81
MARTIN COUNTY.

Martin county is bounded on the north by Greene, on the east by Lawrence and Orange, on the south by Dubois, and on the west by Daviess county.
The East Fork of White River meanders in a southwesterly course through a large portion of the county, and, together with its tributaries, Boggs and Indian creeks on the north, and Beaver creek and Lost river on the south, furnish ample drainage and an abundance of clear, running water.
The surface is very much broken by hills from one hundred and fifty to three hundred feet, or more, in hight, which are mostly composed of the millstone grit and lower carboniferous limestones. The former is capped, in places, by the coal measure shales. The scenery is rugged and picturesque.
Lower Carboniferous: Limestones belonging to this geological epoch outcrop along most of the water courses and at the base of the high ridges. About one hundred and fifty feet of these rocks are visible, extending from the oolitic beds at the base to the upper archimedes and pentramital schistose layers. Between these two members there is, locally, an intercalated, fine-grained, reddish brown sandstone, often passing into a whitish sandstone. In the south and southwestern part of the county it appears as a fine-grained grit stone, and is extensively worked into grindstones and whetstones. They are known in the market as French Lick Stones, and are much esteemed.
At Dover Hill, the upper layers of limestone are rich in large and well preserved Pentramites, some of which, P. cirvinus, were presented to me by the county treasurer, Mr.

S. G. R. -- 6


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Moser. This limestone also contains *Archimedes Worthenii(?), Rhynchonella subcuneata, Capulus acutirostris (?), Zaphrentes spinifera, and a number of undetermined shells and corals. The lower member does not appear to be very rich in organic remains, and the few observed were difficult to obtain on account of the compact character of the rock. The following genera and species were seen: Pentramites ovatus, P. pyraformis, Spirifer incrassatus, S. lineatus, Productus tenuicostata, P. cora, and Athyris subtilita.
Where this rock prevails, the county is characterized by "sink holes" and cavities formed where the limestone has been dissolved and removed by subterranean water charged with carbonic acid. Near Dover Hill, there is a small cave formed in the limestone, on land formerly owned by Hon. W. E. Niblack, the present Representative of this District in Congress. The extent of this cave is not very great, but I was glad to avail myself of the protection which it afforded during a severe rain storm which prevailed while making my examinations. This cave is remarkable for the fine specimens of Pentramites found in the debris at the mouth on the side of the hill, near the road leading to Indian Spring. A lithograph copied from a photographic view, which shows the mouth of this cave and surrounding scenery, is given at page 13. The building on the right almost hidden by the trees, is the bowling alley.
Millstone Grit: The principal member of this lower division of the coal measures, is a massive sandstone of a redish brown color, strongly charged with small white quartz pebbles near the bottom, is overlaid by arenaceous shales, belonging to the coal-measure series, and underlaid, in places, by a readily decomposing argillaceous shale, and coal. In all, it comprises about one hundred and fifty feet of strata. The massive, conglomerate sandstone forms a conspicuous bench in the high ridges, and its presence gives rise to wild and rugged scenery. The shales are readily
______________________________________________________________________
* The Archimedes are quite protean in form, and I can see no good reason for robbing Leseur of the specific name, though it should be deemed necessary to take it out of the genus Fenestella.


83
removed from beneath this stone, by the action of rains, in such a manner as to form large excavations, known as "rock-houses." These excavations continue until the gravity of the stone overcomes its cohesive force, and large blocks, forty to sixty feet in height, break from the parent bed and lie strewn over the valleys below.
One of the most interesting spots to visit, for obtaining a view of this character of scenery, is near the town of Shoals, on the road to the Indian Sulphur Springs. A high ridge of millstone grit, here, terminates within a few yards of the East Fork of White river, from the top of which, there is a projecting mass of conglomerate sandstone, called the "Pinnacle," which stands one hundred and seventy feet above the level of the stream. Cyclopean blocks, that have broken off, lie around the foot of the ridge, in every conceivable position. On the north side of this ridge, the conglomerate has been cut through by disintegrating forces, which left, at some distance from the main ledge, a tall mass of rock, which has received the name of "Jug Rock," from the fancied resemblance which it bears to a jug. It is forty-two feet high and supports, on its top, a flat projecting layer, which is called the "stopper." Just above the bulge of the jug are irregular lines of stratification, known as false bedding. The lower part is thickly set with quartz pebbles. The frontispiece to this volume presents a view of the "Jug Rock" which was copied from a photograph taken by D. Allbright. For this faithful representative of a highly interesting geological scene, I am indebted to B. F. Devol, and D. Allbright, of Shoals.
Coal Measures: The rocks of this epoch are not largely represented in this county; being confined to a limited area in the vicinity of Shoals. The following general section indicates the position of all the seams of coal that were seen in this county. It is compiled from strata exposed in Munson's Ridge and Sampson's Hill, on the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, near Shoals, and includes a thin seam of coal, seen in the bed of White river, in the lower corboni-


84
ferous limestone, at the foot of Munson's ridge, near the water tank one mile west of Shoals:
      _____________________________________________________________
      |    CONNECTED SECTION OF COAL MEASURES IN MARTIN COUNTY.   |
      |___________________________________________________________|
      |SPACE.|        |FEET.|IN. |                                |
      |______|________|_____|____|________________________________|
      |      |        |  20 |    |  Soil and Drift                |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                |
      |  95. |        |  50 |    |  Sandstone and Shaly Sandstone.|
      |      |________|_____|____|                                |
      |      |        |  25 |    |  Argillaceous Shale with good  |
      |      |        |     |    |    IRON ORE.                   |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                |
      |   3. |XXXXXXXX| 2-3 |    |  COAL F ? semi-block.          |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                |
      |      |        |   2 |    |  Fire Clay, good Potter's Clay.|
      |      |________|_____|____|                                |
      |      |        |  10 |    |  Argillaceous and Arenaceous   |
      |      |        |     |    |    Shale.                      |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                |
      |  62. |        |  50 |    |  Thin and thick bedded Sand-   |
      |      |        |     |    |    stone.                      |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                |
      |   1.6|XXXXXXXX|   1 |  6 |  COAL D ?                      |
      |______|________|_____|____|  Fire Clay.                    |
      |      |        |   4 |    |  Arenaceous Shale.             |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                |
      |  44. |        |  40 |    |  Sandstone.                    |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                |
      |   1. |XXXXXXXX|   1 |    |  COAL B ?                      |
      |______|________|_____|____|________________________________|

