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BIRDS OF FRANKLIN COUNTY, INDIANA.

FAMILY VULTURIDÆ --THE VULTURES -- GENUS CATHARTES.

Cathartes Aura -- Turkey Buzzard. Numerous during the warmer parts of the year; never seen in very cold weather. Two or three warm days during the winter, happening in succession, scarcely ever pass without a visit from these vultures. This is the only vulture I have ever seen in the county.

SUB-FAMILY FALCONIDÆ -- THE FALCONS.
Falco columbarius -- Pigeon Hawk. Occasionally seen following the flight of pigeons in their migrations; very rarely seen at other times.
Falco sparverius -- The Sparrow Hawk. This beautiful little hawk is very abundant, and a constant resident.

SUB-FAMILY ACCIPITRINÆ -- THE HAWKS.
Accipiter Cooperii -- Cooper's Hawk. Probably the most numerous of all the hawks. They destroy more young chickens and quails than all the other hawks together. They fly with amazing rapidity, and scarcely ever miss taking their prey.
Accipiter fuscus -- Sharp-shinned Hawk. These little hawks are quite common, but, like the sparrow hawk, are too small to do much mischief in the poultry-yard.

SUB-GENUS BUTES.[should read: BUTEO]
Buteo borealis -- The Red-tailed Hawk. Very numerous here, as well as throughout the wooded districts of the western country. They prey upon domestic fowls, hares, squirrels, the tufted [should read: ruffed] grouse, and quails.

S. G. R. -- 14.


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Archibuteo Sancti Johannis -- The Black Hawk. I have seen but two or three of these birds; these I think were not residents, but strangers.
Nauclerus furcatus -- The Swallow-tailed Hawk. I have seen but a single specimen of this hawk. It is a remarkably beautiful bird, looking something like a gigantic swallow.

GENUS AQUILA.
Aquila Canadensis -- The Golden Eagle. Frequently seen. More numerous in fall and winter than at other seasons.

GENUS HALIÆTUS.
Haliætus Washingtonii -- The Washington Eagle. This magnificent bird has been seen along White Water almost every winter for fifty years. I have myself seen them very frequently.
Haleætus leucocephalus -- The Bald Eagle. Very common in fall and winter.

PANDION.
Pandion Carolinensis -- The Fish Hawk -- Osprey. This beautiful eagle is often seen in the spring and fall. They do not breed here.

GENUS BUBO.
Bubo Virginianus -- The Great Horned Owl. This powerful and rapacious bird is numerous, probably as much so as any other owl.
Scops Asio -- The Screech Owl. This pretty little owl is abundant.

GENUS SYRNIUM.
Syrnium nebulosum -- The Barred Owl. This is a very common owl in all the western country; usually most numerous in densely wooded districts, but I have seen two of them in prairies, miles from any tree.


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GENUS NYCTALE.
Nyctale acadica -- Saw-whet Owl. I have seen but a single specimen of this owl in the county, but have heard of others having been seen.

GENUS CONURUS -- PARROT FAMILY.
Conurus Carolinensis -- Parakeet -- Carolina Parrot. I have seen but a single flock of these birds, in June, many years ago. There [should read: They] were in the first settlement of the county, were [should read: we] are told by the old inhabitants, very numerous.

GENUS COCCYGUS.
Coccygus Americana -- Yellow-billed Cockoo. This curious bird is very numerous, arriving late in May. Its strange hammering or pounding note may frequently be heard in the woods both day and night. These birds should be sacredly protected, because they feed principally upon the caterpillar, of which they destroy immense numbers.

FAMILY PICIDÆ -- THE WOODPECKERS -- GENUS CAMPEPHILIS.
Campephilus principalis -- Ivory-billed Woodpecker. A former resident in the county. None have been seen for many years.

GENUS PICUS.
Picus villosus. -- The Hairy Woodpecker. Resident. Very abundant. There are two or three varieties of this woodpecker, varing slightly in size.
Picus pubescens -- Downy Woodpecker. Resident. This is a very abundant species. Often seen in our orchards, as well as among ornamental trees around our residences. This and the former species are erroneously called Sapsuckers. Neither of them is the bird which bores holes in the bark of living trees for the purpose of drinking the sap. The only holes they bore are made in searching for worms


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mostly in dead limbs or decaying wood. They should be protected as friends, and not destroyed as enemies.

GENUS SPHYRAPICUS.
Sphyropicus varius -- Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. Quite numerous. Resident.

GENUS HYLATAMUS.
Hylotomus pileatus -- Black Woodpecker. Resident. This large woodpecker was once numerous, but is now rarely seen.

