April 1 - 2, 1966
Saturday, April 2, 1966
SOME GEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS OF
Thomas E. Hendrix
STOP DISCUSSION LEADERS 1. Monroe Reservoir, Dam & Spillway, 8:00-9:00 a.m. Thomas E. Hendrix 2. P.M.&B. Dimension Stone Quarry, 9:15-9:45 a.m. John B. Patton 3. U.S.& National Gypsum Company Mines, 10:15-11:30 a.m. Company Representatives ----------------------End of Half-Day Option----------------------
Lunch - Linton, Indiana 12:30-1:15 p.m.4. Minnehaha Coal Strip Mine, 1:30-3:00 p.m. Charles E. Wier 5. Illinois Central RR Cut, Solsberry, 3:45-5:00 p.m. Thomas G. Perry, Thomas E. Hendrix Figure 1. -- Location map and itinerary
NORMAN UPLAND. -- The Norman upland (Malott, 1922, p. 90-94) is an asymmetric highland region underlain by siltstones, sandstones, and shales of the Borden Group (Lower Mississippian). The eastern edge of the upland is a prominent escarpment (the Knobstone escarpment) that rises 300 to 600 feet above the valleys and lowlands to the east. Within the Norman upland gradation by running water has carved steep-walled, narrow-bottomed valleys into the gently
westward-dipping rocks of the Borden Group, and has produced high local
relief. Hilltops have altitudes ranging from 900 to more than 1000 feet and
generally are considered to be the remnants of a peneplain (the Lexington
Surface) which was uplifted in Late Tertiary time.
MITCHELL PLAIN. -- Ground water solution acting on the thick sequence of
Middle Mississippian limestones has created a lowland region called the
Mitchell Plain (Beede, 1910, p. 95; Malott, 1922, p. 94-98, 187-215).
Numerous caves, sinkholes, dolines, sinking streams, uvalas, and other Karst
features are well developed in this physiographic province south of
CRAWFORD UPLAND. -- The Crawford upland (Malott, 1922, p. 98-102, 215-247)
is another asymmetric highland with a steep eastern escarpment and a gentle
westward sloping surface. The area is underlain by sandstones, shales, and
limestones of the Chester Series (Upper Mississippian). The eastern edge of
the Crawford upland is highly irregular and is characterized by Chester
outliers and karst valley reentrants. Many of the larger and more accessible
caverns are found near the eastern edge of the Crawford upland where insoluble
sandstones of the Chester Series form protective caps over solution cavities
in the Meramecian limestones.
WABASH LOWLAND. -- A broad, low, flat region underlain by shales and coals of Pennsylvanian age and mantled with varying thicknesses of glacial drift, outwash, and wind-blown sand characterizes the Wabash lowland. Surface elevations average about 500 feet. The eastern edge of the Wabash lowland is transitional with the Crawford upland.
(page) 7. Figure 2.
(page) 8. Figure 3.
(page) 9. Figure 4.
0.0 Railroad spur lines cross Indiana Highway 37. 0.4 New Bloomington Senior High School on left (east). Bedrock is Salem Limestone. 1.1 Red-colored, clay-rich TERRA ROSA soil on right. Typical of residual soils developed on Mississippian limestones in Bloomington region. Route is south along the strike of the bedrock formations. Physiographic region known as MITCHELL PLAIN. 2.4 Ascend small hill; Canada Motel at crest of hill on left. Ahead to the south about one mile hoisting cranes of building stone quarries rise above the trees. Road descends into valley of Jackson Creek. 3.2 Cross bridge over Jackson Creek and go under Monon railroad bridge. 3.25 Medium-bedded limestone exposed on left. HARRODSBURG LIMESTONE. 4.1 Low exposure of massively-bedded limestone on left. SALEM LIMESTONE. 4.2 Same on right. 4.8 Cross abandoned quarry spur line of Monon railroad. 5.0 Begin ascent of hill. Blocks of Salem limestone in abandoned dimension stone quarry on right. 5.1 Blue-gray, medium- to thin-bedded limestone at top of hill on right. Thin tan shale partings. ST. LOUIS LIMESTONE.(page) 11.
