other seventeen species all are found in
Indiana. The collection is very meagre in Geophilidae and
Lithobiidae, two of the largest families, and a good collection of
these forms will add a considerable number of new species to the list.
Page 7, for "medium" read "medial."
Page 7, for "min." read "mil."
Page 8, for "Psevdotremia" read "Pseudotremia."
Page 8, for "gomeratum" read "glomeratum."
Page 8, for "Sitæ" read "Setæ."
Page 16, for "sexpinoeus" read "sexpinosus."
Page 16, for "scuta" read "scutum."
Page 19, omit one "11."
Contents of Bulletin No.3
Brookville Society page
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