GENUS CENTURUS.
Centurus Carolinus -- Red-bellied Woodpecker. The true Sapsucker. This woodpecker is very common in spring and autumn. This is the bird which bores holes in the sugar maple, apple trees, etc., for the purpose of drinking the sap. These holes, when bored in the bark of the apple tree in October, fill up with a viscid sweet sap, which the bird collects from day to day; and so with the sugar maple, hickory, and some other trees. They are very quiet birds, and not so often seen as many other less numerous species. They have a peculiar squealing note when frequenting the orchards, which is often heard when the bird itself is not to be seen without considerable search. Resident.

GENUS MELANERPES.
Melanerpes erythrocephalus -- Red-headed Woodpecker. This is the most numerous and showy of all the woodpeckers, and the most universally known. In seasons when there is no mast, acorns and beechnuts, they all migrate to warmer regions, but when there [should read: these] are plenty most of them remain. They lay up sufficient stores of these to support themselves during the winter. They deposit beechnuts in holes in decaying trees -- the acorns they generally hull, split into two parts, and drive them into the cracks of dry trees. During the whole time they are laying up these


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stores, and, in fact, during the whole winter, there is constant turmoil, strife and fighting going on amongst them, caused by a universal propensity to rob their neighbors, which, of course, is resisted, hence the noise and strife everywhere heard in the woods upon the ripening of the mast. When they migrate they never return until the weather becomes settled and warm -- about the first of May.

GENUS COLAPTES.
Colaptes auratus -- Flicker, Yellow-hammer, High-holder. This is a very common bird. It feeds mostly upon worms and insects, and is especially beneficial to the farmer from the millions of larvæ, etc., which it destroys during the year. A constant resident.

GENUS TROCHILUS.
Trochilus colubris -- Ruby-throated Humming Bird. This beautiful little bird is very numerous. Though so small and apparently frail it arrives early in spring -- about the 10th to 15th of April. Migratory.

GENUS CHÆTURA.
Chætura pelasgia -- Chimney Swallow. Migratory. This is a very numerous species. They arrive late in May, behind all other swallows, but remain some six weeks longer in the fall than the others.

GENUS ANTRASTOMUS.
Antrastomus vociferus -- Whip-poor-will. This noisy bird always has been numerous here. They make no nest at all, simply laying their two eggs on a leaf or the ground. The young are beautiful, little downy creatures before the wing and tail feathers have become visible.

GENUS CHORDEILES.
Chordeiles Americanus --Night Hawk, Bull Bat. The night hawk is very numerous in the month of May, re-


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maining some time before passing on to their usaul breeding-places farther north. A few breed here. Many persons confound this bird with the whip-poor-will. They belong to the same family, but there is a very great difference in the appearance of the two birds. On their return from the north in September, their number seems to be much greater than in the spring.

GENUS CERYLE.
Ceryle alcyon -- Belted Kingfisher. Resident. The Kingfisher is very numerous along all our streams, winter and summer. This is the only kingfisher we have.

GENUS TYRANNUS.
Tyrannus Carolinensis -- King Bird. Migratory. Very common; arriving late in the season, and departing early in autumn. They are the most courageous of all the smaller birds (except the Parus atricapillus), fearlessly attacking eagles, hawks, ravens and crows indiscriminately.

GENUS MYIARCHUS.
Myiarchus crinita -- Great Crested Flycatcher. Very numerous; arriving about the first of May. They build their nests in hollow trees. Migratory.

GENUS SAGORNIS. [should read: SAYORNIS]
Sagornis [should read: Sayornis] fusca -- Pewee. Migratory. This bird is familiar to every one, and is numerous; arriving usually in March, and remaining until the weather begins to get cold.

GENUS CANTOPUS.
Cantopus virens -- Wood Pewee. Migratory. Very numerous; arrive about the first of May.

GENUS EMPIDONAX.
Empidonax Traillii -- Traill's Fly-catcher; migratory. Rare. I have seen probably not to exceed a dozen in a residence of forty years.


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Empidonax acadica -- Green-crested Flycatcher; migratory. Very common in thickly wooded districts; more common among beech timber than elsewhere. Nearly always build their nests upon the lower branches of beech trees, from four to fifteen feet from the ground, in caves [should read: coves] or near ravines, where the nest is protected from the winds. The nest is hanging, suspended from the two branches of a forked limb, very similar in form and material to the nest of the Red-eyed Flycatcher, but not so deep.