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      _____________________________________________________________
      |   CONNECTED SECTION OF COAL MEASURES IN MARTIN COUNTY.    |
      |                  -- Continued                             |
      |___________________________________________________________|
      |SPACE.|        |FEET.|IN. |                                |
      |______|________|_____|____|________________________________|
      |  50. |        |  50 |    |  Massive Sandstone, with       |
      |      |        |     |    |     pebbles.                   |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                |
      |   4.1|XXXXXXXX| 3-4 |  1 |  COAL A.                       |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                |
      |      |        |   2 |    |  Fire Clay.                    |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                |
      |      |        |  10 |    |  Argo. Shale, with Iron Ore.   |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                |
      |  42. |        |  30 |    |  Oolitic Limestone.            |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                |
      |    .6|XXXXXXXX|     |  6 |  COAL in the Limestone.        |
      |______|________|_____|____|________________________________|
      | 303.1| Total. |     |    |  Low water of White river.     |
      |______|________|_____|____|________________________________|
The lower coal in this section is not continuous over any great area, but a thin coal was seen in an analagous position, near Huron, in Lawrence county, where stone was being quarried for making lime. Though a true bituminous coal, it is entirely too thin to be of economicial value, and is mentioned only for the purpose of calling attention to an interesting geological fact.
Coal A is a subconglomerate seam and is the most persistent and important coal in the county. Wherever observed, it is a good block-coal, or semi-block, and well adapted, as a fuel, in the raw state for the manufacture of iron. It is somewhat variable in thickness, ranging from two to four feet and over, having a laminated structure like the typical block coal, but contains less carbonaceous matter, resembling charcoal, between the laminæ, and is more difficult to separate into sheets, though it is mined in board-


86
like blocks. The color is jet black and the fracture irregular. Quite a number of analysis have been made of samples taken from this seam at various localities, which serve to show its general good qualities.
Analysis of BAKER'S COAL A, section 16, township 2, range 3, semi-block coal, upper part of seam:
       Specific gravity, 1.238; one cubic foot weighs 77.37 lbs.
                                { Ash, white,    -    -   -   1.50
      Coke,    -    -   52.75   { Fixed carbon,    -    -    51.25
                                { Water,     -     -     -    2.50
      Volatile matter,  47.25   { Gas,     -     -     -     44.75
                      _________                            _________
                       100.00                               100.00
The coal is slightly swollen, lamellar, dense, and brilliant.

BAKER'S COAL A, lower part os seam:
        Specific gravity, 1.239;  one cubic foot weighs 77.43 lbs.
                                { Ash, white,     -     -      .75
      Coke,    -    -   49.50   { Fixed carbon,     -     -  48.75
                                { Water,     -     -     -    3.00
      Volatile matter,  50.50   { Gas,     -     -     -     47.50
                      _________                           _________
                       100.00                               100.00
The coke is much swollen, porous and lusterless. This coal is very free from earthy matter, the ash in the upper part is only one and a half per cent., and in the lower part, three quarters of one per cent. The hygrometric moisture which it contains, is also, quite small. It is an excellent blast furnace coal.
At Horn & Co.'s, the seam is only twenty-six inches thick and contains some bands of iron pyrites, otherwise the coal is good. The upper ten inches is block coal, four inches of the middle part contains irregular bands of iron pyrites, and the lower twelve inches is good caking coal. It has a dark arillaceous roof, overlaid by massive sandstone. The following analysis indicates its approximate constituents in 100 parts:
HORN & CO.'S COAL A, setion 3, township 2, range 4.


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        Specific gravity, 1.246; one cubic foot weighs 77.89 lbs.
                                { Ash, light brown,  -   -    2.50
      Coke,    -    -   45.00   { Fixed carbon,     -     -  42.50
                                { Water,    -      -     -    3.00
      Volatile matter,  55.00   { Gas,     -      -      -   52.00
                       _______                              _______
                       100.00                               100.00
The coke is puffed, swollen and vitreous. Horn & Co. are using this coal under the steam boilers at their mill, which is close to the opening, and it is regarded as an excellent fuel. There are two other openings, to this coal, near the mill, but they have not been worked for some time, and the mouth of the drifts are filled up.
Coal A outcrops on the side of a hill, on the east side of the road ascending Sampson's Hill, where it was formerly opened and worked, but a slide in the hill has covered up the old opening and rendered it impossible to obtain a good specimen for analysis. Some much weathered fragments, picked up near the mouth of the mine, seem to indicate that it is a very good semi-block coal, and have served for the subjoined analysis, which, consequently, does not fairly represent its quality:

TURNER'S COAL A, (Sampson's Hill,) section 32, township 3, range 3.
       Specific gravity, 1.359; one cubic foot weighs 84.31 lbs.
                                { Ash, red,     -     -   -   9.00
      Coke,     -     -   54.50 { Fixed carbon,    -     -   45.50
                                { Water,      -      -     -  4.00
      Volatile matter,    45.50 { Gas,      -      -     -   41.50
                         _______                            _______
                         100.00                             100.00
The coke shows the laminæ of the coal, is without lustre, and not swollen.
This seam is reported to be three feet thick.
N. F. Crim's entry to the same coal, on section 7, township 2, range 3, had also caved in, so as to prevent our seeing the face of the coal, but fragments were found around


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the mine, which indicated it to be the same quality as Baker's. In the decomposing shale, which forms the roof of Crim's coal, we found some large fragments of Lepidodendron elegans, Sigillaria Menardii (?), Calamites Sp. (?), Cordaites borassifolia, and some fragments of other plants too imperfect for determination; indeed, the shale was too much decomposed to admit of any specimens being preserved. Superimposing the shale, is a heavy bedded sanstone, referable to the millstone grit.
One and a half miles west of Shoals, on the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, is a high ridge, lying nearly north and south, which contains two or more coals, without counting the thin seam in the lower carboniferous limestone, which are visible at low water in the bank of White River. which runs within a few feet of the ridge; so close, indeed, that a considerable cut had to be made into the solid bed of oolitic limestone to make room for the railroad track. The section furnished by this ridge, as nearly as could be determined, from the thick undergrowth of bushes and briers with which its eastern declivity was covered, is as follows:


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      _______________________________________________________________
      |       SECTION, ONE AND A HALF MILES WEST OF SHOALS.         |
      |_____________________________________________________________|
      |SPACE.|        |FEET.| IN.|                                  |
      |______|________|_____|____|__________________________________|
      |      |        |  20 |    |  Soil and Drift.                 |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                  |
      |  55  |        |  35 |    |  Thin and thick bedded Sandstone.|
      |______|________|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |XXXXXXXX|   ? |    |  COAL B ?                        |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |        |   ? |    |  Fire Clay.                      |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |        |  65 |    |  Massive Conglomerate.           |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                  |
      |  70.6|        |   2 |  6 |  Iron Ore.                       |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |        |   3 |    |  Black Slate with Coal Plants.   |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |XXXXXXXX|   2 |  6 |  COAL A.                         |
      |   3.4|XXXXXXXX|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |XXXXXXXX|     | 10 |  Brash Coal.                     |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |        |   7 |    |  Fire Clay, good Potter's Clay.  |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |        |  25 |    |  Arenaceous Shale.               |
      |  67. |________|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |        |  30 |    |  Oolitic Limestone.              |
      |      |________|_____|____|                                  |
      |      |        |   5 |    |  Argillaceous Shale.             |
      |______|________|_____|____|                                  |
      |    .6|XXXXXXXX|     |  6 |  COAL.                           |
      |______|________|_____|____|__________________________________|
      | 196.4| TOTAL. |     |    |  Low water in White river.       |
      |______|________|_____|____|__________________________________|