5.4 Descend hill. Low exposures of SALEM on right, near top of formation. 5.7 Road goes through wire-sawed road cut in SALEM LIMESTONE. Notice vertical joints widened by ground water solution. 6.0 ST. LOUIS LIMESTONE. Shaly limestone on left. Scar of recurring slump in soil over limestone on right. For next 2½ miles road is along partially dissected upland surface underlain by upper part of Salem limestone and lower part of St. Louis limestone. Soil developed from St. Louis usually contains chert fragments. 8.5 Begin descent into valley of Clear Creek. Start at top of SALEM LIMESTONE on left. 8.8 Good exposures of SALEM LIMESTONE. Massive, cross-bedded, coarse-grained limestone on left. 9.0 Approximate base of SALEM LIMESTONE at base of tan massive, cross-bedded layer on left. Medium to massive bedded blue-gray limestone below--HARRODSBURG LIMESTONE. 9.1 to 9.3 Excellent exposures of HARRODSBURG LIMESTONE on left. Medium bedded to massive bedded limestone at top and thin to medium bedded crinoidal limestone and gray calcareous shale at base. White spots on face of outcrop are geodes. Base of Harrodsburg at base of exposure on left. 9.4 Cross bridge over Monon railroad. Start across wide flood plain of Clear Creek. Most of the streams in this part of Indiana that had access to the glacial drift and outwash to the north have flood plains much broader than the present streams could have formed. 9.6 Cross bridge over Clear Creek. 9.7 to 9.8 Low exposures of brown or gray-brown siltstone BORDEN GROUP. Dangerous turn ahead! 9.85 Village of Harrodsburg. Turn left off Indiana 37 onto county (0.00) road to Monroe Reservoir. Rough surface and narrow road. CHECK SPEEDOMETER 0.0 to 0.5 Road is along south valley wall of Clear Creek at an elevation near the base of the Harrodsburg limestone. 0.5 Cross Monon railroad tracks (slowly!) and descend to flood plain of Clear Creek again.(page) 12.
0.7 Cross Clear Creek and start up steep hill. Clear Creek flows southeastward (left to right) at this point and joins Salt Creek about one mile below the Monroe Reservoir dam. 0.8 to 0.9 HARRODSBURG LIMESTONE exposed along road to right. This exposure is not for the driver to see! 1.2 Turn right onto access road leading to dam and spillway, Monroe Reservoir. Notice good TERRA ROSA soil along road. 1.4 View of Monroe Reservoir (Lake Monroe) to left. Point of land directly across lake to the northeast is Kelly Point. 1.6 Turn right on road leading to observation point. View of the dam straight ahead. Also good exposures of massive, cross-bedded SALEM LIMESTONE at turn. We will return to this exposure for a short stop after the initial stop at observation point. 1.9 Turn into parking area for Stop 1, Monroe Reservoir.
Stop l.--Monroe Dam and Reservoir
GEOLOGY AT THE DAM SITE AND SPILLWAY. -- Bedrock formations at the dam site and spillway consist of siltstones of the Borden Group and the Harrodsburg and Salem limestones. Terrace and flood-plain deposits overlie the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls. Winslow, Gates, and Melhorn (1960) arranged the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits into four map units according to their lithology, origin, and engineering characteristics as follows:
(page) 13. Figure 5.
QUATERNARY SYSTEM (continued)
2 130 Salem limestone. Fine- to coarse-grained, porous bioclastic limestone. Cross-bedded. Top not exposed. Harrodsburg limestone. Lower part impure crinoidal limestone interbedded with dark calcareous siltstone; geodes abundant; upper part coarse crystalline medium- bedded limestone. About 70 feet thick in slope west of dam. 1 80 Borden Group. Edwardsville formation. Tan (exposed) massive siltstone, 65 feet thick at base of exposure; 15 feet of blue-gray shaly sandy siltstone at top.