GENUS TURDUS.
Turdus mustelinus -- Wood Thrush; migratory. Numerous here, and all over the wooded districts of the western country. The male and female sit by turns during incubation. Of all the thrushes, its notes are the most beautiful, clear, and full, varying through many tones impossible to describe, ending in a metallic vibratory sound, which to be appreciated must be heard.
Turdus Pallasi -- Hermit Thrush; migratory. Occasionally, though rarely, seen.
Turdus fuscescens -- Wilson's Thrush; migratory. Have seen a few specimens; does not breed here.
Turdus Swainsonii -- Olive-backed Thrush; migratory. Have seen but a single specimen.
Turdus migratorius -- Robin; semi-migratory. This is by all odds the most numerous of the thrushes. Most of them go south during the winter, but it is not uncommon to see large numbers of them during that season. In the latter part of the winter these birds occasionally roost at a given place in vast numbers, as pigeons are in the habit of doing. I have known this to be the case in two instances in the neighborhood of Brookville. Thousands of them were killed by ruthless "pot-hunters."

GENUS SIALIA.
Sialia Sialis -- Blue Bird; resident. This popular and familiar bird is very abundant; seen at all seasons.


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GENUS REGULUS.
Regulus Calendula -- Ruby-crowned Wren; migratory. These diminutive birds are common in fall and winter.
Regulus satrapa -- Golden-crested Wren; migratory. Common in fall and winter. About as numerous as the ruby-crowned wren.

GENUS MNIOTILTA.
Mniotilta varia -- Black and White Creeper. Very abundant. Its note may be heard at any time in the woods during spring and early summer. They build their nests on the ground.

GENUS GEOTHLYPSIS.
Geothlypsis trichas -- Have seen but a few specimens.

GENUS ICTERIA.
Icteria viridis -- Yellow-chested Chat. Very common upon all brushy points where there are but few forest trees. Never found in deep wooded solitudes.

GENUS HELMINTHOPHAGA.
Helminthophaga pinus -- Blue-winged Yellow Warbler. I have seen but a single bird of this species, at least that I recognized as such. Migratory.

GENUS SEIURUS.
Seiurus aurocapillus -- Oven Bird, or Golden-crowned Thrush. This is a very common bird, arriving about the first of May. In passing through the woods, one is scarcely ever out of the sound of their voice. Migratory.
Seiurus noveboracensis -- Water Thrush; migratory. These noisy little thrushes are heard along all the smaller streams in early spring, usually arriving in March.


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GENUS DENDROICA
Dendroica virens -- Black-throated Green Warbler; migratory. Occasionally seen as they pass to and from their breeding grounds in the North.
Dendroica coronata -- Yellow-rumped Warbler; migratory. Quite common.
Dendroica æstiva -- Yellow Warbler; migratory. These pretty little birds are quite common, and build their nests in rose bushes and other trees and shrubs, close to our dwellings in the town.
Dendroica superciliosa -- Yellow-throated Warbler. Common.

GENUS MYIODIOCTES.
Myiodioctes mitratus -- Hooded Warbler; migratory. The most numerous probably of all the warblers. This bird most always attracts the attention of all who see it, from the curious contrast of intense black and deep yellow which mostly characterize its plumage. Builds its nest upon low shrubs.

GENUS LETOPHAGA. [should read: SETOPHAGA]
Setophaga ruticilla -- Red Start; migratory. This beautiful little bird is very numerous, and may be seen any day in warm weather, pursuing gnats and flies, in catching which they are very expert. It builds its nest, usually, in the forks of bushes from eight to fifteen feet from the ground. It arrives about the first of May, and departs in September.

GENUS PYRANGA.
Pyranga rubra -- Scarlet Tanager; migratory. Arrives last of April. This beautiful bird is very numerous through all our woods. It is the only one of the genus found here. The Summer Red Bird I have never seen here.


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FAMILY HIRUNDINIDÆ -- THE SWALLOWS -- GENUS HIRUN
Hirundo horreorum -- Barn Swallow. This bird, so familiar to every one, is very numerous. It arrives early in April, and departs in the forepart of September.
Hirundo lunifrons -- Cliff Swallow. Republican Swallow. This swallow has been quite numerous since the summer of 1849. During that year, for the first time, they built their nests in the county. Prior to that time, I had occasionally seen them passing through the county. They are now, probably, as numerous as any other swallow.
Hirundo bicolor -- White-bellied Swallow. I have seen a few of these birds as they passed through to their breeding grounds further north. They do not breed here, but in the northern part of the State, near Warsaw, many of them build their nests. They are built in the hollows of trees and the deserted holes of the woodpecker.

