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The First Twenty-five Years of Printing, 1455-1480: An Exhibition: a machine-readable transcription

Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)

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Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington). The First Twenty-five Years of Printing, 1455-1480: An Exhibition. Lilly Library, Bloomington, IN. 1967 [6], 58 p., [3] leaves of plates : facsims. ; 28 cm.

Lilly Library call number: Z121 .I394 F582

The First Twenty-five Years of Printing


An Exhibition

Bloomington, Indiana

A description, bibliographical and physical, of those books and important fragments at The Lilly LIbrary known or believed to be printed before 1481, with comments on the manuscript notes in some of the volumes and on the manuscript leaves and fragments used in some of the bindings. Together with remarks on variants, bibliographical problems, and moot questions, more of which are raised here than can here be answered. Prepared to accompany and explain a public exhibition.

In folio proximo incipit feliciter praefatio Bibliothecarii.


The Lilly Library's holdings in incunabula are not impressive quantitatively. Frederick R. Goff's latest census of Incunabula in American Libraries lists 25 libraries having 400 or more, while our collection is currently slightly over half the bottom figure. But it is impressive qualitatively, Goff remarking in his Introduction that The Lilly Library was not in existence when the 1940 Census was done but "now possesses a number of incunabula of surpassing interest."

As the writer stated in his Report of the Rare Book Librarian, Indiana University, July 1958 - June 1959: "The acquisition of the Poole collection, so far as the key early books go, makes Indiana University a not too impoverished member of that small family of grand libraries with similar resources — The British Museum, Pierpont Morgan, Bibliotheque Nationale, et al."

Only three books in this exhibition were at Indiana University a decade ago. The late J. K. Lilly did not collect incunabula as such but only to support his other interests, science, exploration, literature, etc. Six of his books are included here.

The chance to immeasurably strengthen these rather meager holdings by the acquisition of the Poole collection was one that comes seldom to a young institution, a fact of which the librarians and then President Herman B Wells were well aware, and one which, thanks to his support, we could take full advantage of. The Poole collection was made almost wholly to illustrate the development of type from handwriting, with particular emphasis on roman forms, and contained a high percentage of important as well as rare books. Some forty books from this collection are included here; the remaining volumes have been acquired by purchase or gift as detailed in the notes.

Eight of the items in this catalogue are the only copies known in America. No other presumed proof sheet of the Gutenberg Bible is known anywhere (No. 2). The leaf of Ackermann von Boehmen (No. 8) is the only piece of printing definitely attributed to Albrecht Pfister in the western continent, as one of our Donatus leaves is the only example of a Donatus in "Speculum" type (No. 23). Three items are known in America by one other copy; five by two; five by three; and three by four.

This exhibition ends with the year 1480, by which time the printing press had been established in every country of western Europe except Scandinavia and Portugal. We hope eventually to have another exhibition of our incunabula from the period 1481-1501. I wish particularly to thank Josiah Q. Bennett, of the Lilly staff, and W. Gordon Wheeler, currently a Lilly Fellow, for preparing this catalogue.

David A. Randall
Librarian—The Lilly Library
Indiana University
Bloomington, Indiana


For economy in composition, contractions have not been used in the transcription of titles and incipits, or indicated elsewhere except when required by the argument, and the consonant use of "u" and the vowel use of "V" have been retained only in direct quotation. Initial letters supplied in manuscript or left blank have been printed as text. The original forms may be found in the authorities cited.

Ordinarily, no more than one author has been given except where a variation occurs or additional information is presented. Other authorities may be found in Goff. All items are printed on paper, unless otherwise stated.

The books have been arranged in this catalogue by year. In many cases, the assignment of date or order has been almost purely arbitrary. When inclusive dates are given — i.e., "between 1477 and 1486" — the book has been placed with those of the earlier year.

A list of authorities cited and a general index have been added to the text.


