[lower left of cover: F.Bergen del.]
[lower right of cover: L. Schierholz.Int.]

Editor's Comments

The "Ohio Valley Paleontologist" is the journal of the Falls of the Ohio Fossil Club. It has been set up as a regional "journal", that is, to publish articles related to the paleontology of the states in the Ohio Valley, including Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. In as much as there are paleontology articles not of, but relating to Ohio Valley paleontology, articles of that nature will be excepted. Articles of general interest (non-regional) will be accepted as well. Topics in applied paleontology, such as stratigraphy utilizing paleontology (biostratigraphy) are welcome.
We want the "Ohio Valley Paleontologist" to serve as a medium for both professional and amateur paleontologists. The size of each issue will depend exclusively on the number and size of contributed articles. If an article is important enough to warrant a single article issue, that can be provided. For the interim, authors should retain copyright on all articles published. Until we are firmly established, we will not copyright this journal.
Halftones should be made prior to submission. They should be velox prints (not acetate screens). If this is not possible, please submit $10 with each print to cover halftone production costs.

Instructions for the Author

Writers must submit typewritten manuscripts. This journal serves as a medium to provide any competent author an outlet for reaching those will similar interests. The staff of this publication are not professional publishers, and consequently, the editors will only review manuscripts for gramatical errors and not wholesale rewriting. Those wishing to submit copy-ready articles should have a typeset similar to this (Smith-Corona Presidential 12) and should type the article in a two-column format. Figures, graphs, etc. should all be copy-ready. Since it is unlikely that we will be swamped with articles, such material will published on a "as received" basis. Articles need not be "fore-front" research and should be readable to those with a non-professional background.

Subscriptions

Anyone, anywhere may subscribe to the "Ohio Valley Paleontologist." It is an automatic benefit to members of the Falls of the Ohio Fossil Club. Individuals may become full members of the F.O.F.C. or subscribing members to receive this journal. Subscriptions by professional geologists, geology departments, high schools (libraries or teacher), or libraries are welcome. Such subscriptions are available for $10 per year. Foreign subscriptions are $13 surface or $16 air mail (except Canada or Mexico). Subscriptions should be made payable to: Falls of the Ohio Fossil Club.

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Classification of Type Specimens1

We often see the terms "type specimen", "type species", "type-genus", etc., in paleontological literature, but how many of us know what these and similar terms mean?
The convention of the "type specimen", "type species", etc., has arise in paleontology in order that the description of a form or group can be unequivocally tied to an actual specimen or specimens. Today a "type" (or "types") is automatically designated in any description of a new species or new genera, etc. Incidently, the concept has been extended to minerals and even rocks.
Each family and sub-family must have its "type genus" from which, by the addition of the suffixes - idae and - inae, respectively, to the stem of the generic name, the family or sub-family name is formed. For example, Phacopidae and Phacopinae stem from the trilobite genus Phacops.
A generic taxon (named group) can only have a single species (such as rana) and not a specimen. The term "genotype" which is still widely used to describe such a species was rejected by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature back in 1948 in favor of the less ambiguous term "type species".
If a genus is based on several species, none of which has ever been designated as the type species for that particular genus, all of such species are known as "genosyntypes" until one is selected by some author as the type species (genolectotype).
At the species and sub-species level a variety of terms are used to describe the tangible objects (specimens) upon which concepts of species have been based and whose characteristics have been used in the interpretation of morphology and variability. The Primary type specimens - holotypes, paratypes, syntypes, lectotypes and neotypes are of great importance in evaluating species, while the Secondary types - hypotypes, topotypes and homeotypes are useful as comparitive material, aiding in identifying specimens and in varying previous identifications.

1 Reprinted with kind permission from "The Fossil Collector" (Bulletin No. 8, Sept., 1982), from the Fossil Collectors Association of Australasia.

Additional Notes 2

By a type is meant a specimen which has been used by the author of a systematic paper as the basis of detailed study, and as the foundation of a specific name. In cases where a considerable number of specimens has been used it is desirable to separate one or more as being primary types, where the other specimens, which may have been used in the same study for the purpose of comparison, may be regarded as collateral types.