GENUS COTYLE.
Cotyle riparia -- Bank swallow. Numerous along all the streams with abrupt sandy banks, into which they burrow and build their nests. They often arrive in March.
Cotyle serripennis -- Rough-winged Swallow. Occasionally seen, but hard to distinguish from the former.

GENUS PROGNE.
Progne purpurea. -- Purple Martin. These birds are numerous, and a great favorite with our people. I have seen them as early as the 17th of March. They generally all leave by the first week in September.

GENUS AMPELIS.
Ampelis cedrorum. -- Cedar Bird, resident. These birds are common. They breed from June to September. I have seen three of their nests in the town, two in June and


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one in September. All three were upon shade trees on the principal business street of the town, under which people were constantly passing

GENUS COLLYRIO.
Collyrio borealis. -- Shrike -- Butcher Bird. Frequently seen in autumn and winter. In 1854, I saw a Butcher bird flying with a Goldfinch, which it had just caught. Going in the direction it flew, a short time afterwards, I found it upon a small elm tree eating the bird, having suspeneded it in the cleft of a small split elm. The idea instantly occurred to me that the habit this bird has of sticking pieces of flesh and insects upon thorns and other sharp substances, is done as a matter of convenience, enabling them to eat at their leisure, and saving the labor of holding them with their feet, which are rather feeble, and not for the purpose of decoying other birds, as many persons have supposed. I have upon one occasion, myself, seen a Butcher bird fly to a thorn bush, and take off a piece of a bird which it had previously stuck upon one of the thorns -- showing that this habit, in addition to its convenience, should be considered as one of economy, enabling it to save, for future wants, that which is not necessary for present use.

GENUS VIREO.
Vireo olivaceus. -- Red-eyed Flycatcher, migratory. This bird is so numerous that a traveler through our woods, during the summer is scarcely ever out of the sound of their voices.
Vireo noveboracensis. -- White-eyed Vireo. These little birds are quite common. Their nests are suspended, like those of the Red-eyed Fly-catcher, from a forked limb.

GENUS MIMUS.
Mimus polyglottus. -- Mocking Bird, migratory. This celebrated songster occasionally strays this far north. I


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have seen two or three, and have heard the song of a few others here, within the last forty years.
Mimus Carolinensis. -- Cat Bird. Migratory. The Cat bird arrives about the first of May. They are numerous all over the west. I have seen them in numbers as far north as St. Paul, Minnesota, in the month of October. It is not popular on account of the habit it has of eating the eggs and young of other small birds. They hatch as many as three broods of young occasionally, though, generally, but two during the year.

GENUS HARPORHYNCHUS.
Harporhynchus rufus. -- Brown Thrush, migratory. The Brown Thrush arrives about the first of April. It is very numerous, and the best imitator of all the thrushes except he Mocking bird.

GENUS THRYOTHORUS.
Thryothorus ludovicianus. -- Great Carolina Wren. Numerous, and resident throughout the year.
Thryothorus Bewickii. -- Bewick's Wren. Occasionally seen. Does not breed here.

GENUS TROGLODYTES.
Troglodytes aeden. -- House Wren, migratory. Have seen but two in the county. None breed here.
Troglodytes hyemalis. -- Winter Wren. This beautiful little Troglodyte is very common during the winter. I have heard it sing but once -- that song was beautiful.

GENUS CERTHIA.
Certhia Americana. -- American Creeper. Occasionally seen, though not numerous.


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GENUS SITTA.
Sitta Carolinensis. -- White-bellied Nuthatch. This familiar bird is very numerous, and known to our citizens by the name of Tom-tit. It is a permanent resident.
Sitta Canadensis. -- Red-bellied Nuthatch. This bird does not reside or breed here, but is occasionally seen late in autumn and winter.

GENUS POLIOPTILA.
Polioptila cærulea. -- Blue-gray Flycatcher. This lively little bird is very little larger than a Humming-bird. It arrives early in April, and proceeds immediately to construct its nest. It chooses for its situation a smooth limb of a tree, from ten to sixty feet from the ground, not horizontal, but inclining slightly downwards; upon this it begins its nest by placing small pieces of lichens in a circle, fastening them down with fibers of spiders' web. This process it continues until the nest is of sufficient height, the whole surface being covered with small pieces of gray lichens. But the most remarkable thing in this fabric, is the fact that every piece of lichen is placed with its proper side out, just as it grew upon the tree -- looking to a person not familiar with the nest very much like a lichen-covered knot.

GENUS LOPHOPHANES.
Lophophanes bicolor. -- Tufted Titmouse. Very numerous, and seen at all seasons of the year. They build their nests in the hollows of trees and limbs, often in our decaying apple-trees.