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Coal A is non-caking, and very free from earthly impurities, as shown by the following analysis:

COAL A, MUNSON'S RIDGE, (upper part).
        Specific gravity, 1.270; one cubic foot weighs 79.37 lbs.
                                 { Ash, brown,   -     -      1.50
     Coke,     -     -    51.50  { Fixed carbon,    -    -   50.00
                                 { Water,      -     -    -   3.00
     Volatile matter,     48.50  { Gas,    -    -     -   -  45.50
                         _______                            _______
                         100.00                             100.00
The coke is slightly swollen, lamellar, and vitreous.
In the black shale, forming the roof of this coal, there are a great many poorly preserved coal plants, belonging to the genera: Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Calamites, and Pecopteris.
Beneath the coal is a thick belt of fire clay, suitable for making common pottery. The iron ore, superimposed on this black shale, will be referred to in another place.
The base of the conglomerate is strongly charged with oxide of iron, arranged in irregular bands from a half inch to one inch in width, which stand out in bold relief from the weathered surface of the rock. In its lower part, there are casts of the stems of Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, and Calamites.
Another specimen, from seam A, was obtained from an opening near Willow Valley. The seam is said to be two feet thick, and the quality is very good, as indicated by the following analysis:

WILLOW VALLEY COAL A.
        Specific gravity, 1.286; one cubic foot weighs 80.37 lbs.
                                 { Ash, lead color,  -    -    2.50
      Coke,    -     -    50.50  { Fixed carbon,    -    -    48.00
                                 { Water,     -     -     -    2.75
      Volatile matter,    49.50  { Gas,      -     -     -    46.75
                         _______                             _______
                         100.00                              100.00
The coke is puffed, swollen, and lustreless.


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Coal B (?) is not opened, and its position is only indicated by "coal dirt," a name usually applied to the decomposed, pulverulent, bituminous matter, which marks the outcrop of a coal seam.
On the west side of Munson's Ridge, another opening was made to coal A. The roof shale, iron ore deposit, and ferruginous, conglomerate sandstone, present the same appearance here as noted on the opposite side of the ridge. Heavy rains had mostly filled up the opening with washings from above, so that I was unable to measure the seam, but was assured by Mr. Devol, who had had the seam opened on purpose for my inspection, that it was four feet thick.
Philip Hutz has opened coal A on the southwest quarter of the southeast quarter of section 35, township 4, range 4, about two miles northwest of Dover Hill. The entry is made on the side of a small branch, where the crop was first observed, and the coal has been worked out to a distance of several hundred feet. The hill above the coal is quite low, and affords but little opportunity to make a section; however, the succession is virtually the same as observed in Munson's Ridge:
      Covered space,     -     -     -     -   ________ ______
      Soft sandstone, (conglomerate,)   -      ________ ______
      Bluish shale, soft and hard,       -      0 feet   6 in.
      Semi-block COAL A, (lower part
        inclined to cake,)    -     -      -    3 feet   0 in.
      Coal brash,     -      -     -     -      0 feet   6 in.
      Soft plastic fire clay,   -    -     -    0 feet   6 in.
      Shale, covered,    -     -     -      -   ?
      Lower carboniferous limestone,     -      ? 
The coal contains two thin bands of iron pyrites; where free from this impurity, it is a good, white ash, semi-block coal. The following analysis gives the approximate constituents in 100 parts:


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PHILIP HUTZ'S COAL A.
        Specific gravity, 1.262; one cubic foot weighs 78.87 lbs.
                                 { Ash, white,    -    -     2.50
      Coke,     -     -   50.00  { Fixed carbon,    -    -  47.50
                                 { Water,   -    -    -   -  3.50
      Volatile matter,    50.00  { Gas,    -    -    -   -  46.50
                         _______                           _______
                         100.00                            100.00
The coke is swollen, porous and lustreless.
About one mile northwest of Philip Hutz', two openings have been made to this coal by Zachariah Sims. He found three feet two inches of good semi-block coal, entirely free from bands of iron pyrites. The excavation has been carried some fifty feet, or more, under the hill, which is composed of the same succession of rocks seen at the former locality. The specimens of this coal collected, at this mine, for analysis, by my assistant, Dr. G. M. Levette, were subsequently lost out of the buggy, returning to Shoals. A list of all the localities where coal A has been seen, in this county, will be given hereafter.
Coal B has not yet been found of workable thickness; its place in indicated by outcrops of impure coal in several of the sections herein given, and being an unimportant seam, special remarks, as to quality, are not deemed necessary.
Coal I?. Since coal I has, thus far, proved to be a more persistant seam than the coals which intervene between it and the subconglomerate coal A, I have been led to refer, with some doubt, the top coal in Sampson's Hill, one and a half miles southeast of Shoals, to that horizon. This is the only locality, seen in the county, where the strata are thick enough to contain a coal so high in the series. Taken from the level of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad we find the following section, exhibiting three hundred and ten and one-third feet of strata:


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      _________________________________________________________________
      |                SECTION AT SAMPSON'S HILL.                     |
      |_______________________________________________________________|
      |SPACE.|         |FEET.| IN.|                                   |
      |______|_________|_____|____|___________________________________|
      |      |         | 70  |    |  Covered space, mostly Sandstone. |
      |      |_________|_____|____|                                   |
      | 95.  |         | 25  |    |  Bluish Argo. Shale with good     |
      |      |         |     |    |    Iron Stone.                    |
      |______|_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |  2.10|XXXXXXXXX|  2  | 10 |  COAL I? {6 in.compact.           |
      |      |         |     |    |          {2 ft. 4 in. semi-block. |
      |______|_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |      |         |  4  |    |  Fire Clay, good potters' clay.   |
      |      |_________|_____|____|                                   |
      | 99.  |         | 95  |    |  Arenaceous Shale and Flag Stones.|
      |______|_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |      |XXXXXXXXX|  ?  |    |  COAL F ?                         |
      |______|_________|_____|____|___________________________________|