2 From Dr. G. Brown Goode, in a letter to curators in the U. S. National Museum, date July 1, 1893. [Published in U.S. National Museum Bulletin 53, pt. 1, 1905]

Classifcation of Type Specimens

All type specimens in biology [and paleontology] may be divided into two groups - type material and type specimens.
TYPE MATERIAL includes all specimens which have served as a basis for published primary and supplementary descriptions and figures of organisms. These are again divisible into primary and supplementary [secondary] types.
PRIMARY TYPES - These are the original specimens of any described or figured new species. Primary types are divided into HOLOTYPE,COTYPE (or SYNTYPE), PARATYPE, NEOTYPE, and CHIROTYPE.
SUPPLEMENTARY [SECONDARY] TYPES - These consist of the described or figured specimens used by any author in supplementing or correcting knowledge of a previously defined species. This section is divided into PLESIOTYPE, TOPOTYPES, HYPOTYPES, HOMEOTYPE, and HEAUTOTYPE. [Note: Some of these types may no longer be in vogue.]
TYPICAL SPECIMENS (ICOTYPES) - These have not been used in published descriptions or figures, but consist of material which authors have worked on or such as has been or can be collected at the original localities of new species. Typical specimens include METATYPE, IDEOTYPE,TOPOTYPE, and HOMEOTYPE. [Note: Recent usage as switched the latter two to supplementary types.]
Besides "type material" and "typical Specimens" there are other entities of a type nature to which authors have seen fit to apply a terminology. Such are "type drawing", "reproduction of type specimens", "type species of genera", and "types of organisms in relation to geographic distribution". These will be defined futher on.

Primary Types

Holotype - A holotype is a particular individual deliberately selected by the author of a species, or it may be the only example of a species known at the time of original publication. A holotype is always a single individual, but may embrace one or more parts,

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as the skin, skeleton, or other portions, such as the obverse or reverse of a natural mold. When a holotype is selected, but other specimens or described, the latter must be known as paratypes. When no holotype is selected, and more than one specimen is described, all become syntypes (cotypes). Therefore, the original material of any species can not include a holotype and syntypes, but may include a holotype and paratypes, or all may be syntypes.
The simple definition for a holotype is: A type is identical individual specimen from which a species has been described.
Where sexes can be different and can be distinguished, a male or a female specimen should be selected as the holotype, but not both.

Syntype (Cotype) [Note: Schuchert used the term cotype in the following definition where this writer uses syntype. Both are applicable.] - A syntype is one of two or more specimens, together forming the basis for a species, no holotype having been selected. In cases where the syntypes are unmarked and cannot be distinguished from the balance of the original series, the only safe plan will be to regard all the original material of a new species as syntypes.

Paratype - A paratype is a specimen belonging to the original series, but the holotype, in cases where the author has himself selected a holotype. It should be one of the specimens mentioned or enumerated in the original description.

A paratype may be subsequently selected as a holotype when it proves to be a new species and is not the species to which it was originally referred.

Lectotype - Where the original diagnosis is without illustrations or is accompanied by figures based on two or more specimens, the first subsequent author is a liberty to select from these syntypes a type for the old species, adhering, as far as can be ascertained, to the intention of the original author. Such a type specimen is to be designated as the LECTOTYPE (chosen type). From the remaining syntypes, or from other material in his possession, he may select the holotype or syntypes of his new species.

Neotype - The neotype for a specimen is taken as the type of a species when the original is lost or destroyed, or has disappeared with the necessary guaranty of its authenticity; but is seems indespensible that the new specimen should come from the same locality and exact horizon.

Chirotype - This term is for material upon which a published manuscript name is based. As soon as a chirotype is properly published, the term will no longer apply to it, and the material will become either a holotype, syntype, or paratype.

Secondary Types

Plesiotype - An individual (of a described form), whether from the same locality or from another deposit, which one compares with a species and for which one gives a new description and a new figure. This is more commonly called a HYPOTYPE.

Topotype - A specimen collected at the exact locality or within a few miles of the place where the original type of a species was collected.

In paleontology it is further demanded that the topotype should come from not only the exact locality but also from the identical stratum that furnished the species.

Homeotype - A homeotype is any supplementary specimen that has been carefully compared with the primary types by any worker of recognized standing in the class of organisms to which the material belongs.

Heautotype - A specimen figured by an author as an illustration of his own already founded species such not being a primary type.

Typical Specimens

Metatype - A specimen received from the original locality (in paleontology, the exact stratum as well) after the description has been published, but determined as belonging to his own species by the original describer.

Ideotype - This is a specimen from any place except the original, named by an author of a species after publication. When similar specimens are from the original locality, they are metatypes.