GENUS PARUS.
Parus atricapillus. -- Black-cap Titmouse. Very numerous, and a constant resident. They build their nests in small holes and in cavities of limbs, fence-rails, etc., if they can find such; if not, they peck out a hole in rotten stems and trees to suit themselves. The nest is always near the


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ground. Though so small, they are the most courageous birds I know. If you disturb their young when nearly ready to fly, they will actually dash against your hand if placed in or near the nest.

GENUS CARPODACUS.
Carpodacus purpureus. -- Purple Finch. Frequently seen in winter and spring. They breed in the north and winter in more temperate latitudes.

GENUS CRYSOMITRIS.
Chrysomitris tristis -- Yellow Bird, Thistle Bird. Very numerous and a constant resident. Breed from June to September.

GENUS CURVIROSTRA.
Curvirostra Americana -- Red Crossbill. Seen here almost every winter -- feeding upon sunflower seeds and seeds of the larch.

GENUS PLECTROPHANES.
Plectrophanes nivalis -- Snow Bunting. I have seen these birds occasionally during severe winters.

GENUS PASSERCULUS.
Passerculus Savanna -- Savanna Sparrow. I have seen a few of these birds. Rare.

GENUS POOECETES.
Pooecetes gramineus -- Bay-winged Finch. Very common in all our fields. Build their nests on the ground.

GENUS ZONOTRICHIA.
Zonotrichia leucophrys -- White-crowned Sparrow. They seem to spend the winter here, and are seen until near the first of June, when they disappear, and are seen no more till fall.


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Zonotrichia albicollis -- White-throated Sparrow. Common in winter and spring.

GENUS JUNCO.
Junco hyemalis -- Snow Bird. Very abundant from October to middle of April.

GENUS SPIZELLA.
Spizella monticola -- Tree Sparrow. Very numerous in winter, keeping company with the snow birds. The habits of the two birds are very similar.
Spizella pusilla -- Old-field Sparrow. Very numerous during summer in old fields, partly covered with briers, upon which they build their nests. They are similar in general appearance and size to the Social Sparrow.
Spizella socialis -- Chipping Sparrow. These social birds are very numerous, appearing about the first of April, and remaining in the fall until the appearance of frost.

GENUS MELOSPIZA.
Melospiza melodia -- Song Sparrow. Resident. Very numerous both winter and summer; frequently making their nests among the shrubbery of our yards, and raising two or three broods during the summer and autumn.

GENUS GUIRACA.
Guiraca ludoviciana -- Rose-breasted Grosbeak. This showy and beautiful bird is frequently met with late in May and early June. I have never met with its nest, and cannot be sure that it breeds here, but, having on one occasion seen the bird in August, I am inclined to believe they occasionaly do.

GENUS CYANOSPIZA.
Cyanospiza cyanea -- Indigo Bird. Migratory. Quite numerous on the borders of our fields. Like to build their


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nest in fields upon isolated bushes, not often more than four feet from the ground. I have seen a nest on a rosebush within a foot of a front door of one of the residences in the town.

GENUS CARDINALIS.
Cardinalis Virginianus -- Red Bird, Cardinal Grosbeak. The Red bird is very abundant here, as it is in all districts of the Western country. The male is a good singer, and on this account is kept in cages by many of our citizens. It is a constant resident.

GENUS PIPILO.
Pipilo erythrophthalmus -- Ground Robin, Chewink. Found usually in thickets and about brush piles -- keeps mostly upon the ground, and runs much more than it flies. Builds its nest upon the ground. Constant resident.

GENUS DOLICHONYX.
Dolichonyx oryzivorus -- Bobolink, Reed Bird. Ortolan. I have occasionally seen this bird in our grassy fields in the last of May and first of June. They occasionally stay a week or two, but never breed here to my knowledge.

GENUS MOLOTHRUS.
Molothrus pecoris -- Cow Black Bird, Cow Bunting. This is a very numerous species -- seen at all seasons of the year. It never builds a nest of its own, but lays all its eggs in the nests of other and smaller birds than itself. They lay but one in each nest. I have frequently found their eggs in the nests of the red-eyed flycatch, indigo blue-bird, blue-gray gnatcatcher, redstart, etc. When this egg hatches, the young bird, being larger than the legitimate nestlings, it crowds all the latter out of the nest, and remains the sole occupant, and is reared with labor by its foster parents. As soon as it becomes fully grown it joins the first flock of its kindred it meets with. These birds


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during the latter part of summer are found following the cows as they feed along in the pastures, keeping close to their heads, usually some on each side, and moving as they move. It is not certainly known why they do this, but most probably they do it for the purpose of catching such insects as the cow may scare up in her progress.

