[at head of title] Frederic W. Simonds; Professor of Geology *

COLLECTION OF
CRINOIDS,
FROM THE SUB-CARBONIFEROUS
KEOKUK GROUP,
Montgomery County, Indiana,
COLLECTED AND PREPARED BY
FRED. BRAUN,
55 Canal Street, Cincinnati, O.


Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, Indiana, is known as one of the most interesting localities for Crinoids, in fact it may be properly called classical Crinoidal ground, having been visited frequently by collectors, geologists and palaeantologists, and having furnished the best material for the study of subcarboniferous crinoids. James Hall, Meek, Worthen, Lyon, Cassiday, Owen, Shumard, have described and figured many species in various reports and books, from this locality, and new additions are made continually.
Montgomery County is about 750 feet above the ocean, its surface covered mostly by glacial clays, sand, gravel and bowlders, and only in the valleys, ravines and cuts the underlaying subcarboniferous rocks are exposed, belonging mostly to the Keokuk Group which occupies the central part of the country. The stratas of the Keokuk Group consist of shales, soft sandstones and some limestone; the shales predominate and contain most crinoids, but on account of the shales decomposing very easily by exposure to atmospheric influences the fossils are mostly found in fragments, and it is only at considerable depth that the undecomposed stratas can be reached, furnishing specimens in a good state of preservation.


Wishing to procure a collection of Crinoids I inspected the celebrated locality known as Corey's Bluff, the same consists in descending order as:
 
    Sandy soil,    -     -     -     -     -    -     -      3 feet.

    Soft sandstone, fossiliferous, containing decayed Crinoids
       and other fossils,     -     -     -      -     -    10 feet.

    A layer of fine-grained argilaceous sandrock of compact
       texture,     -     -      -       -       -     -    10 inch.

    Soft gray sandstone,    -     -      -      -     -      8 feet.

    Blue argillaceous sandstone,     -      -      -     -   4 feet.

    Crinoid bed, a blue siliceous clay shale containing
       scattered colonies of Crinoids, and other fossils,   10 feet.
       the lower 5 feet containing mostly Lamellib.
The Crinoidal bed had been worked by former collectors as far as practicable without removing the overlaying rock and loose material, and there was no choice left but either to abandon the object or to make a large excavation and remove about 30 feet of rock; the ground belonging to a graveyard the same had to be bought. To go under these circumstances into the enterprise on a small scale or with a small force of men was impracticable and I had to employ for 3 months 20 to 30 men, several carts and horses to reach the crinoidal strata. The expense exceeded by far my calculation and means, and only by the liberal pecuniary aid of friends of science I could accomplish my object. The success however justified the labor and expenses, I was so fortunate to hit a spot where the crinoids seem to have been existing undisturbed and buried quietly by the fine silt forming the laminated shales; this is not the state to be calculated on as a rule, only a short distance from my locality the same strata was reached by digging, containing only a very few good specimens, most of the crinoids laying about in a confusion of stems, calyxes, arms and fimbrias, as if a destructive wave had broken up the colony of crinoids.
The shale containing the crinoids is of dark grayish blue color, sometimes pyritiferous, which being exposed to rain or frost decomposes very easily, but being kept dry and protected gets hard and durable. The fossils are mostly covered up by the shale and only by their faint outlines the same can be recognized, and it is only exceptional that the fossils come out nice and clear.
In reaching the desired strata therefore I could not pick out specimens on the spot, but had to take out the rock in lumps and to secure it from rain and frost as soon as possible; I had therefore to transport an immense quantity of rock, and ship by railroad to Cincinnati, causing considerable cost in freight; by this method I have however gained a great advantage over former collectors, obtaining many species with stems and generally in better condition.
My progress in preparing collections has been very slow on account that the material can not be assorted without examining every piece of rock carefully and removing of the rock sufficiently to recognize the species, and it will require considerable time to know how many species are concealed in the material.
The number of species of crinoids found so far is 25, of which about 6 collections can be furnished. -- The largest part of the specimens include about 10 species of which I am able to furnish many excellent suits. The best specimens only are picked out from the rock with greatest care; such as are fragile and subject to injury are inserted with plaster of Paris in boxes, so as to protect and preserve them well. The specimens are selected so as to show the character of the species in its various parts and positions.
I may add without infringing on modesty, that without my entering this enterprise with great force and energy, regardless of expense, hardships and trouble, these gems of fossils would probably have remained buried forever. By making these treasures accessible, by offering and distributing them I believe to have rendered good service to science. To bring the collections not only within reach of museums, but also of private collections, I have put down the price as low as the circumstances mentioned will permit, leaving me only a very moderate compensation for my outlays, time and labor.

FRED. BRAUN
55 Canal Street, Cincinnati, O.
I most respectfully refer to the Custos of the palaeantological Museum of the University of Berlin, D. C. Damer and Professor Beyrich, having sold a collection to the above named institution.
F. B.