Type Drawings

Protographs - The term for the original figure or figures illustrating a holotype. The original description is the protolog.

Sythetograph -- Authors occasionally based a new species upon several specimens, illustrating the form by a drawing which subsequent authors assume is based on a single individual, but which in reality is a composite figure. This is a undesirable practice. This term is applicable only to the illustration.

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Reproductions of Type Specimens

Plastotype - Any artificial specimen molded directly from a primary type. There are many specimens of this kind in existence, cast directly from primary or secondary types. No models are included since they are not cast from type material.

Genotypes

Genotype is a term for any typical material of the type species of a genus. Since the genus are not based on a particular individual, but on the species as a whole, some do not consider the above definition to be correct. They have modified it to the terms listed below:
Genoholotype - The one species fixed by an author as the type of a genus [i.e. when no other species are known].
Genosyntypes - More than one species mentioned by authors as the types of a genus, but no one is definately selected.
Genolectotype - A species subsequently selected by an author as the genoholotype of a genus, from genosyntypes.

Types in Relation to Geographic Distribution

Mimotypes - Forms distantly resembling each other, but fulfilling similar functions, and thus representing each other in different faunas.

Isotypes - Forms common to different countries.

Necrotypes - Forms formerly existing in a country but now extinct.

References and Suggested Reading

Bather, F.A., A postscript on the terminology of types. Science, May 28, 1897, pp. 843-844.
Schuchert, Chas., What is a type in natural history? Science, April 23, 1897, pp. 636-640.
------- ---- In G.P. Merrill, Catalogue of the type and figured specimens of fossils, minerals, rocks, and ores in the U. S. National Museum, USNM Bulletin 53, Pt.1, 1905, pp. 1 - 18.
Anon.-- Type specimens, The Fossil Collector, Bulletin 8, 1982 (Sept.), pp. 8 - 9.

---- Article compiled by Alan Goldstein

University of Louisville Studies in Paleontology and Statigraphy, a non- profit publication, is available from the University of Louisville Campus Store, Louisville, KY 40292, or from the editors. Editors: James E. Conkin, Department of Geology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 Phone:(502) 588-6821; (502) 588-6824; or (502) 588-7716 and Barbara M. Conkin, Jefferson Community College, Louisville, KY 40202

[Below is a selection of U of L Studies in Paleontology and Stratigraphy numbered consecutively in reverse order (from the most recent).]

No.17 Conkin & Conkin, Paleozoic metabentonites of North America: Part 2 - Metabentonites in the middle Ordovician Tyrone Formation at Boonesborough, Clark County, Kentucky, 46 pp. 7 pls., 8 text-figs. (1983) $15.00, Mail Order .... $15.50

No.16 Conkin & Conkin, Paleozoic metabentonites of North America: Part 1 - Metabentonites in eastern United States and southern Ontario, 135 pp., 31 pls, 16 text-figs. (1984) ... $20.00, Mail Order.. $20.50

No.15 Conkin & Conkin, Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian) smaller Foraminfera from the McCraney Limestone of Missouri and Illinois, 39 pp., 3 pls., 4 text-figs., 33 tables. (1981) ... $6.00, Mail Order ... $6.50

No.14 Conkin, J.E. & Wang Ke-liang, Chinese Paleozoic agglutinate Foraminifera and their stratigraphic significance: Part 1. - Hyperammina kentuckyensis guangxiensis , new subspecies, from south China, 14 pp., 1 pl., 4 text-figs. (1980).. $6.00, Mail Order.. $6.50

No.13 Wang Zhen, Conkin, J.E., Huang Ren-jin, and Lu Hui-nan, Early and Middle Devonian charophytes of eastern Guangxi, China, 18 pp., 3 pls., 4 text-figs. (1980) ...... $8.00, Mail Order .... $8.50

No.12 Conkin, Conkin & Lipchinsky, L.Z., Devonian black shale in the eastern United States: Part 1 - southern Indiana, Kentucky, northern and eastern Highland Rim of Tennessee and central Ohio, 63 pp., 43 text-figs. (1980) $15.00, Mail Order ...... $15.50

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Conkin & Conkin, Handbook of Strata and Fossils at the Falls of the Ohio; 27 pp., 3 pls., 11 text-figs. (1980) ... $3.00, Mail Order.. $3.50