GENUS AGELAIUS.
Agelaius Phoeniceus -- Swamp Blackbird. These blackbirds are common about marshy grounds, but, from the scarcity of swamps in the county, they are few in comparison to the vast numbers found in the northern part of the State. A few make their nests here.

GENUS STURNELLA.
Sturnella magna. -- Meadow Lark. Resident. This starling is abundant in all our meadows. Its nest is built upon the ground.

GENUS ICTERUS.
Icterus spurius. -- Orchard Oriole. Migratory. This very noisy bird is numerous. Arrives about the first of May.
Icterus Baltimore. -- Baltimore Oriole. Migratory. Quite numerous; arriving during the first week of May. It breeds here, building a pendulous nest, which it hangs from the drooping ends of long branches of trees, as far from the body of the tree as possible, with a view of protecting the nest from climbing enemys.

GENUS QUISCALUS.
Quiscalus versicolor. -- Crow Blackbird. Very abundant, arriving in March, and building their nests in April and May. After rearing their young, they proceed north about the first of August, and return, going south in the month of October.

S. G. R. -- 15.


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GENUS CORVUS.
Corvus carnivorus. -- American Raven. The raven was once numerous in this section, yet now so rare that I have seen but one during the past twenty years.
Corvus Americanus. -- Common Crow. Rather numerous at all seasons of the year except in extreme cold weather, when they are seldom seen. A few days of warm weather in the winter seldom pass without the crows making their appearance.

GENUS CYANUVUS.
Cyanura cristata. -- Bluejay. The bluejay is the dandy of the corvidæ family, and seems disposed to show himself on all occasions to the best advantage. For many years they were in the habit of building their nests in the ornamental and fruit trees of the town; but they are not very popular neighbors, for, like the cat-bird, they rob the nests of the social sparrow and other small and helpless birds.

GENUS ECTOPISTES.
Ectopistes migratoria. -- Wild Pigeon. Still seen in large numbers, though evidently they have been constantly diminishing in numbers for the last forty years, and are probably not half so numerous as they formerly were.
In the months of January and February, 1854, these birds roosted about two miles from Brookville, notwithstanding the country is thickly inhabited. No one who did not see them, or who has not seen a "pigeon roost," can form any adequate conception of their numbers.

GENUS ZENAIDURA.
Zenaidura Carolinensis. -- Turtle Dove. Very abundant. A constant resident throughout the year.


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GENUS MELEAGRIS.
Meleagris gallopavo. Wild Turkey. I can remember when wild turkeys were very numerous, but it is doubtful whether at this time there is even a solitary individual left. This is not the bird from which the stock of our tame turkeys originated. Our species cannot be domesticated. It has often been tried, but finally they all wander off and become wild. The wild turkey has no wattle under its chin and throat as the tame species have, neither do they have any white feathers. The domestic turkey originated most probably in Mexico or some of the West India islands, where there are wild turkeys marked with white.

FAMILY TETRAONIDÆ -- THE GROUSE -- GENUS BONASA.
Bonasa umbellus. -- Ruffed Grouse: Partridge: Pheasant This beautiful grouse, once so numerous, is becoming rare. There are still a few of them lingering among the brush of our uncultivated hillsides. The curious drumming noise which this bird is in the habit of making during the breeding season in the spring, and upon warm days in the latter part of October and first of November, is familiar to all who live near its haunts; but the manner in which this sound is produced seems to have escaped the observation of nearly every one. Even the great Audubon, whose observations were usually so correct, was mistaken as to the manner of its production. He says it "beats its sides with its wings, in the manner of the domestic cock, but more loudly, and with such rapidity of motion, after a few of the first strokes, as to cause a tremor in the air not unlike the rumbling of distant thunder." This is well told, and true, with the single exception that the bird in drumming does not beat its sides.
The drumming is produced thus: The pheasant, standing upon the trunk of a prostrate tree, usually surrounded by brushwood, erects his body to its full height, and produces the drumming sound by striking the convex surfaces of his outstretched wings together behind his back, just as


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we often see boys swinging their outstretched arms behind them, so as to make the backs of their hands meet behind and opposite the spine. This is the truth of the matter. Audubons' idea that the pheasant could produce a louder noise than the domestic cock, nearly four times his size, by beating its small compact body with its wings, is, to say the least, a curious mistake. The hollow rumbling sound could not be produced in this manner.

