The original is a mimeograph and the transcribed page format has been
changed from double to single
column. Corrections of typographic errors in text -- but not form of fossil names
--have been added in brackets.
ORDOVICIAN, SILURIAN, and DEVONIAN ROCKS
in the vicinity of
Grant T. Wickwire
[date stamped] Jan. 1955
[page 1]DESCRIPTIONS OF FORMATIONS
The following descriptions are offered to aid in the identification of the
formations. The descriptions are generalized but are intended to apply more
closely to conditions in the Hanover area. The strata are listed from the
youngest to the oldest. The fossil lists are incomplete but they include the
common and characteristic species.
The outcrop belt of these formations included in the Hanover area extends
from Madison to Scottsburg and from the Ohio River, at Jeffersonville, north
through Jennings County. The accompanying illustrated stratigraphic column
should be consulted to learn the stratigraphic relations of the formations.
NEW ALBANY SHALE The New Albany shale is divisible into three parts.
upper New Albany is Mississippian, Kinderhookian, in age; the middle New Albany
is Upper Devonian, and the lower New Albany is Middle Devonian.
The New Albany, 100 feet thick, is a black, fissile bituminous shale with
interbedded layers of gray clay shale in the middle division. On weathered
surfaces the color is gray. The New Albany contains from 10 to 15 gallons of oil
per ton, and small amounts of radioactive fissionable particles occur throughout
the formation. In the Hanover area the New Albany contains the following
BEECHWOOD LIMESTONE (Middle Devonian Hamilton) The Beechwood is a hard,
light gray, crystalline crinoidal limestone, 3 to 10 feet thick, and contains
many fossils. The base of the bed is conglomeratic locally. It occurs in Clark
and Jennings Counties.
SWANVILLE LIMESTONE The Swanville is a hard, light gray, crystalline
limestone (not crinoidal) 1 to 5 feet thick. Its lithology is similar to that of
the Beechwood. It occurs in Clark, Scott, Jefferson and Jennings Counties.
SILVER CREEK HYDRAULIC LIMESTONE (Devonian Hamilton) The Silver Creek
is a homogeneous, fine-grained, bluish to drab or gray, argillaceous, magnesian
limestone, about 15 feet thick. It is the natural cement formerely
quarried in Clark County. Fossils are abundant. The Silver Creek occurs only in
Clark and Scott Counties.
DEPUTY LIMESTONE (Denovian Hamilton) The Deputy is a medium hard, bluish,
highly crystalline limestone that weathers to a light gray color. It contains an
abundant fauna of few species and occurs in Jennings, Jefferson and Scott
Counties. The Deputy is 5 feet thick.
SPPEDS [SPEEDS] LIMESTONE (Denonian [Devonian] Hamilton) The Speeds is a
shelly, hard, blue
limestone that weathers to a gray color. It is 2 to 13 feet thick and contains a
rich fauna of few species with a bone bed at the base. It is present
from the Ohio River north to Jennings County.
JEFFERSONVILLE LIMESTONE (Devonian Onondaga) The Jeffersonville is a
thick-bedded, light gray, crystalline limestone in the southern part of the area
and is dolomitic in the northern half. It is 30 feet thick, contains
chert in the
upper levels and abundant fossils. The Jeffersonville contains the classic
coral reef at the Falls of the Ohio.
GENEVA dolomite (Devonian Schoharie) The Geneva is a buff to chocolate
colored, massive, soft, fine-grained, saccharoidal dolomite. It changes to almost
a pure sandstone, locally, in the north-eastern part of the outcrop area. The
Geneva occurs from Charlestown, where it is 3 feet thick, to Shelby County, where
its thickness is 50 feet. It is 3 feet thick in west Hanover. It contains few
LOUISVILLE dolomite (Silurian Niagaran) The Louisville is a thick bedded
to tan, fine-grained dolomitic limestone with an average thickness of 30 feet.
The Louisville has not been identified definitely in the vicinity of Hanover.
WALDRON shale (Silurian Niagara [Niagaran]) The Waldron is a gray to
greenish or bluish
clay shale about 10 feet thick. It is very fossiliferous locally.
Rhynochotreta cuneata americana
LAUREL dolomite (Silurian Niagaran) The Laurel is athin [a thin] to
thick-bedded, gray to tan, drusy, cherty, sometimes
argillaceous, hard dolomite about 40 feet thick. It is the cliff rock of the
Ohio River bluffs.
OSGOOD shale (Silurian Niagaran) The Osgood consists of a lower, gray to
colored limestone, 1 to 6 feet thick; a lower, soft, bluish shale, 1 to 2 feet
thick; an upper, gray to tan limestone, 6 feet thick; and an upper, gray
colcareous [calcareous] limestone, 11 feet thick. The formation is fossiliferous
but few fossils occur in the vicinity of Hanover.
BRASSFIELD limestone (Silurian Medinan) The Brassfield is a hard,
crystalline, gray to salmon-pink colored limestone, often mottled greenish by the
presence of glauconite. Abundant fossils occur at different levels and at
different places. The bed is 6 inches to 10 feet thick. It if [is] the cap rock
at the numerous water falls in this area.
WHITEWATER limestone (Ordovician-Richnond [Richmond]) This limestone is
"Hitz bed" of early workers. It is a gray, rubbly, argillaceous limestone, 1 to
3 feet thick at Hanover and 80 feet thick in Wayne County.
SALUDA dolmite [dolomite] (Ordovician Richmond) The main bed of the
a massive, tan to greenish, mottled, arenaceous dolomite, varrying [varying] in
appearance and composition at different levels. It grades upwards into a
calcareous and argillaceous limestone. The Saluda and Whitewater are here
treated as separate formations, but the present attitude of many geologists is to
regard the two strata as geographical facies of a single time unit of deposition.
Favistella alveolata, Tetradium ontario, Calapoechia huronensis and
Aulacera undulata are characteristic fossils.
LIBERTY formation (Ordovician Richmond) The Liberty is a thin-bedded,
limestone in layers 2 to 6 feet thick, with inter-bedded layers of clay shale 2
to 3 inches thick, the limestone predominating. The thickness at Hanover is 40
feet. It contains abundant fossils.
Leptaena rhomboidalis and Sowerbyella charysvellensis occur at the base of
WAYNESVILLE formation (Ordovician Richmond) The Waynesville is a
shal [shale] with thin layers of limestone interbedded, the shale predominating.
It is 50 feet thick.
ARNHEIM formation (Ordovician Maysville) The Arnheim is a gray shale with
scattered thin lenses of limestone. A nodular layer at the top is distinctive.
The local thickness is 60 feet.
The MT. AUBURN formation occurs north of this area but is not certainly
known to occur in this vicinity.
The CORRYVILLE formation (Ordovician Maysville) is a stratum of
rubbly linestone [limestone] and bluish shale about 60 feet thick. The fauna is
similar to that of the Bellevue.
BELLEVUE formation (Ordovician Maysville) The Bellevue is ab ut
feet thick and is composed of rubbly limestone and shale. It contains abundant
A hard limestone know as the FAIRMOUNT occurs below the Bellevue
formation in east Madison.