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Locality Profile:
Cannons Lane at Bowman Field
A small, rather insignificant looking outcrop may be found on Cannons Lane across from the east-west runway of Bowman Field in Louisville, Kentucky. This outcrop may only be reached on foot or by bicycle, as there are no nearby parking areas. The outcrop itself is only three to four feet thick and about 150 feet long. During the summertime, grass covers the top surface making collecting somewhat difficult.
Stratigraphy
The outcrop is exclusively in the middle Devonian (Eifelian=Onondagan) Jeffersonville Limestone. The upper coral zone and parts of the Paraspirifer acuminatus subzone may be found in the limestone. Fossils are typical of those found in the Jeffersonville, mostly corals. The soil/limestone interface offer a wide variety of silicified fossils. The northern 75 feet of the outcrop have coral zone fauna in the residuum. The remainder of the outcrop contains P. acuminatus Subzone fauna. Higher above in the residual soil, Beechwood Limestone (Hamilton=Givetian) fossils can be recovered. They are generally less well-preserved.

Faunal List
Notes: A= Abundant, C= Common, UC=Uncommon, R= Rare, VR= Very Rare

	Acinophyllum stokesi (Milne-Edwards & Haime) - C
	Aemuliophyllum exigiduum (Billings)	       C
	Alveolites asperus (Rominger)   	       VR
	Alveolites constans Davis                      VR
	A. expatiatus (Rominger)                       R
	A. minimus Davis                               R
	A. mordax Davis	                               UC
	A. winchellana (Miller)	                       UC
	Amplexiphyllum tenue (Hall)                    UC
	Aulacophyllum parlamellosum (Hall)             VR
	A. sulcatum (D'Orbigny)	                       UC
	Aulocystis auloporoidea (Davis)	               R
	A. fascicularis (Davis)	                       A
	A. incrustans (Davis)	                       UC
	A. noblis (Billings)                           C
	A. transitoris Stumm                           UC
	Aulopora tubiporoides (Yandell & Shumard)      UC
	Blothrophyllum(?) greeni (Davis)               R
	B. romingeri Stumm                             VR
	B. sinuosum Hall                               C
	B. tripinnatum (Hall)                          UC
	B. trisulcatum (Hall)	                       R
	Bractea arbor (Davis)	                       VR
	Bractea impeditus (Davis)	               R
	Brevispirifer gregarius (Clapp)-Brach.-	       A
	Cladionophyllum cicatriciferum (Davis)         VR
	Cladopora acupicta Davis	               A
	C. gulielmi Davis	                       VR
        C. labiosa (Billings)                          A
	Compressiphyllum davisana (Miller)	       R
	Cylindrophyllum compactum (Hall)	       A
	Cystiphylloides infundibuliformis (Greene)     A
	C. nanum (Hall)	                               C
	C. quadrangulare (Davis)	               VR
	Disphyllum synaptophylloides Stumm	       A
	Emmonsia bacula (Davis)	                       UC
	E. cymosa (Davis)	                       C
	E. emmonsi (Rominger)	                       A
	E. radiciformis (Rominger)	               C
	E. ramosa (Rominger)	                       C
	E. tuberosa (Rominger)	                       C
	Eridophyllum apertum (Hall)	               R
	E. archiaci (Billings) (Beechwood)             VR
	E. coagulatum (Davis)	                       R
	Favosites biloculi Hall	                       R
	F. hemisphericus Troost	                       A
	F. pirum Davis	                               UC
	F. proximatus Stumm	                       VR
	F. ramulosus Davis	                       A
	Heliophyllum halli Edwards & Haime (BW.)       VR
        H. latericrescens Hall                         VR
        H. tenuiseptatum Billings                      VR
	H. venatum Hall	                               UC
	H. verticale Hall	                       UC
	Heterophrentis duplicata (Hall)	               UC
	H. inflata (Hall)	                       VR
	H. nitida (Hall)	                       VR
	Homalophyllum fusiforme (Hall)	               VR
	Moellerina greeni Ulrich (Charophyte algae)    A
	Platyaxum orthosoleniskum Werner               VR
	Pleurodictyum cylindricum (Michelin)	       R
	Prismatophyllum bella (Davis)	               UC
	P. conjunctum (Davis)	                       UC
	Platyceras duomosum Hall	               VR
	Romingeria fasciculata Davis	               A
	R. umbilliferia (Billings)	               A
	Siphonophrentis gigantea (Lesuer)	       C
	S. yandelli (Edwards & Haime)	               VR
	S. species	                               VR
	Skoliophyllum squamosum (Nicholson)	       VR
	Stereolasma exile (Davis)	               VR
	Striatopora sp.	                               VR
	Stropheodonta species - Brachiopods -          C
	Syringopora hisingeri Billings	               UC
	Thamnopora limitaris (Rominger)	               A
	T. species unknown	                       A
	Turbinopsis shumardi Vernuill	               UC
	Zaphrenthis phrygia (Rafinesque & Clifford)    A
	Worm Burrows (in corals)	               C
	Addenda (See next page)