GENUS ORTYX.
Ortyx Virginianus. -- Quail -- Bob White. The quail is still rather common, but not so numerous as formerly. In addition to its other enemies, the red fox has recently made its appearance in this county, and probably destroys more of them than all the others.

FAMILY GRUIDÆ -- THE CRANES -- GENUS GRUS.
Grus Canadensis -- Sand-hill Crane. -- I have never seen but three sandhill cranes in the county. They are very numerous in the northwestern part of the State. The white or great whooping crane is seen there also occasionally.

FAMILY ARDEIDÆ -- THE HERONS -- GENUS GARZETTA.
Garzetta candidissima. -- Snowy Heron. Frequently seen along Whitewater in August and September.

GENUS ARDEA.
Ardea Herodias -- Great Blue Heron or Crane. Very frequently seen -- occasionally even in winter.

GENUS ARDETTA.
Ardetta exilis -- I have never seen but two of these beautiful little bitterns in the county.

GENUS BOTAURUS.
Botaurus lentiginosus -- Bittern -- Stake-driver. This bittern is rare here -- have seen three individuals. In the


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northwestern part of the State they are quite numerous. Some of the people there call them Thunder-pumpers.

GENUS BUTORIDES.
Butorides virescens -- Green Heron -- Fly-up-the-Creek. This is by far the most numerous of the heron family. They breed here.

GENUS NYCTIARDEA.
Nyctiardea Gardeni -- Night Heron. I have seen two of these herons only. They are rare.

GENUS TANTALUS.
Tantalus loculator -- Wood Ibis. These large and curious birds occasionally visit the Whitewater valley in the month of August. Some years ago I kept one (which had a broken wing) about six weeks. In that time it became very tame, learned its name, and would come when called. We fed it upon living fish, which it would swallow with amazing rapidity, except catfish, which required labor and time to dispose of. It died from having eaten a mackerel which had been placed in a basin to soak.

GENUS CHARADRIUS.
Charadrius Virginicus -- Golden Plover. Have occasionally seen this plover.

GENUS ÆGIALITIS.
Ægialitis vociferus -- Killdeer. This noisy plover is very numerous, and a constant resident throughout the year.

GENUS STREPSILAS.
Strepsilas interpres -- Turnstone. Have seen a few flocks of these birds passing through the country.


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GENUS PHILOHELA.
Philohela minor -- American Woodcock. The woodcock is not, nor never has been, very numerous in this part of Indiana, owing mainly, I apprehend, to the fact that we have but little swampy land of the character which they frequent. They are, however, occasionally seen.

GENUS GALLINAGO.
Gallinago Wilsonii -- Wilson's Snipe. Where swampy meadows are found these birds may occasionally be seen in the latter part of March and through the month of April.

GENUS TRINGA
Tringa maculata -- Jack Snipe. The jack snipe is not numerous, though I have occasionally seen it about ponds.
Tringa Wilsonii -- Least Sandpiper. Frequent our rivers, though by no means abundant.

GENUS SYMPHEMIA.
Symphemia semipalmata -- Willet. This noisy bird is frequently seen along Whitewater in early spring and autumn. It is a fisher, and catches small minnows by running them down in shallow water, all the while uttering its shrill discordant notes, which may be heard at the distance of half a mile.

GENUS RHYACOPHILUS.
Rhyacophilus solitarius -- I have frequently observed this bird, though they are by no means numerous.

GENUS TRINGOIDES.
Tringoides macularius -- Spotted Sandpiper. This noisy restless sandpiper is much the most numerous of all the family of this region. They build their nests near the banks of the river, in a bunch of reeds or under a small


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bush. Their eggs are much larger in proportion to its size than those of any other bird I have ever known.

GENUS ACTITURUS.
Actiturus Bartramius -- Bartram's Sandpiper -- Field Plover. I have seen but two of these birds in the county. In southern Illinois they are numerous all over the prairies.

GENUS NUMENIUS.
Numenius longirostris. -- Long-billed Curlew. Very rare only one or two have been seen.

GENUS PORZANA.
Porzana Carolina. -- Sora. Common Rail. Frequently seen in spring on their way north. They breed in Kosciusko and other northern counties.

GENUS FULICA.
Fulica Americana. -- Coot. Mud Hen. When overtaken by storms these birds frequently stop in our streams and remain a few days. They do not breed here.

GENUS GALLINULA.
Gallinula galeata. -- Florida Gallinule. I have seen two gallinules which had been caught in the neighborhood. They seem to have very little fear of man, and are easily tamed.