[BIBLIA LATINA e translatione et cum praefationibus S. Hieronymi. The Vulgate version, without commentary. Mainz: Johann Gutenberg, not after August 1456.]

New Testament only. 116 printed leaves (of 128), lacking 12 printed leaves and 2 terminal. blanks; the missing leaves replaced with blank leaves of 15th-century Italian manufacture. Gothic type, 2 columns and 42 lines to the page. Manuscript incipits in red; prologue and book initials painted in red, blue, and green, some with penwork decoration and marginal extensions, of which a few have been shaved by an early binder. Chapter initials in red, text initials unrubricated except for portions of a few leaves. The Gospel chapters identified in manuscript with the contraction "cam." for "capitulum" and arabic numerals, all in red and of the period; Gospel and later chapters also identified by arabic numerals in black ink, in a later hand. No headlines. Notes and marginalia discussed below. Folio, leaves measuring 363 x 267 mm. Mid-16th-century blind-rolled calf over wooden boards, riveted brass corners and catches, leather clasps with brass tongues set in brass on lower cover. Resewn, with hand-sewn headbands; rebacked in modern calf, no lettering. The old leather on the front cover partly worn away, only a remnant remaining on the back cover. Bound in at front are two blanks, with manuscript notes, from a previous binding.

Lilly Library call number: BS 75 1454 vault

GKW 4201; the 42-line "Gutenberg" or "Mazarin" Bible, probably the first major work printed from moveable metal types in Western Europe, the present New Testament text being the terminal section (from folio 190) of that portion of the work (317 printed leaves) generally referred to as Volume II. This copy is recorded in Edward Lazare's The Gutenberg Bible: A New Census (1956) as No. 42, then the property of Mr. George A. Poole, Jr., of Chicago; it is also recorded in D. C. Norman's The 500th Anniversary Pictorial Census of the Gutenberg Bible (1961) as No. 34, by then in the holdings of The Lilly Library. In 1953 this New Testament portion was removed by order of the previous owners, Charles Scribner's Sons, from the incomplete copy of Vol. II once owned by the Stadtbibliothek in Trier, West Germany, recorded in the census by De Ricci (1911) as No. 15 [b] and in the census by Paul Schwenke (1923) as No. 14.

The 116 leaves present are a little more than one-sixth of the whole Bible. The complete work consists of 643 leaves and 1277 printed pages; some published leaf and page counts do not allow for the two terminal blank leaves or for the five blank pages (unprinted versos) found at the end of III Esdras, IIII Esdras, II Maccabees, Colossians, and Jude. Four printed leaves of instructions to the rubricator, found in only two copies, are not included in the GKW primary collation or in the above count.

In this copy, the books of the New Testament after the Gospels are bound in the following order, as in the facsimile of the Berlin Staatsbibliothek copy reproduced by Schwenke in 1914: Romans, I Corinthians, I-II Thessalonians, I-II Timothy, Titus (lacking), Philemon, Hebrews, II Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Acts (not misbound, but separating the Epistles of St. Paul from the later Epistles as usual), James, I-II Peter, I-III John, Jude, Apocalypsis (Revelation). The binding of the Pauline Epistles in this order, i.e., the binding of signature [E — 11 leaves] before signature [D — 12 leaves] according to the GKW collation, confuses the identification of three missing leaves; they are listed below with additional numbers to note their sequence in the Schwenke facsimile and in the present binding.

Missing Leaves

  • II 191 Matthew i:1 —iii: 3
  • II 217 Mark xv:36 —Luke i:11
  • II 220 Luke iii:22 —v:9
  • II 235 Luke xxiv:47 — John i: 50
  • II 262 Schwenke facsimile II 273, binding sequence leaf 84, Prologue to II Corinthians — II Corinthians iii: 18
  • II 275 Schwenke facsimile II 263, binding sequence 74, I Thessalonians iv:13 — II Thessalonians iii: 6
  • II 279 Schwenke facsimile II 267, binding sequence 78, II Timothy iv:18 to end; all of Titus; Philemon to verse 11
  • II 305 I Peter iii: 20 — II Peter i: 21
  • II 314-317 Apocalypsis xii: 6 to end
  • II 318, 319 blank leaves