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	Conocardium cuneus Conrad - Pelecypod -	       VR
	Anstylostroma sp.	                       C
	Strictostroma sp.	                       C
	Stromotoporoids (type indet.)	               A
	Dolatocrinus grandis (Miller & Gurley)	       VR
	Dolatocrinus stems	                       C
	(Note: Dolatocrinus from Beechwood Ls.)

The above list is from about three years of visiting and collecting from this site. Some identifications are tentative; there are other species yet to be identified. The overwhelming majority of fossils are corals. In decreasing order of abundance:
Corals
Stromotoporoids
Algae (including M. greeni oogonia)
Brachiopods
Crinoids (excluding stems)
Gastropods
Trilobites
Pelecypods
Bryozoans (in matrix, abundant)

This appears to be typical for a Jeffersonville Limestone exposure. Other exposures contain similar numbers of fossils, but with slightly different species. The abundant fossils found at the Cannons Lane outcrop are common elsewhere, but the uncommon to very rare species change from location to location. While 83 species is large, the number could be increased with careful examination of the limestone itself. Most of my collections were made from silicified fossils in the residual soil.

References

Davis, W.J., Kentucky Fossil Corals, Kentucky Geological Survey (1885)
Greene, G.K., Contributions to Indiana Paleontology, Ewing & Zeller (1898- 1906)
Savage, T.E., in Jillson, W.R. (Ed.), The Paleontology of Kentucky, Univers. of Kentucky Press, 1931
Stumm, E.C., Silurian and Devonian Corals of the Falls of the Ohio, Geological Society of America, Memoir 93, 1965.

by Alan Goldstein
3430 Bryan Way
Louisville, KY 40220

Two columns to be regularly featured include "Recent Finds" and "Fossil Close-Up". "Recent Finds" will discuss briefly, fossils found by readers (see below). "Fossil Close-Up" will feature unusual fossils found by readers, in order to make their existence known to paleontologists who might be interested in studying them. We welcome finds that are mentioned in "Recent Finds" to be expanded in a future issue as the "Fossil Close-Up" feature.

Recent Finds

This column will list fossils found by collectors. Please include your address in case others want to contact you to discuss your recent find(s). The format will be name, address, fossil, formation, and general location.

Alan Goldstein, 3430 Bryan Way, Louisville, KY 40220

Crinoids: Two slabs, the smaller containing one four-inch calyx and two smaller crinoids. The larger contains 13 complete calices and other partial/disarticulated specimens. Haney Limestone, Golconda Group, Chesterian, Upper Mississippian. I-64/SR37N roadcut, Crawford Co., Indiana.
Cephalopods:
Imitoceras rotatorium Koninck: Partial specimen showing clear sutures with minor mother of pearl color.
Beyrichoceras sp.: Complete specimen, about 25mm across. Well preserved.
Conularia sp.: Complete specimen, preserved in three-dimensions. From siderite nodule. Coral Ridge Member, New Providence Fm., Osagean, Middle Mississippian, Speeds Shale Quarry, Clark Co., Indiana.

Ron Yates, 4907 Crest Ct., Louisville, KY 40216

Beyrichoceras sp.: Partial specimen showing chambers. Same location and formation as above.

Found jointly by Alan Goldstein and Ron Yates

Coral (Rugose): "Lithostrotion harmodites" Milne-Edwards & Haime: Corallites from three silicified colonies, up to 80 mm long. Ste. Genevieve Limestone, Meramecian, Middle Mississippian, Lower Hurricane Hollow, Breckinridge Co., Kentucky

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Pyriform (Pear-shaped)
Nepionic (Between Embryonic and Neanic)
Neanic (Young, Immature Species)
Ephebic (Adult Individual)

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END