GENUS ANSER.
Anser hyperboreus. -- Snow Goose. Occasionally seen flying over in their migrations.
Anser Cærulescens. White-headed goose. I have seen one flock containing four of these geese.


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GENUS BERNICLA.
Bernicla Canadensis. -- Wild Goose -- Canadian Goose. Seen in large flocks every fall and spring in their semi-annual migrations. They rarely ever stop, except they become bewildered during dense fogs.
Bernicla Brenta. -- Brant. Occasionally seen flying over when migrating.

GENUS ANAS.
Anas boschas. -- Mallard -- Green-head. This duck is probably more numerous in our waters than any other species.

GENUS DAFILA.
Dafila acuta. -- Pintail -- Sprigtail. Has rarely been seen within the past ten years.

GENUS NETTION.
Nettion Carolinensis. -- Green-winged Teal. This beautiful little duck is regularly seen here in the spring and fall.

GENUS QUERQUEDULA.
Querquedula discors. -- Blue-winged Teal. This diminutive duck appears here about the first of October, usually remaining several days. They are very unsuspecting birds, and easily approached by the gunners, and are therefore much sought after by "pot hunters."

GENUS SPATULA.
Spatula clypeata. -- Shoveler Duck. This very curiously marked duck is common late in April, when most other ducks have disappeared.

GENUS MARECA.
Mareca Penelope. -- Widgeon. In the year 1855 a few widgeons were shot here. This is the only instance known of their appearance here.


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GENUS AIX.
Aix sponsa. -- Summer Duck. Wood Duck. This, decidedly the most beautiful of all the ducks, is very common along Whitewater. They always build their nest in hollow trees, and never upon the ground, as is the custom of all other ducks.

GENUS FULIX.
Fulix marila. -- Big Black Head Duck.
Fulix affinis. -- Little Black Head. Both these ducks are occasionally seen, though by no means abundant.

GENUS AYTHYA.
Aythya Americana. -- Red Head. Pochard. But a single instance know of their having appeared here -- 1855.
Aythya vallisneria. -- Canvas Back Duck. This far-famed duck made its appearance here for the first and only time, to my knowledge, in the month of March, 1855. One of them was shot by a friend, which I had a chance to examine and afterwards to taste. It was very tender and juicy, but had such a fishy flavor that it could scarcely be eaten. I supposed they had come from the southern seacoast, where they had fed upon shell-fish instead of eelgrass, which seems to be necessary to perfect their flavor.

GENUS BUCEPHALA.
Bucephala Americana. -- Golden Eye. Quite common in spring.
Bucephala albeola -- Butter Ball. Quite numerous through the fall and winter.

GENUS MELANETTA.
Melanetta velvetina -- Velvet Duck. Numerous in winter.


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GENUS MERGUS.
Mergus Americanus -- Sheldrake. These birds are very numerous in Whitewater during the whole winter, which they visit for the purpose of fishing. The stream is remarkably clear, and, being very rapid, seldom freezes over, but the water becomes cold enough to benumb the fish, which thus fall an easy prey to these expert divers. I have known one of them to hatch and rear its brood in this vicinity.

GENUS LOPHODYTES.
Lophodytes cucullatus -- Hooded Merganser. This handsome little merganser is very numerous during the colder periods of the year.

GENSS LARUS.
Larus argentatus -- The Silvery Gull. Occasionally seen in autumn and spring.

GENUS CHROICOCEPHALUS.
Chroicocephalus Philadelphius -- Bonaparte's Gull. Frequently seen all over the State. A small but beautiful bird.

GENUS STERNA.
Sterna paradisea -- The Roseate Tern. I have frequently seen this tern along the river and canal.

GENUS PELECANUS.
Pelecanus onacrotalus -- Rough-billed Pelican. The pelican occasionally visits us, but its visits are like those of the angels, "few and far between."

GENUS GRACULUS.
Graculus carbo -- Common Cormorant. I have seen a single specimen in the winter.


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GENUS COLYMBUS
Colymbus torquatus -- Loon, Great Northern Diver. The loon is frequently seen in our waters in the fall and spring. Those I have seen in the water were great divers, but could not be forced to take wing. The solitary cry or wail of the loon is, to my ear, the most melancholy sound I have ever heard, conveying to the mind the idea of utter hopelessness and despair.

GENUS PODILYMBUS.
Podylimbus podiceps -- Didapper. Grebe. Very common in our waters in October and November. They generally remain about three weeks.
This concludes the list of all the birds of the county which I have observed and been able to identify. Doubtless many others visit this section which I have not observed, and I have seen many which I have not been able to identify.

1869 Table of Contents

Geology Library, Indiana University, Bloomington