[Note from the editor of the electronic edition: In June 1997, the Lilly Library acquired a leaf corresponding to leaf II 262, above, which is believed to have originally been part of this New Testament. ]

When the Trier Vol. II (hereafter Trier II) was sold at Sotheby's 21 June 1937, the cataloguer listed only six leaves missing from the New Testament portion — II 220, 262, 305, 314, 315, and 317. An account of the removal of other leaves after the book was purchased by Dr. Rosenbach at this sale will be found on p. 443 of Rosenbach: A Biography (1960), by Edwin Wolf II and John F. Fleming. Folio II 316 later went, as recorded below, to improve the Shuckburgh copy.

No. 48 in Mr. Norman's Pictorial Census, a fragment of 63 Old Testament leaves once also at the Stadtbibliothek in Trier, is described as having been bound with Trier II; Schwenke reports it in his 1923 census as bound separately, and, according to the Trier Stadtbibliothek, it was sold separately in 1931, not before 1900 as in Mr. Norman's description. A further bit of evidence that this Old Testament fragment was not bound with Trier II is in the 16th-century manuscript list of contents from Trier II preserved with the New Testament and referred to below; this does not include the pertinent books at the end of Vol. I.


Bound in at front of the New Testament are two preliminary blank leaves originally inserted in Trier II; on the verso of the second is a manuscript table of contents for this volume, starting with Proverbs, dated 1569. The New Testament books are numbered in a separate sequence, giving the folio number for the beginning of each book from 2 for Matthew (not listing the prologue) to 122 for Apocalypsis. The order of the books in this table was the usual one, with II Corinthians following I Corinthians; and the New Testament leaves are foliated in ink, probably by the same 16th-century hand, according to this sequence (now out of order for the pertinent leaves). This clearly implies that the Pauline leaves were in the correct order at that time.

On the recto of the first preliminary leaf from Trier II are three penciled statements in German noting that the volume had been foliated in pencil in the lower margins from 1 to 260 in 1931, and had been checked in 1933 and 1935. Since this numbering sequence is out of order in the Pauline Epistles, it may be assumed that they were in their regular order in the early thirties. Moreover, the cataloguer for the Sotheby one-item sale of this volume on 21 June 1937 mentions no misbinding, where such a variation might well be noted for the reassurance of auction customers, and the leaves were probably in their proper order when sold at Sotheby's.

There is also present a faintly penciled foliation of the misbound pages, "correcting" the 16th-century sequence, implying that the sheets were found misbound in this order and so foliated by somebody unfamiliar with the Schwenke facsimile or the true order. Unsupported recollection is poor bibliographical evidence, but the compilers believe that this foliation was inserted by Mr. De Boyden of the Bennett Book Studios in 1953 to record the order in which he found these leaves, when the New Testament was removed from Trier II. Therefore, it may further be assumed that, when the volume was taken apart for the removal of the leaves as noted above (1937), it was rebound with the two signatures reversed, following the order of the Schwenke facsimile Vol. II; that, when the book was again taken from its binding for the removal of the New Testament and distribution of the other leaves (1953), De Boyden found the Pauline Epistles in the present order; and that, when the New Testament was rebound for Mr. Poole, the binder followed De Boyden's foliation.

A correct foliation is now penciled in the extreme upper right corner of each leaf.


In the Ergänzungsband (1923) of Schwenke's facsimile edition, four different watermarks are recorded, two in slightly variant forms:

  • an ox's head with a rod ending in a "star" made with two diagonal crossed lines
  • a cluster of grapes or leaves, the stem at top twisted in a circle
  • a smaller cluster of grapes with wider stem, cut off square at the top
  • a running ox.