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      _________________________________________________________________
      |         SECTION AT SAMPSON'S HILL. -- Continued.              |
      |_______________________________________________________________|
      |SPACE.|         |FEET.| IN.|                                   |
      |______|_________|_____|____|___________________________________|
      |      |         |  ?  |    |  Fire Clay.                       |
      |      |_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |      |         | 70  |    |  Sandstone, conglomerate.         |
      | 71.  |_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |      |         |  1  |    |  Bituminous Shale.                |
      |______|_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |      |XXXXXXXXX|  3  |    |  COAL A.                          |
      |      |_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |  3.6 |         |     |  6 |  Coal brash.                      |
      |______|_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |      |         |  3? |    |  Fire Clay.                       |
      |      |_________|_____|____|                                   |
      | 39.  |         | 30  |    |  Shale.                           |
      |      |_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |      |         |  6  |    |  Lower Carboniferous Limestone.   |
      |______|_________|_____|____|                                   |
      |310.4 | TOTAL.  |     |    |  Level of O. & M. R. R.           |
      |______|_________|_____|____|___________________________________|
Three analyses of this coal (I) are given:

SAMPSON HILL coal I, (upper part.)
        Specific gravity, 1.588; one cubic foot weighs 99.25 lbs.
                                 { Ash, gray,    -    -     41.00
      Coke,     -    -    69.50  { Fixed carbon,    -    -  28.50
                                 { Water,    -     -    -    5.50
      Volatile matter,    30.50  { Gas,     -     -    -    25.00
                         _______                           _______
                         100.00                            100.00
The coke is unchanged, slaty, and has a metallic lustre.


95
SAMPSON HILL coal, I (middle part.)
        Specific gravity, 1.232; one cubic foot weighs 77 lbs.
                                 { Ash, white,     -    -    1.00
     Coke,     -     -    54.00  { Fixed carbon,   -    -   53.00
                                 { Water,     -     -    -   2.00
     Volatile matter,     46.00  { Gas,    -    -     -     44.00
                         _______                           _______
                         100.00                            100.00
The coke is somewhat swollen, dense and vitreous.

SAMPSON HILL coal I, (lower part.)
        Specific gravity, 1.252; one cubic foot weighs 78.12 lbs.
                                 { Ash, red,   -    -    -   1.50
      Coke,    -     -    48.50  { Fixed carbon,    -    -  47.00
                                 { Water,    -     -    -    3.00
      Volatile matter,    51.50  { Gas,    -      -     -   48.50
                         _______                           ________
                         100.00                            100.00
The coke is puffed, swollen and vitreous.
The upper six inches of this coal is simply a black, bituminous slate, that will burn so long as the bitumen lasts, and there will remain, unconsumed, a stony substance, diminished but little, if any, in size by the removal of the combustible matter. The middle and lower parts are semi-block and will make a fine fuel, in the raw state, for smelting iron. It is a very compact, laminated coal, with carbonaceous matter between the laminæ. An analysis was made of the carbenacous matter from this coal, and the following result obtained:
                                 { Ash, white,     -    -    0.80
      Coke,    -     -    84.20  { Fixed carbon,   -    -   83.40
                                 { Water,    -    -    -     2.50
      Volatile matter,    15.80  { Gas,    -    -     -     13.30
                         _______                           _______
                         100.00                            100.00
In the relative proportion of approximate constituents, it closely approaches a semi-anthracite coal. The specific gravity was not taken, but it is undoubtedly much less than


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that of bituminous coal, and probably even less than charcoal.
This coal covers an area of about four hundred and eighty acres, running through Sampson's Hill and some the adjacent ridges.
The following are the localities where coal was seen in this county; commencing in the southern part and proceeding northward:
B. Miller      -         -        Coal A, 2½ ft., Sec.  3, T. 1, R. 4
Asa White,     -         -         "   A, 2  ft.,  "   32, "  1, "  4
Collins, semi-block,      -    -   "   K? 2½ ft.,  "   31, "  2, "  4
Parsons,      "          -    -    "   K? 2½ ft.,  "   36, "  2, "  4
Unknown,    "   -         -        "   A, 2  ft.,  "    1, "  1, "  3
Braxton,       -          -        "   A, 2  ft.,  "    2, "  2, "  3
Bell,        -         -           "   A, 2  ft.,  "   26, "  2, "  3
Unknown,        -        -         "   A, ?  ft.,  "   21, "  2, "  3
Baker, semi-block,        -        "   A, 4½ ft.,  "   16, "  2, "  3 
Way,        "            -         "   A, 3  ft.,  "   17, "  2, "  3 
J. French, semi-block,             "   A, 3  ft.,  "   18, "  2, "  3
Stevens,        "           -      "   A, 3  ft.,  "   18, "  2, "  3
Abel,       -       -       -      "   A, 2  ft.,  "   14, "  2, "  5
N. F. Crim,      -        -        "   A, 3  ft.,  "    7, "  2, "  4
B. F. Devol, semi-block, -         "   I? 2½ ft.,  "   32, "  3, "  3
B. F. Devol,      -        -       "   B, ?  ft.,  "   32, "  3, "  3
B. F. Devol,       -        -      "   A, 3  ft.,  "   32, "  3, "  3
B. F. Devol,       -         -     "   A, ?  ft.,  "   31, "  3, "  3
B. F. Devol,      -         -      "   A, 3  ft.,  "   28, "  3, "  3
B. F. Devol,      -          -     "   A, ?  ft.,  "   26, "  3, "  4
B. F. Devol,     -        -        "   A, 2½ ft.,  "   23, "  3, "  4
B. F. Devol,      -        -       "   A, 3  ft.,  "   14, "  3, "  4
B. F. Devol,      -         -      "   A, ?  ft.,  "   18, "  3, "  3
B. F. Devol,      -       -        "   A, 3  ft.,  "   17, "  2, "  3
B. F. Devol,       -         -     "   A, 2  ft.,  "   16, "  2, "  3
B. F. Devol,      -        -       "   A, 2  ft.,  "    9, "  2, "  3
B. F. Devol,     -        -        "   A, 2  ft.,  "    2, "  2, "  3
Bruner,      -       -       -     "   A,          "   25, "  3, "  3 
Elliott,        -         -        "   A,          "   25, "  3, "  3 