LIST OF CRINOIDS
from Braun's Quarry, Crawfordsville, Montgomery Co., Ind.
                       ________________________
                            ABBREVIATIONS.

      A. Calyx.
      B. Calyx with arms (free).
      C. Calyx with arms laying on slab, arms frequently spread out,
           showing the feather-like fimbrias.
      D. Same with column.
                            _____________
                            _____________
                              AUTHORS.

       Meek and Worthen,     -     -     -     -     M. & W. 
       Owen and Shumard,      -      -       -       O. & Shum.
       James Hall,      -      -      -       -      Hall.
       Lyon and Cassiday,     -      -      -        L. & C.
       Troost,        -      -        -      -       Troost.

                            _____________
Collection No. 1. ................................ $200.
contains all specimens enumerated in this List.

Collection No. 2. ................................ 100.

contains 15 species with 30 specimens of the following
numbers: 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21.

Collection No. 3. ................................ 50.

contains 10 species with 20 specimens as following:
1, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 19.

Collection No. 4. ................................. 15.

contains 5 species with 10 specimens as following:
1, 3, 14, 17, 19.


1.  PLATYCRINUS HEMISPHERICUS   M. & W.     A B C D   8 sp.
 Specimens with Platyceras infundibulum attached. See description
          Illinois Reports, Vol. V., Page 334.
2.  PLATYCRINUS YANDELLI     O. & Shum.     C         1 sp.  
3.  SCAPHIOCRINUS ÆQUALIS    Hall.     A B C D   6 sp.
4.  SCAPHIOCRINUS UNICUS    Hall.           A C       2 sp.
5.  SCAPHIOCRINUS COREYI    M. & W.         C         1 sp.
6.  SCAPHIOCRINUS DEPRESSUS   M. & W.       C         1 sp.
7.  SCAPHIOCRINUS DECADACTYLUS  M. & W.     C         1 sp.
8.  SCAPHIOCRINUS NOV. SP.                  A B C D   5 sp.
9.  DICHOCRINUS FICUS                       C. & L.   1 sp.
10. DICHOCRINUS EXPANSUS    M. & W.         C         1 sp.
11. BATOCRINUS INDIANENSIS  L. & C.         A C       1 sp.
12. ERETMOCRINUS MAGNIFICUS  L. & C.        A C       2 sp.
       Showing proboscis or arms.
13. BARYCRINUS HOVEYI     Hall.             C         1 sp.

14. BARYCRINUS ARBOREUS    M. & W.          A B C     4 sp.
15. CYATHOCRINUS MULTIBRACHIATUS L. & C.      C       1 sp.
16. CYATHOCRINUS STELLATUS ?   Troost.        C       1 sp.
17. POTERIOCRINUS COREYI   M. & W.          A C       2 sp.
18. POTERIOCRINUS INDIANENSIS  M. & W.        C       1 sp.
19. FORBESOCRINUS MEEKI   Worthen.          A C       2 sp.
20. FORBESOCRINUS RAMULOSUS  L. & C.        A C       2 sp.
21. ONYCHOCRINUS EXCULPTUS  L. & C.           C       2 sp.
22. AGARIOCRINUS WHITFIELDI    Hall.          A       1 sp.
23. GONIASTEROIDOCRINUS TUBEROSUS  L. & C.  A C       2 sp.
24. ONYCHASTER FLEXILIS    M. & W.                    1 sp.
      Showing radiating arms.
25. PROTASTER GREGARIUS    M. & W.            C       1 sp.

APPENDIX.
OTHER FOSSILS FOUND WITH THE CRINOIDS.

AULOPORA GIGAS Rom.
ARCHIMEDES OWENANA Hall.
FENESTELLA, SP. UND.
PRODUCTUS PUNCTATUS Sow.

showing the hairlike spines.
PRODUCTUS TENUICOSTATUS Hall.
PRODUCTUS SEMIRETICULARUS Mart.
SPIRIFER SUBORBICULARIS.
CHONETES LOGANI N. & P.
AVICULOPECTEN INDIANENSIS M. & W.
LITHOPHAGA LINGUALIS Phill.
MYALINA KEOKUK M. & W.
ALLORISMA HYBRIDA M. & W.
PINNA SUBSPATHULATA M. & W.
PLATYCERAS INFUNDIBULUM M. & W.
PLATYCERAS EQUILATERA Hall.
CONULARIA CRAWFORDSVILLENSIS Owen.
PHILLIPSIA BUFO M. & W.
(perfect specimen).

END

* This e-text was made from an old photocopy which may account for possible errors in transcription. The "F. W. Simonds, Professor of Geology" may have been a stamp or some other indication of ownership as this is not referenced as his work.