In the present copy watermark "a" occurs on 33 leaves, appearing at least once in all signatures except [C], [E], and [H]. Watermark "b" occurs on 16 leaves, appearing in signatures [y], [z], [A-F], and [I]. Watermark "c" occurs just once, on folio 216, [y] 5. Watermark "d" occurs 7 times, in signatures [C], [E], [G], and [H].

The inserted leaves of Italian manufacture include a number watermarked with an anchor in a circle, and one watermarked with what may be a representation of a balance or scale. The two blank preliminaries from Trier II have one armorial watermark.

Notes and Marginalia

On the first preliminary leaf, originally inserted in Trier II, are the penciled notes in German concerning the foliation and collation of Trier II, 1931-35, mentioned above; both recto and verso of this leaf also carry librarians' marks. On the verso of the second leaf is the 16th-century manuscript table of contents already mentioned. Below it is a note in German in the hand of the librarian Wyttenbach recording that he discovered and saved Trier II, then almost at the point of complete destruction, in 1828. This page is reproduced in Mr. Norman's Pictorial Census.

Latin marginalia in red, contemporary with the red chapter numberings, appear on folio 215 recto, at the head of Mark xiv; on 232 verso, at the head of Luke xxii on 234 recto, at Luke xxiii:54; on 246 recto, at the head of John xviii; and on 247 recto, at the head of John xx. All appear to be directions to the lector for reading in the refectory, and some are shaved by the binder's knife.

Similar directions appear in black ink on 204 verso at the head of Matthew xxvi, and on 254 verso at Romans xiii: 10. Notes in other, later hands, correcting misprints, appear on 201 verso, 253 verso, and 273 verso. Folio 219 bears at the bottom two penciled sentences in German stating that this leaf was once misbound.


The Lilly New Testament clearly shows the effects of a troubled existence and narrow escape from destruction. Eleven of the leaves have tears repaired in the bottom margin, and folio 260 has some restoration in the margin as well. A larger tear in folio 233 has been repaired, and folio 219 has been preserved (after severe damage) by extensive repair and restoration. The two preliminary leaves from Trier II are in on stubs, as are the last five printed leaves present.

All leaves show some marginal soiling at fore and bottom edges, but only a few are otherwise stained or foxed. The colored initials on the verso of folio 249 are smudged, and a few other leaves show traces of marginal dampening.

The paper itself is still crisp and, with present care, may hope to be spared further deterioration. It was the largest material expense in the production of the Bible; had it not been of such fine quality, the present copy might well have passed beyond any practical use.


Nothing is known of the owners of the Lilly New Testament before the discovery of Trier II on a farm in Olewig near Trier (French, Trèves; ancient Augusta Trevirorum), a small city in the Rhineland about six miles east of the Luxembourg border; it is reported as pleasantly situated in a small valley surrounded by hills, on the right bank of the Moselle about 80 miles across country from Mainz. The directions to the lector in refectory definitely point to ecclesiastical ownership. Trier was a cathedral town, the seat of an archbishop and elector of the Holy Roman Empire who held third place in the electoral college after the archbishops of Mainz and Cologne. This connection between Mainz and Trier, existing in the 15th century, might lead to interesting speculations on the early arrival of Trier II in that city. From that portion now at The Lilly Library, however, no evidence can be adduced.

The passing of the book from pious ecclesiastics to a farm where its value was unknown may also be speculated upon. Although Trier was taken once by the Spanish and twice by the French in the 17th century, both armies were Catholic, and it seems improbable, though not impossible, that either would have deprived a cloister of a Bible. However, in 1794 the Rhineland was overrun by another type of French army, that of the Revolution, which was then rising to a pinnacle of anti-clericalism and terror. During this period Trier II may well have been looted and then abandoned in the murky triumphs and reverses of war. When discovered by Wyttenbach in 1828, it was in a pitiable state; one story has it that the farm children had used some of the leaves to cover their school books.