ENGINEERING ASPECTS .-- PROJECT DATA (taken from Corps of Engineers pamphlet)
Area Storage* Pool Elevation (Acres) (Acre-feet) Length
0.0 Intersection of county road and Indiana Highway 37. 0.1 Contact of BORDEN GROUP and HARRODSBURG LIMESTONE on left at base of sycamore tree. 0.6 Good exposure of SALEM LIMESTONE on right. Massive tan-colored, cross-bedded limestone. View to the left of the extensive flood plain of Clear Creek. 0.7 Begin descent into valley of small tributary to Clear Creek. Pass through lower part of SALEM and the HARRODSBURG to the base at about stream level. 1.2 Cross stream and start ascent of south valley wall. The road goes back up through the HARRODSBURG and SALEM. Exposures mainly on right. Base of the Salem contains numerous PENTREMITES at this locality. 1.5 Base of ST. LOUIS LIMESTONE exposed along road on the right. 1.7 ST. LOUIS limestone again on right. Cherty TERRA ROSA on left. Road climbs onto broad upland surface (still in Mitchell plain) underlain by St. Louis limestone. Prominent ridge several miles off to the right (west) is the Chester escarpment, the eastern edge of the Crawford upland. On either side of the road for the next 2½ miles are numerous round, elliptical, and irregular-shaped depressions (sinkholes) caused by groundwater solution in the St. Louis limestone and subsequent collapse of the overlying bedrock and soil. 4.0 Road to Guthrie and Monroe Reservoir on left. 5.2 Low exposures of SALEM LIMESTONE along road on right. Near top of formation. 5.4 Farm pond in small valley on right. Farmer has had indifferent success keeping water impounded behind dam. Bedrock, of course, won't contain surface water in this area, and only if soil is left undisturbed will farm ponds hold water. Often, however, the farmer scrapes off the soil in the impounding area to make the dam, thus defeating his own purpose. Geological salesmanship is needed here.
5.6 Descend into valley of small stream. Go down section again through SALEM and HARRODSBURG limestones. 6.1 Cross stream and start back up through section. 6.5 Basal part of the ST. LOUIS LIMESTONE exposed along both sides of the road at top of hill. 6.8 Sign to village of Needmore on right. 7.7 View of extensive dimension stone quarry operation ahead and on left. Be prepared to make left turn off highway onto quarry road. 8.0 Abandoned dimension stone quarries on right. 8.1 Turn left off Highway 37 onto quarry road. Follow lead car and watch traffic! Dangerous turn. Follow lead car down hill and park at turnaround near quarry floor.
Salem Limestone Thickness in feet 7 Limestone: Gray, fine-grained, noncrystalline. Medium-bedded argillaceous stone has conchoidal fracture and contains a few microfossils. 10.0 6 Limestone: Gray, fine-grained, noncrystalline. Unit consists of one bed that contains a few crystals of calcite and has a banded appearance because of the inclusion of darker material. 8.2 5 Limestone: Buff to tan, medium-grained, crystalline, slightly argillaceous. Gray, coarser grained and porous lenses occur in association with stylolites. Fossils more sparse than in underlying units. 11.9 4 Limestone: Very light-buff, fine-grained, crystal- line and bioclastic. Unit consists of a massive, homogeneous bed whose crystallinity and induration increase upward; a stylolite bounds the top of the unit. 13.7 3 Limestone: Light-buff, coarse-grained, bioclastic, porous; organic remains are cemented by finely crystalline material. Variation in size of bio- clastic grains in inclined beds indicate sorting. 5.7 2 Limestone: Dark-gray and buff, fine- to coarse- grained, bioclastic, porous. Crystalline material partially fills the interspaces in this bioclastic rock. 18.6 1 Limestone: Buff-brown, coarse-grained, bioclastic; inclined bedding occurs in upper 2.5 feet. 7.8 _______ Total thickness of exposed Salem limestone 75.9
CaCO3 97.90 percent MgCO3 1.68 " SiO2 0.86 " Al2O3 0.067 " Fe2O3 0.161 "" MnO 0.006 " S 0.039 " ________________________________________ 100.713 Percent CO2 43.5 Percent
After the channeling process is completed, the rectangular blocks of stone--free now on three sides--are wedged out at the base. The first block, of course, must be wedged out from the top and often a good deal of the stone is wasted. Once this "keystone block" is removed, however, the quarrymen have operating room at the base of the layer, and successive blocks are removed by drilling short, closely-spaced holes horizontally into the base of the blocks and wedging them out with wooden pegs. When the block of stone is freed on all four sides, it is pulled over on its side, falling on piles of small stones known as "pillows" to break the impact of the fall, and cut into standard size blocks for hoisting and shipment to the mill. Work proceeds in this fashion until all the blocks on a given level are removed. The operation is then repeated for the next level down, and so forth until the base of the commercial stone is reached. Normally the standard thickness of a working level is eleven feet. In this part of the dimension stone belt the Salem is thick enough to permit six or seven levels.
(page) 21. Figure 6.