97
Clark,        -        -          Coal A,         Sec. 17, T. 3, R. 3
Field,      -         -            "   A,          "    3, "  3, "  3
Barker,      -         -           "   A,          "    1, "  3, "  4
Unknown       -         -          "   A,          "    2, "  3, "  4
P. Hutz, semi-block     -    -     "   A,          "   35, "  4, "  4
Z. Sims, semi-block    -      -    "   A,          "   35, "  4, "  4
Sharon,        -        -          "   A,          "   28, "  4, "  4
Porter,       -        -           "   A,          "   18, "  4, "  3
Dunihue,      -        -           "   A,          "   17, "  4, "  3
Laughlin,    -       -       -     "   A,          "   19, "  5, "  4
Lewis,        -        -           "   A,          "   16, "  5, "  3
Todd,      -       -        -      "   A,          "    8, "  5, "  3
Rollins,        -        -         "   A,          "    5, "  5, "  3
Baker,      -       -        -     "   A,          "    5, "  5, "  3
Davis,           -      -          "   A,          "    5, "  5, "  3
The average thickness of coal A may be set down at thirty inches. It is almost everywhere, throughout the county, an excellent semi-block coal, very hard and firm, stands handling, and will bear stocking.
Iron Ore: Near the junction of the millstone grit, with the lower carboniferous limestone, there is more or less iron ore throughout the county. Generally, it is a siliceous hydrated oxide, which lies in pockets, or local beds, often of great extent; but there are some localities where an earthy carbonate of iron is found in seams that vary from a few inches, to six feet in thickness; though, usually, where attaining the greatest thickness, it is mixed with more or less, silex. No effort has been made to properly open either the iron ore beds, or seams of coal in Martin county; consequently, I found it difficult to pronounce, with any degree of certainty, on the true commercial value of the minerals, seen under so great a disadvantage. To pick into a seam of ore or coal, through the superincumbent earth and rock, with a common geological hammer, seldom enables one to see the stratum, in so favorable a light, as where a clean, vertical face is shown, by a proper excavation.
On Mr. Stevens' land, section 1, township 3, range 3, near

S. G. R. - 7


98
the top of a hill, by the base of which runs the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, there is a deposit of iron ore fully thirty feet thick, and half an acre in area, which contains a large per cent. of metal, but is also quite siliceous; it has a redish brown color, and contains bands of a gray steel color. The ore lies in regular stratified blocks, as though the conglomerate sandstone had been metamorphosed, or changed by displacement, into an ore of iron.
Chalybeate waters may have been chiefly instrumental in bringing about the conversion of the sandstone to ore, as springs of this water are quite common at the base of the millstone grit.
Specimens of this ore were taken for analysis, and after crushing equal portions from three varieties, and then reducing them to an impalpable powder, a weighed portion of the mixed ores gave:
                          No. 1.
     Insoluble silicates,   -    -   -   -   27.00
     Ferric oxide,   -   -    -    -    -    66.40
     Alumina,    -    -    -    -    -    -   1.10
     Phosphoric acid,     -     -    -   -   trace.
     Sulphur,     -    -     -    -    -     trace.
     Lime,    -    -     -     -    -    -   trace. 
The yield of metal is equal to 44.48 per cent.
Similar deposits of siliceous ore are seen on sections 15 and I6, township 3, range 3.
Two varieties, which represent the larger portion of the ore bed, were taken for analysis, and gave the following:
No. 2, Limonite; color, reddish brown; containing small cavities filled with decomposed ore and clay; running through the mass are streaks of steel gray ore, with glistening specks of quartz:
                        No. 2.
     Moisture, dried at 212° F.,   -    -      1.24
     Ignited to bright red heat, lost,  -  -   6.56
     Silica and silicic acid,   -    -    -   28.60


99
     Ferric oxide,    -    -    -    -    -   54.45
     Alumina,    -     -     -     -    -      7.20
     Phosphoric acid,    -    -    -    -     trace.
     Sulphur,    -    -     -     -     -     trace.
     Lime, magnesia and loss,    -    -    -   1.95
                                             __________
                                             100.00

                      No. 3.
   Color: Dark brown, mottled with pink.
     Moisture, dried at 212° F.,   -     -     1.00
     Ignited to bright red heat, lost,  -  -   8.00
     Insoluable silicates,    -    -     -    36.80
     Ferric oxide,     -     -     -     -    49.95
     Alumina,     -      -      -     -        2.12
The Ferric oxide equals 34.96 per cent. of metal. The roasted ore will give about 38.41 per cent. of metal.
No. 4 contains too much silica to be worked with advantage in the blast furnace.
Nos. 1, 2, and 3, though containing a large amount of silica, are quite rich in iron and alumina, and, it is my opinion that they will work very well in the blast furnace, especially, when mixed with a small proportion of hematite ore. The metal will be hard and well adapted for rails.
Similar ores, to the above, are found on the following lands:
 
E. B. Elliott,   -   -   -   S. ½ Sec. 10, T. 3, R. 3
B. F. Devol,   -   -    -    N. ½  "   10, "  3, "  3
B. F. Devol,   -    -    -   N. ½  "   23, "  3, "  3
B. F. Devol,   -   -   -   -       "   22, "  3, "  3
R. Royles,    -      -    -        "   19, "  3, "  3
Shermans,    -    -    -    -      "   12, "  2, "  3
Unknown  -     -    -    -         "   28, "  4, "  3
Dunihue,    -    -    -    -       "   14, "  4, "  4
Dunihue,   -    -     -    -       "   18, "  4, "  4
Eddington,    -    -     -         "    2, "  5, "  3
On sections 14 and 32, resting on the shale, forming the


100
roof of the coal in Munson's Ridge, is a bed of siliceous iron ore, two feet thick; its position is shown in the section given at page ____.
This ore is in thin lamina; color, reddish brown; stained with bituminous matter. Composition:
                      No. 5.
     Moisture, dried at 212° F.,   -      -          4.00
     Ignited to bright red heat, lost,   -    -      9.11
     Insoluble silica and silicic acid,    -   -    32.35
     Ferric oxide,    -     -      -      -     -   53.00
     Lime, magnesia, and loss,   -     -     -       1.54
                                                  ____________
                                                   100.00 
The Ferric oxide equals 37.10 per cent. of metal.
If roasted, this ore will yield over 41 per cent. of iron; but contains too much silica to be worked alone.
There is a four inch layer of bituminous iron-stone, that is very rich in iron, as may be seen by the partial analysis here given:
                      No. 6.
     Moisture, dried at 212° F.,    -     -          1.00
     Ignited to bright red heat, lost,    -    -    28.00
     Insoluble silicates,     -    -      -    -     7.00
     Ferric oxide,    -     -     -     -     -     60.50
     Sulphur,     -      -      -      -     -      trace.
     Phosphorus,     -      -      -      -         trace.
The Ferric oxide is equal to 42.35 per cent. of iron.
If roasted, this ore will yield about 60 per cent. of metal. A portion of the 28.00 per cent. expelled, by ignition, is bitumen. In some respects, it resembles the celebrated black-band ore -- Mushetstone -- of Airdrie, Scotland.
In the blueish gray shales, overlying the top coal, in Sampson's Hill, there are a number of irregular bands of clay iron ore; a similar ore is seen in the shales which overlie the lower coal seam A, at many places where the coal has been opened, and where exposed, in washes, in the