The Trier Stadtbibliothek had, in 1931, three portions of the Gutenberg Bible. Vol. I was purchased in 1803 from a neighboring Benedictine monastery, and is still in the library. Vol. II had been found by Wyttenbach, and, from a source unknown, there was a third fragment of 63 Old Testament leaves. This last fragment was sold in December, 1931, to the firm of Hiersemann in Leipzig. According to Mr. Norman's Pictorial Census (No. 48), it is now in Austria, in the possession of Viscount von Seilern.

Negotiations were then entered into for the sale of Trier II. The same Leipzig firm apparently had it on consignment for a while, since the second inscription on the first preliminary leaf notes that it was collated in 1933 "after its return from the firm of Hiersemann." The City of Trier was holding it for a price of 130,000 to 135,000 marks ($52,390 to $54,405), when E. W. H. Mitscherlich, Continental representative of Sotheby's, arrived at Trier in August of 1936 with a firm offer of 125,000 marks ($50,375). According to Dr. Schiel of the Stadtbibliothek, Mr. Mitscherlich "acquired" Trier II at that time, although he probably did not personally become its owner.

When it was offered for sale at Sotheby's 21 June 1937 as "The Property of a Gentleman," the consignor of record was, according to Mr. Anthony Hobson, a Dr. Wiernick. Dr. Wiernick was fleeing the anti-Semitic persecution in Germany and, being unable to export any capital, selected this method of obtaining funds abroad. Although no evidence can be offered, it is possible that the Bible left Germany as technically the property of somebody else. Dr. Wiernick claimed to have paid 155,000 marks ($62,500) for it; it was sold at Sotheby's for £8,000 ($39,520, with the pound at $4.94). Dr. Wiernick's financial loss on the transaction may not have been as great as appears by the figures, considering the buying power of the pound in England. In any case, it is reported that his receipts from the sale enabled him to found a small business and to prosper.

Trier II now journeyed across the Atlantic to the firm of Rosenbach, had some leaves removed, and became the property of Mr. Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. When Mr. Houghton bought the two-volume Shuckburgh copy of the Gutenberg Bible from Charles Scribner's Sons in 1953, he turned over to Scribner's, as part of the transaction, not only Trier II but also the Rev. Roderick Terry's copy of the Book of Genesis (lacking the last leaf) from the Baroness Zouche copy broken up by Gabriel Wells in 1921. At this time Scribner's had Trier II taken from its binding and the Old Testament portion rebound in separate complete books where possible; where not possible, separate leaves were otherwise prepared for sale. The New Testament here lost one further leaf — 316, the next to last leaf of Apocalypsis, which went to Mr. Houghton to replace a leaf lacking in the Shuckburgh copy. Apart from this removal, the New Testament was kept intact and sold as a unit to Mr. George A. Poole, Jr. Mr. Poole had it rebound in the old Trier II covers, with inserted blanks for the missing leaves, by Donnelley of Chicago. His entire collection, including the New Testament, was bought in 1958 by the Chicago antiquarian booksellers Hamill and Barker, and was purchased from them for The Lilly Library in November of that year.


Henry Stevens of Vermont once wrote, "It is not possible for many men to touch or even look upon a page of a Gutenberg Bible." It is possible at least to see one in Indiana, and thousands have. The Lilly New Testament, the property of the state of Indiana and the citizens thereof, is permanently on display in the main gallery of the Library. At one time it was withdrawn, but so many requests to see it were received that, to save wear and tear on personnel and book, it was returned to public view. It is the largest portion of the great Bible to be seen between the East and West coasts of the nation. Many of the books at Lilly are rarer, but none is more prized.


[BIBLIA LATINA. Mainz: Johann Gutenberg, not after August 1456.]