0.0 Bedford Plaza sign on right. 0.1 Light gray to tan colored limestone on right. Massive to medium bedded. Fine to medium grained, oolitic. ST. LOUIS LIMESTONE. 0.25 ST. LOUIS LIMESTONE exposed in new road cut on left and old road cut on right. Notice solution features and good TERRA ROSA soil on left. 0.5 Low exposures of medium to thin bedded, blue gray ST. LOUIS LIMESTONE along road to right for next 0.3 mile. 1.0 Begin 0.3 mile long road cut on right in tan to gray massively bedded limestone at about the top of the SALEM LIMESTONE. Old road cut is on right and shows textural and structural features on weathered face--styolite, and cross bedding particularly. New road cut on left begins at 1.1 miles and shows solution cavities. 1.5 Begin another long road cut in SALEM LIMESTONE. Old exposure on right. New cut (1965) on left. Notice solution cavities and oxidation "rinds" about joint-bounded bedrock blocks on left. 2.8 Cross East Fork of the White River. Extensive flood plain can be seen to the right on the south side of the river. The White River served as a sluiceway during the Pleistocene and handled great quantities of glacial outwash, aggrading its valley floor to the level of the flood plain you see to the right. Present stream has incised a channel 10-15 feet deep into the flood plain. 2.9 Exposures of medium bedded to thin bedded and argillaceous lime- stone, ST. LOUIS LIMESTONE, on either side of road for next 0.4 miles. 3.4 Turn right onto U.S. 50 at stop light. Proceed westward and southwestward on U.S. 50. From Bloomington southward to this point the road has more or less parallelled the strike of the bedrock formations, crossing very slightly the Mitchell plain toward the west. As the route turns westward onto U.S. 50 we cross the strike of the bedrock formations and quickly work our way up the section and into the Chester Series of the Crawford upland.
3.6 Sinkholes well developed on St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve lime- stones for next 5½ miles along U.S. 50. 5.7 Low exposure of light gray, medium bedded, fine grained limestone. Probably STE GENEVIEVE LIMESTONE. Wooded hills to left (south) of highway are outliers of Crawford upland capped with sandstone of the Chester Series. 7.6 Typical light gray to white, crinkly bedded STE GENEVIEVE LIMESTONE in low exposure on left. Ridge about one mile ahead to west is Chester escarpment. 8.0 Low exposure of STE GENEVIEVE LIMESTONE on left. 8.4 Same as above. 8.9 Base of Chester escarpment. Leave Mitchell plain and ascend hill through PAOLI LIMESTONE and BETHEL FORMATION (yellow-orange sandstone on right). 9.7 Interbedded black shales and olive colored sandstones. 9.9 Dark shale below and medium bedded to thin bedded tan to brown sandstone above in road cut. MANSFIELD (?) 10.1 Brown to olive colored, medium to massive sandstone. Mansfield (?) 10.4 Sandstone as before on left. Travelling across the maturely dissected surface of the Crawford upland. 10.8 Thin bedded black shale exposed on left. Probably part of Mansfield formation. 11.5 Ed's Place on left. 11.8 Crest of hill. View off to west of Crawford upland surface. 12.5 Begin ascent into reentrant Karst Valley. 13.2 Low outcrop of light colored limestone on left. Probably PAOLI LIMESTONE 13.3 Intersection of U.S. 50 and Indiana Highway 60. Continue west on U.S. 50. 14.2 Deep road cut on right exposes upper part of CYPRESS FORMATION (gray-olive shale) and BEECH CREEK LIMESTONE (massive gray limestone above road on right. Deep cut along B & 0 main line below road and to left exposes good section of Lower Chester as follows: Cypress formation Reelsville limestone 7.0 feet Sample formation 22.1 feet Beaver Bend limestone 15.5 feet
14.6 Bridge over small stream. Village of Huron on left. 15.0 Bridge over small stream. 15.4 Mill of the Indiana Sandstone Company on the right. Sandstone from the Elwren formation is cut and split for building and decorative purposes. 15.8 REELSVILLE LIMESTONE on right. 16.1 CYPRESS FORMATION, gray shale and sandstone on right. 17.1 Exposure of MANSFIELD FORMATION, mostly sandstone above on right. The Mansfield lies on top of a prominent disconformity at this point. As much as 500 feet of Middle and Upper Chester rocks are missing. Considerable relief is present on the pre-Pennsylvanian erosion surface that marks the disconformity. A good view of the disconformity will be seen at stop 5 this afternoon. 17.9 MANSFIELD FORMATION. 18.1 MANSFIELD FORMATION. 18.4 MANSFIELD FORMATION. 18.8 MANSFIELD FORMATION. 19.0 MANSFIELD FORMATION. Extensive exposure of Mansfield across valley to south. Note irregular base of sandstone member. 19.4 Entrance to Martin State Forest on right, Indiana Highway 650 to the left. LAST THREE CARRYALLS TURN LEFT ONTO highway 650 AND PROCEED TO U.S. GYPSUM MINE. First three carryalls continue straight ahead on U.S. 50. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ROAD LOG FOR GROUP GOING TO U.S. GYPSUM MINE. 19.4 Turn left onto Indiana 650. 19.7 Road cut in MANSFIELD FORMATION, close to unconformity. 20.1 Deep road cut in Chester Series which exposes 25' of the CYPRESS FORMATION, the BEECH CREEK LIMESTONE, 15', and 25' of the BIG CLIFTY SANDSTONE. The Beech Creek limestone is perhaps the most easily recognized limestone in the Chester Series, partly because of its dark gray, fine-grained, gastropod-bearing character in the lower part, but also because of large crinoid stems (up to 1 inch in diameter) in the upper part.