101
hill sides; a considerable quantity was, also, seen in the road leading to Baker's, south of Sampson's Hill, and at Willow Valley, on the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad. The subjoined analysis shows it to be a good ore:
                       No. 7.
     Moisture, dried at 212° F.,     -      -         1.15
     Ignited to bright red heat, lost,    -     -    24.05
     Insoluble silicates,     -     -      -          8.00
     Ferric oxide, with some alumina,     -     -    60.00
     Phosphoric acid, undetermined.
     Sulphur, undetermined.
     Lime, magnesia and loss,     -     -     -       6.80
                                                   __________
                                                    100.00
The Ferric oxide is equal to 42 per cent. of metal; and this ore, after roasting, will yield 56 per cent.
On sections 9 and 10, township 4, range 3, lying about thirty feet above the lower carboniferous limestone, there is a bed of iron stone, which is, where I saw it exposed, four feet thick;* samples from four parts of the bed, were taken for analysis, and the result is here given:
No. 8.
Lower stratum; greenish gray ore. About half a pound of the ore was crushed in an iron mortar, and the samll quantity required for analysis was taken therefrom and reduced to an impalpable powder in an agate mortar, by which means a good average was secured:
     Moisture, dried at 212° F.,     -      -          1.40
     Ignited to bright red heat, lost,      -     -   22.80
     Insoluble silicates,      -     -    -    -      13.00
     Ferric oxide, (equal to 38.92 per cent. metal,)  55.60
     Carbonate of lime and magnesia,      -     -      5.60
     Sulphur,     -     -     -     -      -        -   .90
     Phosphoric acid, undetermined.                 __________
                                                      99.30
________________________________________________________________________
* Since my visit to the county, Mr. B. F. Devol, of Shoals, and Mr. Cyrus Mendenhall, of Cincinnati, have had this bed of ore well opened, and inform me, that there is a total of six feet of iron bands.


102
         No. 9:  Lower portion of the middle member.
     Moisture, dried at 212° F.,      -      -         3.00
     Ignited to bright red, lost,     -      -    -   10.50
     Insoluble silicates,     -      -      -     -   23.00
     Ferric oxide, (equal to 41.75 per cent. of 
        metal,)       -       -        -        -     59.65
     Alumina,      -      -      -      -      -       2.70
     Phosphoric acid,      -      -      -      -     trace.
     Lime, magnesia and loss,     -    -     -         1.15

         No. 10: Upper portion of middle part.
     Moisture, dried at 212° F.,     -      -          3.00
     Ignited to bright red heat, lost,    -     -      8.00
     Insoluble silicates,      -      -      -        37.75
     Ferric oxide (equal 33.63 per cent. metal,)      48.05
     Alumina,      -      -      -      -      -       1.15
     Phosphoric acid,     -     -      -      -       trace.
     Lime, magnesia and loss,     -      -     -       2.05
                                                 ________________
                                                     100.00

         No. 11: Upper stratum, four inches thick at the crop.
     Moisture, dried at 212° F.,     -      -           .30
     Ignited to bright red heat, lost,     -     -    28.50
     Insoluble silicates,      -      -      -         8.50
     Ferric oxide, (equal to 37.52 per cent. metal,)  53.60
     Phosphoric acid,      -      -      -     -      trace.
     Sulphuric acid,      -      -        -      -    trace.
     Lime, magnesia and loss,     -      -      -      9.10
                                                  _____________
                                                     100.00
From the above analyses, the average yield of iron from the ores of this bed will be about 37.95 per cent.; and the average per cent. of silicates, about 20.56. Though the silica is pretty large, still, I am the opinion that the ore may be worked in the blast furnace, alone; but, mixed with the hematite ores of Missouri, will undoubtedly yield a metal of excellent quality.


103
QUATERNARY.

The only representative of this period in Martin county, that I was able to recognize, is the Drift or Glacial epoch; though it is quite possible that the Loess may exist on the bluffs bordering the East Fork of White river.
Here, as in Daviess county, the drift consists of clays, small rounded granitic, basaltic, and occasionally, secondary limestone pebbles; boulders, more than six inches in diameter are rarely seen. The entire thickness will not exceed twenty-five feet. It is found on all the ridges, where not subsequently removed by denudation; nor did we find any marine relics. No grooving or scratching was seen on the boulders, or rocks beneath them.
Bones of the Mammoth and Mastoden have been found in this county, imbedded in marsh clay, resting on the drift. A large tooth, and I believe, some other bones of the Mastodon Ohioticus, Blum. (M. gigantea, Cuvier.,) were obtained some years ago, by Hon. W. E. Niblack, from near Hindostan, and presented by him, to the late Dr. D. D. Owen, and were transferred, in 1869, with the Owen Cabinet, to the State University, at Bloomington.

ECONOMICAL GEOLOGY.

Coal A may be said to occupy about one-half the area of Martin county, or about one hundred and eight thousand acres. Locally, it attains a thickness of four feet, and over, and the average may be put down at thirty inches. This will give, as the product of one seam, 434,954,666 tons of coal.
The coal seam I ?, found in Sampson's Hill, is limited, in area, to the high ridges and table lands adjoining thereto; which will comprise about four hundred and eighty acres, and the average thickness may be taken at thirty inches, which will give, as the product of this seam, 1,936,000 tons of coal. The contents of the two seams, together, make 436,890,666 tons of available coal in this county. Most of


104
this coal will answer, in the raw state, for making iron, and is, likewise, admirably adapted for household use, for locomotives, and all other steam purposes. It is, for the most part, a non-caking coal, and burns to ash without leaving clinkers.
Iron Ore: As already stated, the seams and deposits of iron ore are large and numerous; though, for the most part, siliceous, there are some stratified ores comparatively free from silica; and I am of the opinion, that, when thorough search has been made, by digging into the shales lying between the millstone grit and lower carboniferous limestone, that the six foot seam, previously referred to as occurring on section 9, township 3, range 3, will be found, in many places, where it may prove to be of still better quality.
The average yield of iron, from the ores analized, is nearly 38 per cent.; which is sufficient to be remunerative; as they can be had convenient to coal suited for smelting them, and may be mined at little expense. At all events, should it not be deemed advisable to smelt these ores by themselves; rich hematite ores, that will make an admirable mixture, may readily be had from Missouri, over the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad. Indeed, Shoals would prove an admirable location for a blast furnace, even though all the ore had to come from Missouri. It is situated on the East Fork of White river; is now the county seat, and quite a flourishing manufacturing town; containing mills for cutting staves and headings, spoke, hub, and axe-handle factories, saw mills, planing mills, and potteries.
Mr. B. F. Devol, who, in connection with Mr. Town, is largely engaged in the lumber business, at this place, owns, or controls by leases, a large portion of the best coal and iron ore lands in the county. He holds, in fee simple, over twenty-six hundred acres, and has leases on about thirteen thousand six hundred acres, a part, or all of which, he is willing to dispose of to parties wishing to mine the coal and erect blast furnaces in the county.
Building Stone: Both lime and sandstone, of excellent