Two cognate leaves (one sheet), one leaf printed on both sides, the other blank. The printed leaf trimmed on a bias; other variations in measurement possibly due to folding. Printed leaf: 398 mm. (binding edge) — 394 mm. (fore-edge) x 292 mm. (top edge) — 294 mm. (bottom edge). Blank leaf: 399 mm. (binding edge) — 400 mm. (fore-edge) x 295 mm. (both edges). The fold is pierced 11 times for sewing; at present, a double length of binder's thread accounts for and passes through three of the holes and is tied inside the fold. Traces of other paper on the printed leaf indicate that a large label was once tipped to it. Both leaves stained along the binding edge; a small ink blot and two chance strokes of a rubricator's brush on the verso of the printed leaf. A small oval paper fault appears in the fore margin of the printed leaf. Entirely unrubricated. (See illustration.)

Lilly Library call number: BS 75 1454a vault

The Gutenburg Bible, folio I:45 verso, lines 18-26, showing three
                        states of lines 23a and 26a. See also "eieūiam" (Lilly
                        leaf, line 18b) and rubricator's error in Schwenke's facsimile (lines
                        24-25a). Top: Lilly Library "proof" sheet. Middle: Berlin Staatsbibliothek copy in Schwenke's facsimile reproduction. Bottom: Pierpont Morgan Library, copy PML 12 (by permission).

From GKW 4201, the "Gutenberg" Bible. From the first volume, folio I:45 (GKW [e] 5 with cognate blank [e] 6), the printed leaf comprising Exodus xxxii:25 to xxxiv:20. Schwenke watermark "a" appears on [e] 5.

The status of this sheet is not known; the inquiry into the textual problems reported below indicates that one leaf was printed and rejected because of the errors on the verso. But, with paper so expensive a commodity, why was not the other leaf utilized as a proof sheet or used for insertion in one of the signatures with an odd number of leaves? Piercing for eight stitches, implies that this sheet was once bound into a heavy book, and the possibility can not be eliminated that it was by error bound with a volume of the Bible. As the center sheet of a signature, the sewer (working as usual from the outside) would not necessarily notice the blank, and more particularly since the "natural" fold of the sheet, set by its first binding, seems to be in reverse order, with the blank [e] 6 before printed [e] 5. The bias cut of the printed leaf, as in the three Zouche leaves below, and the similar height, seem to indicate that it may have at one time been bound with the Zouche copy, but the greater width and the absence of any red edge-coloring rule out this possibility.

The text of this leaf has twice been the subject of investigation. In Catalogue 69 (1954) of Hans P. Kraus, New York bookseller, it is reproduced and described as No. 2, with nine discussions of bibliographical details and comparisons with PML 12, the paper copy of Vol. I only, at the Pierpont Morgan Library. It was also the first piece discussed in Mr. Frederick R. Goff's article, "A Few Proof Sheets of the Fifteenth Century," in the Gutenberg Jahrbuch for 1963, which also includes comparison with certain elements of PML 12.

The available piece for comparison at Lilly is the Schwenke facsimile of the great Bible, and a further investigation derived a list of 23 variations between the two texts in addition to the misspelling of "papilonis" for papilionis (recto, column 2, line 19), noted by Mr. Goff. These include variations in the use of contractions, in words contracted, and obvious typographical and other errors. Three of these, on the verso, are particularly striking. First is a grammatical error in line 26 of the first column, with the pronoun "eos" in the masculine accusative plural failing to match in gender with its referrent "tabulas" in the feminine accusative plural. Second is the typo in line 40 of the same column, "domiue" for "domine" — a simliar "u" for "n" misprint is noted by Mr. Goff on the recto of PML 12. Third is an egregious error, a word which classicists and representatives of Rome and Canterbury alike have assured us does not exist in the Latin tongue, "eieūiam" for eiciam; this appears at line 18 of the second column, where, in Exodus xxxiv:11, the Lord promises Moses to drive out the Amorites and other peoples before the Israelites.