The Big Clifty sandstone, unlike most of the clastic units in the Chester, maintains a remarkably constant lithology, appearing almost everywhere as an even-bedded, frequently laminated, fine- grained, well sorted, quartzose sandstone. 20.3 At base of hill turn right and proceed westward and southwestward around artificial lake to office of U.S. Gypsum Mine. Stop 3. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19.9 MANSFIELD FORMATION. 20.0 MANSFIELD FORMATION. 20.3 Cross broad flood plain of Beaver Creek. Small knoll in middle of flood plain is circumalluviated bedrock hill underlain at surface by BEECH CREEK LIMESTONE. 20.7 BEECH CREEK LIMESTONE exposed along road on left. Overlain by dark gray siltstone and sandstone of BIG CLIFTY FORMATION. 20.9 MANSFIELD FORMATION. 21.0 MANSFIELD FORMATION. 21.5 Turn left into National Gypsum Company plant. Stop 3.
(page) 26. Figure 7.
secondary material is white to transparent and in places contains inclusions of shale or carbonate rock that have been displaced from the surrounding material. Blue-gray anhydrite is found in both lateral and vertical continuity with the gypsum. Inclusions of dolomite are common within the anhydrite, and conversely, anhydrite veins and crystals are commonly found in the dolomite. Bundy (1956) stated that much of the anhydrite was re-crystallized from older anhydrite or gypsum.
Depositional Environment. -- It is generally accepted that a restricted environment in which the normal marine circulation has been modified by a sill or barrier is required for the deposition of gypsum. The mechanics of developing such an environment may vary considerably and are not fully understood with respect to the evaporites of southwestern Indiana. McGregor (1954) postulated that epeirogenic movements periodically caused sills to form within the basin. Pinsak (1957) suggested that the sills were caused by progressively formed structures in the strata overlying Silurian reefs.
Mining Operations (U.S. Gypsum Company Mine). -- The gypsum bed at the U.S. Gypsum Company mine is reached by a 430 foot vertical shaft. The mine employs the room and pillar method with 25-foot-wide rooms and 30-foot-wide pillars. Three Joy CD-42 double boom-mounted 1¾ inch drills are used to drill the gypsum. Ammonium nitrate and regular blasting caps are used to blast the ore, with each shot averaging about 200 tons. After blasting the ore is loaded into 10 ton capacity LeTourneau or 15 ton capacity Wagner telescoping trucks and transported to the primary crusher. The ore is reduced to minus 8-inch size in the primary crusher (a 3Ox48 inch single roll, 200 tons-per-hour capacity) and hoisted to the surface in skips which discharge the ore into hoppers for secondary crushing. A double-roll crusher reduces the ore to minus 3 inches and a 3-foot gyratory crusher reduces the ore to about 1 inch before final grinding. Three roller mills then grind 95% of the ore to minus 100 mesh.
Mining Operations (National Gypsum Company Mine). -- The gypsum bed at the National Gypsum Company mine is reached by means of a 1,986 foot long inclined shaft that descends from the surface at an angle of 17½° to a vertical depth of 550 feet. The gypsum bed averages 14 feet in thickness at the mine, and it is removed via the room and pillar method. The working face is drilled with two boom-mounted CD-42 carbide steel bits 1 ¾ inches in diameter, and 12 feet, 11 inches long. The ore is blasted, using ammonium nitrate and electric time-delay caps and 1 ½" x 6" sticks of high-velocity dynamite as primers. It is then trucked to the primary crusher at the base of the inclined shaft and brought to the surface on a 30-inch-wide conveyer belt.