105
quality, may be had in this county. The conglomerate sandstone, where free from iron and pebbles, is a handsome and durable stone, and may be had in blocks of any required size. The oolite member of the lower carboniferous limestone epoch, may be had in large blocks; is handsome, durable and susceptable of being worked into ornamental forms.
Grit Stone: The sandstone, lying between the upper archimedes limestone, and the oolite limestone bed, is a fine grained, even textured, white stone; that is extensively worked into grind-stones and whetstones. They are sold in the market under the name of French Lick, or Hindostan stones. The principally worked quarries of this grit, are now, I believe, in the southeastern part of the county, near the French Lick Springs in Orange county. They are called Hindostan Stones because they were formerly shipped from that town, down the river, in flat bottom boats.
Lime: The oolitic limestone will make a good white lime, but, I believe, ther are no kilns in the county; this branch of manufacture being left to the people of the adjoining county of Lawrence, where there are a number of kilns.
Potter's Clay: The four feet seam of clay, under the upper seam of coal, is not sufficently refractory for fire brick; but is an excellent potter's clay. Since my visit to the county, Devol & Catterson have put up two potter's kilns at Shoals, and are making, from this clay, which is said to be well adapted to the manufacture, about ninety-two thousand gallons of common stoneware, per annum.
The seven foot bed of fire-clay, under the subconglomerate coal in Munson's Ridge, will probably also, prove to be a good clay for this business.
Mineral Paints: About one mile west of Dover Hill, on the head waters of Beech Creek, in section 2, township 3, range 4, there is a heavy bed of variously tinted feruginous shale and clay; the latter is derived from the decomposition of a band of iron ore, and its associate aluminous shale. It is underlaid by the subconglomerate coal A,


106
which is here too thin to work, though, a deserted drift, now filled up, shows that efforts have been made to that end. A slip of the strata, on the side of the hill, above the paint bed, has so covered it with rubbish, that I was unable to determine the extent of the ochreous shales; but they are reported to be fifteen feet thick. The colors, which they furnish, are: umber, and red, and yellow sienna. In the hill, above, is a heavy bed of conglomerate sandstone, some eighty feet thick; and ten or twelve feet below the seam of coal, is the lower carboniferous limestone, which outcrops in the branch. The scenery, around this spot, is picturesque and rugged.
Dr. Delameter, of Dover Hill, so I was informed, first opened and worked these paint beds, on a small scale, and susequently, sold them to a company of gentlemen living in Cincinnati, Ohio. A few years ago, this company erected a mill for crushing and grinding this paint, on a large scale; quite a quantity was manufactured, and where introduced, gave good satisfaction, as a cheap, handsome and durable paint. I saw houses, in Dover Hill, painted, of a warm, chocolate color, with this paint, that, though the color had been on for a number of years, still looked fresh and bright. But for reasons, which I was unable to learn, the mill has been abandoned, and there are, now, stowed under sheds, several hundred barrels of well ground, mineral paint, which is rapidly going to waste, from the bursting of barrels; and the mill is going to destruction for the want of some one to look after it; surely, if mineral paint can be manufactured at a profit, anywhere, it ought to be here.
Mineral Waters: The Indian Springs, situated on section 17, township 4, range 3, and about nine miles north of Shoals (on the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad,) are owned by D. R. Dunihue. The character of the water is a saline sulphuret. A view of the Bath House and Springs is given at page 107, and a view of the Hotel at page 81, both lithographed from photographs, furnished by Mr. Dunihue. The water gushes up in several places, at the junction of the millstone grit, and lower carboniferous limestone, on


107
the west bank of Sulphur creek, a branch of Indian creek, and is confined in wooden tubes, made of sections of the trucks of hollow sycamore trees. The main spring discharges from ten to twelve gallons per minute.
A qualitative chemical examination of this water, was made at the fountain head, which determined the presence of the following substance:
The water is perfectly clear, but leaves a whitish deposit on the curbing.
Temperature of the air 80° F.; of the water 56° *
Small bubbles of gas escape through the water.
Sulphuretted hydrogen.
Carbonic acid.
Sulphuric acid.
Hydrochloric acid.
Soda.
Lime.
Magnesia.
The sulphuretted hydrogen could be recognized by its strong odor at a considerable distance from the spring. Some two or three hundred yards down the creek, there is another spring, which proved to be chalybeate.
It contained small quantities of:
Protoxide of iron.
Sulphate of lime.
Sulphate of magnesia.
Carbonate of lime.
Carbonate of magnesia.
Chloride of sodium.
About a gallon of water was collected, from the main sulphur spring, for quantitative analysis at the laboratory. The result of this analysis is here given, both, in parts in one million, or pounds in one hundred thousand gallons, and in grains in an imperial gallon.
The elementary substances are given in one table, and the manner in which they are probably combined, in another;
______________________________________________________________________
* Mr. Dunihue informs me that there is no difference in the temperature of the water at any season of the year.


108
the quantity of water was not sufficient to enable me to determine the iodides and bromides, which are present in exceedingly small quantitities.
Quantitative chemical analysis of mineral water from Indian Springs, owned by D. R. Dunihue:
The gaseous contents in one imperial gallon, are represented in cubic inches:
     Carbonic acid,     -     -     -     -   11.500
     Sulphydric acid,     -      -     -       4.000
     Oxygen,      -     -     -      -     -   4.753
     Nigrogen,     -     -     -     -    -    7.747
                                             ___________
            Total,     -     -     -     -    28.000
Mineral constituents given in parts in 1,000,000, or pounds in 100,000 gallons, in the first column, and in grains in one imperial gallon in the second.
Total solid matter, 198.18 grains.
                         PARTS IN 1,000,000 OR,    GRAINT IN ONE
                          LBS.IN 100,000 GALS.        GALLON.
    Silicic acid,     -      -    7.7157                .5401
    Oxide of iron,     -    -      .0615                .0043
    Lime,      -      -     -   392.2071              27.5245
    Soda,     -     -     -     472.2286              33.0560
    Potash,    -     -     -     35.4286               2.4800
    Magnesia,    -    -     -   344.1328              24.0893
    Alumina,       -      -       3.0243                .2117
    Chlorine,    -    -    -    317.8885              22.2522
    Carbonic acid,     -    -   536.4143              37.5490
    Sulphuric acid,   -    -    695.8957              48.7127
    Iodides and bromides,   -     trace.               trace.
                              ____________          ____________
       Total,    -    -        2805.9971             196.4198
                              ============          ============
The above constituents are probably combined as follows:
                         PARTS IN ONE MILLION, OR,   GRAINS IN ONE
                          LBS. IN 100,000 GALLONS.     GALLON.
    Silicic acid,    -    -       7.7157                .5401
    Oxide of iron,    -      -     .0615                .0043
    Sulphate of iron,     -     346.9386              24.2857