0.0 Bridge over East Fork of White River. The town derives its name from the shoals of the White River, about 100 yards downstream (left) of the bridge where the basal sandstone member of the Mansfield formation forms a temporary base level for the stream. The shoals mark the position of a pre-Mansfield valley because rocks of the Chester Series outcrop both north and south of this location at higher altitudes. Crossbedding in the Mansfield formation (Pettijohn, Potter, and Siever, 1965, p. 164) is oriented to the southwest. 0.6 Deep road cut in MANSFIELD FORMATION. Orange-brown, massively bedded sandstone. Crossbedded in lower part of exposure. At end of cut on right look down into woods for view of pedestal rock--an interesting erosional remnant in the Mansfield. 1.3 MANSFIELD FORMATION on right. Good view of White River valley on left. 1.6 Start down long grade. Exposures of MANSFIELD FORMATION on left. Note excellent crossbedding at 1.9 and 2.0 (on right). 2.9 MANSFIELD on right. 3.4 Deep road cut on right in MANSFIELD FORMATION. Sandstone (40') on top, black shale and olive-colored, thin-bedded siltstones in middle (20'), and massive brown to olive drab sandstone at base of exposure. Base of upper sandstone cuts down through shale and siltstone at western edge of roadcut. 3.7 Start up hill with exposures of MANSFIELD FORMATION on right. Note varied lithologies, including thin shaly coals. 5.8 Sand and gravel pit on right in Illinoisan outwash terrace. Heavy sand and loess cover on slope to northeast. Possibly Wisconsin material. 6.2 Cross bridge over Boggs Creek. MANSFIELD sandstone in cut on west side of bridge. 7.5 Enter Loogootee. Continue westward on U.S. 50 to intersection with U.S. 231. Turn right onto 231 and proceed north out of town. Road log resumes at stop light in Bloomfield 24 miles to the north.(page) 30.
From Loogootee to Bloomfield the route is along the transition between the lower Wabash lowland to the left and the rugged Crawford upland to the east. For about the first twelve miles north of Loogootee the road is at an altitude near the base of the Brazil formation. The larger stream valleys close to Bloomfield cut down into the Mansfield. CHECK MILEAGE 0.0 Stop light in Bloomfield. Turn left with U.S. 231 and Indiana 54 and proceed westward. 0.6 Leave Bloomfield and start across flood plain of West Fork of White River. 1.5 Bridge over West Fork White River. 4.0 Intersection of 231-54 and 57. Continue straight ahead (westward) on State Highway 54. 5.0 Spoils piles on right at top of small rise from coal strippings. LOWER BLOCK COAL near base of BRAZIL FORMATION. Coal is about 2 feet thick. 6.1 Enter Switz City. 6.5 Intersection of Highways 67 and 54. Continue straight ahead (westward) on 54. 11.7 Linton city limits. Continue on Highway 54 through Linton to lunch stop. 14.3 Klusmeiers Drive In Restaurant. LUNCH.
V, VI, and VII (named from bottom to top). Below Coal III are coals of less economic importance called Minshall, Upper Block and Lower Block coals. The coals dip southwestward 20 to 30 feet per mile. Thus the younger coals are mined by stripping to the east. The strip mining near Switz City is in the two Block coals, that near Linton in Coals III and IV, between Linton and Dugger, Coals V and VI, and in the vicinity of Dugger, Coals VI and VII.
Mining Operation. -- Before the coal can be obtained in a strip mine, the dirt and rocks above the coal must be removed. To do this job Ayrshire installed a new dragline, which is designated as the Bucyrus-Erie Model 2550-W dragline. This giant swings a 75 cubic-yard bucket from a 275-foot boom, and is able to fill the bucket with 110 tons of rock at a depth of 165 feet below its own level, hoist this 100 feet above its base and dump it 500 feet away, then swing back ready to fill the bucket again -- all in less than one minute.
0.0 Traffic light in Bloomfield at intersection of 231-54 and 157. Continue straight ahead (eastward) on 54. 1.6 Cross Richland Creek. Note extensive flood plain. Begin ascent onto Crawford upland. 3.3 MANSFIELD FORMATION (sandstone) exposed in slope to right of road. 3.6 Blue Barn at curve on right. 5.4 Turn left off 54 onto county road. Be careful. Heavy traffic. 5.5 Bear right and start down steep hill. 6.0 Exposure of cross-bedded, massive sandstone in valley wall to right. Mansfield(?) Big Clifty(?) 7.2 Bear left. 8.2 Bridge over Illinois Central Railroad. Stop 5. Park cars on South side of bridge and walk along south side of deep railroad cut.(page) 33.
0.0 North side of bridge. 0.2 Bear right. 1.0 GOLCONDA LIMESTONE in low exposure on left. 3.1 Road crosses bridge over deep railroad cut along Illinois Central. Sandstone exposed in cut probably MANSFIELD. 3.9 Village of Solsberry. Continue straight ahead on Indiana 43 after stop at intersection. 4.4 Dangerous underpass. 4.9 Indiana 43 bears left. STAY STRAIGHT AHEAD (eastward) on county road. 6.6 Bridge over Illinois Central track. Deep cut in massive sandstone west of bridge and also to east. Probably MANSFIELD. 7.5 Cross narrow valley along county road for 0.9 mile to intersection with State Road 45. Sandstone ledges exposed along valley walls. BIG CLIFTY (?) 8.4 Intersection of county road with State Road 45. Turn left. Enter Monroe County. 8.7 Start down Chester escarpment at eastern edge of Crawford upland. 9.3 Village of Stanford. Road climbs over outlier of Crawford upland. l0.4 Back into Mitchell plain. 10.5 STE. GENEVIEVE LIMESTONE on right. Notice prominent sinkholes on either side of road. Wooded hills to right (south) are outliers of Crawford upland. Road follows large karst reentrant into upland. 14.6 Sinking stream in pasture on left. 16.4 Twin Lakes. Early and unsuccessful attempt to impound surface water for municipal water supply. 17.4 Abandoned stone quarry on left in ST. LOUIS LIMESTONE. 17.7 Bloomington city limits. Proceed on 45 (West Second Street) to the third traffic light. Turn left onto South Walnut Street and drive north through town to the sixth traffic light. Turn right onto Tenth Street and proceed to Geology Building. 20.0 Geology Building.(page) 36.
Bundy, W. M., 1956, Petrology of gypsum anhydrite deposits in southwestern Indiana: Journal of Sed. Petrology, v. 26, p. 240-252.
French, R. R., 1965, Geology of gypsum and anhydrite in southwestern Indiana: A.I.M.E. Ann. Meeting, 1965, 14 p.
Gray, H H., and others, 1960, Geology of the Huron area south-central Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey Bull. 20, 78 p.
Gray, H. H., 1962, Outcrop features of the Mansfield Formation in southwestern Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey Rept. Prog. 26, 40 p.
Harrison, J. L., and Droste, J. B., 1960, Clay partings in gypsum deposits in southwestern Indiana: 7th Natl. Conf. on Clays and Clay Minerals, p. 195-199.
Malott, C. A., 1922, The physiography of Indiana, in: Handbook of Indiana Geology, Indiana Dept. Cons. Publ. 21, p. 59-256.
McGregor, D. J., 1954, Gypsum and anhydrite deposits in southwestern Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey Rept. Prog. 8, 24 p.
Perry, T. G., Smith, N. M., and Wayne, W. J., 1954, Salem limestone and associated formations in south-central Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey, Field Conf. Guidebook, No. 7, 73 p.
Perry, T. G., and Smith, N. M., 1958, The Meramec-Chester and intra-Chester boundaries and associated strata in Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey Bull., 12, 110 p.
Pettijohn, F. J., Potter, P. E., and Siever, R., 1965, Geology of Sand and Sandstone: Indiana University, 208 p.
Pinsak, A. P., 1957, Subsurface stratigraphy of the Salem Limestone and associated formations in Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey Bull. 11, 60 p.
Saxby, D. B., and Lamar, J. E., 1957, Gypsum and anhydrite in Illinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Circular 226, 26 p.
Siever, Raymond, 1951, The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity in southern Illinois: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 35, p. 542-581.
Winslow, J. D., Gates, G.R., and Melhorn, W. N., 1960, Engineering geology of dam site and spillway areas for the Monroe Reservoir, Southern Indiana: Indiana Geol. Surv. Rept. of Progress No. 19, 19 p.
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