109
    Sulphate of soda,    -   -  202.8571              14.2000
    Sulphate of potash,    -     41.2086               2.8846
    Sulphate of magnesia,    -  521.1042              36.4773
    Sulphate of alumina,    -    14.2271                .9959
    Carbonate of lime,   -   -  567.6786              39.7375
    Carbonate of soda,     -     61.9429               4.3360
    Carbonate of potash,    -    41.2857               2.8900
    Carbonate of magnesia,   -  324.9014              22.7431
    Chloride of sodium,     -   675,1100              42.2577
    Chloride of magnesium,   -     .9657                .0676
    Iodides and bromides,   -     trace.               trace. 
                               ___________          ___________
       Total,    -    -    -   2805.9971             196.4198
                               ===========          ===========
From the above analysis, it will be seen, that the Indian Springs possess valuable medicinal properties. The hotel, see page 81, is situated on a gradually rising hill one hundred feet above the springs, in the midst of a grove of forest trees. The building is small and ill adapted to accommodate the many guests who visit the springs, annually, both in search of health, and as a pleasant retreat from the cares of business, during the heat of summer. At the time of my visit, the hotel was full, and many were deterred from going to the springs on account of the limited accommodations. A large and well arranged hotel, would soon make these springs among the most frequented in the country.
Trinity Springs: These springs are a quarter of a mile east of Harrisonville, on section 29, township 4, range 3, in the valley of Indian creek, and about two miles southeast of Indian Springs, and seven miles north of Shoals. These springs are owned by Mr. Benjamin Dunn, of Bloomington, Indiana. The hotel and other houses that have been erected at these springs, were burned seven or eight years ago, and have not since been rebuilt. Visitors to these springs stop with Mr. S. F. Lemar,[should read: Leonard,] at Harrisonville. He is Mr. Dunn's agent and provides bountifully for the few whom he has room to accommodate.


110
The name - Trinity Springs - originated from the occurrence of three bold running sulphur springs, all within a few feet of each other. There are, also, two springs of fresh water close by these sulphur springs, one is hard water, cool and pleasant to the taste, and the other is soft water, and is used without "breaking" for washing clothes, etc.
The temperature of the water of the Trinity Springs was 57° F., and that of the air 89°. Bubbles of gas escape through the water, and a whitish deposit is found on the inside of the curbing. The qualitative, chemical, examination of this water gave the following result:
Sulphuric acid.
Carbonic acid.
Sulphydric acid.
Hydrochloric acid.
Soda.
Potash.
Magnesia.
Lime.
This is also a saline, sulphuretted water, and contains precisely the same mineral constituents found in the Indian springs; therefore, it was not deemed necessary to carry the analysis any farther at this time. The source of the water is, also, the same, i. e. at the junction of the millstone grit, and lower carboniferous limestone.
The low ridge which rises above the springs, to the east, affords a fine site for a hotel, and with ample arrangements to accommodate the public, they would soon become attractive and remunerative as a place of resort.
Antiquities: In the northeastern edge of the town of Shoals, there is a mound about ten feet high, and twenty to twenty-five feet in diameter, built by the Mound-Builders. It has been dug into and some Indian bones taken out, but I could not learn of any relics having been found in it. A few stone arrow-heads, spear-heads, and stone axes have been picked up in different parts of the county. One mile southwest of Shoals, on Thomas Gormerly's place, there is, on a hill one hundred and fifty feet high, a large shell heap,


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"Kitchen-middings," (kjokkenmodding,) as similar heaps are called in Denmark. In these "Kitchen-middings," are found mussel shells of species now common to our fresh water streams, such as belong to the genue: Unio, Alasmodonta, Anodonta, Melania, and Paludina. Associated with these shells, are ashes, charcoal, bones of quadrupeds, birds and fishes, bone needles, fish hooks, etc., etc., indicating that the heaps are formed of the refuse left by a race of people who fed upon the mollusca, fishes and other animals, and were probably, intermediate between the Mound-builders and savages in civilization. Shell heaps of this character are not uncommon in this State, and when time permits, they will be thoroughly examined and described in detail.
Agriculture: The broken character of the land makes this county less attractive to the agriculturist than the adjoining county of Daviess. The upland is mostly a clay soil, but, in general, produces most excellent crops of small grain and clover. On Munson's, and some other high ridges, I observed, among the undergrowth of dogwood and spice bushes, quite a number of paw paw trees. The high land is admirably adapted to growing peaches and apples; these crops are seldom injured by frosts.
The bottoms, along the East Fork of White river and its tributaries, are quite extensive; the soil is a sandy loam and yields large crops of corn, and fair crops of small grain.
Timber: No county in the State, can boast of a better growth of large and valuable trees for timber, such as black walnut, poplar, white, red, black, chesnut and burr oaks, hickory and maple. The varieties of trees are the same, in this county, as in Daviess county, and for a more detailed account, the reader is referred to the list given at page 78.
Conclusion: The mineral resources of this county are very great, though, as yet, scarcely anything has been done towards development. It is true, that, the coal seams are not so numerous, nor generally, so thick as in some of the other counties lying within the boundary of the coal measures; nevertheless, the quality is excellent, and like

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other non-caking, or block-coals of Indiana, it may be used, in the raw state, for smelting and working iron. The iron ore beds are, also, shown to be numerous, and, for the most part, lie in close proximity to the coal; and even though it may not, at the present time, in the judgment of iron masters, be deemed prudent to work ores, containing so much silica, by themselves, every facility that could be desired, for mixing with them the rich hematite ores of Missouri, is secured by the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad which runs through the very heart of the minerals, and reaches St. Louis by almost an air line.
In this place I, also, desire to express my thanks to the citizens of Martin county, for their many acts of kindness, and my obligations for the aid received from the following gentlemen: Mr. B. F. Devol, Mr. Town, D. Allbright, Capt. McCarty, Hon. Mr. Dobbins, Mr. Hickman, E. Mason, R. McCormick, D. Lacey, Frank Baker, C. O. Bryant, and many others whose names I do not now recall.

1870 Table of Contents

Geology Library, Indiana University, Bloomington