From here the investigation has depended — and the continuing investigation must depend — on those generous courtesies extended by our elders to this very young library. Mr. Goff of the Library of Congress and Mr. Stark of the Reserve Division of the New York Public Library assure us that none of the variations recorded in our schedule occur in the copies of the Bible in their care. The assistance of the Pierpont Morgan Library was also freely given, and here some most fruitful results followed. PML 13 (vellum) and PML 19206-7 (2 vols., paper) showed none of the variants of the Lilly leaf, but PML 12 (1 vol., paper) was more productive, as it had been for both the Kraus and Goff descriptions. The recto of I:45 in this last copy had all but one of the Lilly variants in text, while the verso had only two of these variants, but supplied a further difference of importance. At the present time, at least three settings of the verso of I:45 are indicated by the readings recorded below:

  • I:45 verso, col. 1, line 23 —
    • tem meā videre nō poterίˢ — Lilly "proof" sheet
    • tē meā videre nō poterίˢ — Schwenke facs. (Berlin)
    • meā videre nō poteris — PML 12
  • I:45 verso, col. 1, line 26 —
    • scribā sup(er) eos [!]... — Lilly "proof" sheet
    • scriba [!] sup(er) eas ... — Schwenke facs. (Berlin)
    • scribā sup(er) eas . . . PML 12, 13, 19206

Thus far no copy has been found with any of the three errors of the Lilly sheet cited above, the ungrammatical "eos," the typo "domiue," and the sheer invention "eieūiam." As time and circumstances permit, further correspondence and more detailed investigation will be undertaken on this most curious and, to now, unique setting of folio I:45.

Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


[BIBLIA LATINA. Mainz: Johann Gutenberg, not after August 1456.]

Four leaves, each tipped into a copy of A Noble Fragment being a Leaf of the Gutenberg Bible . . . With a Bibliographical Essay by A. Edward Newton (New York: Gabriel Wells, 1921). In four folio volumes, black morocco, by Stikeman. All with manuscript headlines, chapter numbers, and chapter initials in red and blue, text initials rubricated. All with red edges. All trimmed on a bias, measuring about 390x284 mm. The first leaf listed has been remargined at three edges, with restoration, and is stained; the others show light foxing and soiling.

Lilly Library call number: BS 75 1454b vault

From GKW 4201, the "Gutenberg" or "Mazarin" Bible. All of these leaves were removed from the Baroness Zouche copy, Schwenke 37, purchased at Sotheby's by a London bookseller for New York bookseller Gabriel Wells, 9 November 1920. This copy was broken up and sold in books and separate leaves in 1921. Measurements in Schwenke's census indicate that the leaves were trimmed slightly at the binding edge, probably to eliminate the traces of holes pierced for sewing.

  1. From the first volume, folio I:78, Numbers xxv: 7 to xxvi:54. No watermark. From the library of J. K. Lilly, Jr., with his bookplate.
  2. From the second volume, folio II:68, Isaiah lix:18 to lxiii:1. No watermark. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.
  3. From the second volume, folio II:69, Isaiah lxiii:1 to lxv:22. Watermark Schwenke "a." The gift of Mr. James Adams to Indiana University Libraries late in 1943. The first portion of the Gutenberg Bible to reach Indiana University; librarians of long service recall the near-veneration accorded to it at the time.
  4. From the second volume, folio II:105, Baruch vi:60 to end, Prologue to Ezekiel, Ezekiel i:1 to ii:3. No watermark. Initial to Ezekiel sketched in but not completed. Text includes Ezekiel i:16, the source of the "wheel within a wheel" of the song "Ezek'el seen de wheel." Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.

[Note from the editor of the electronic edition: Copies B, C, and D were deaccessioned by the Library in the 1960s. ]


[PSALTERIUM CUM CANTICIS, etc. Mainz: Fust and Schöffer, 14 August 1457.]

One leaf only. Printed on vellum. Gothic type, 20 lines to these pages; in all, 38 lines of large Psalter type (BMC 286), 1 line of small Psalter type (BMC 234), and 1 line of manuscript music, with neumes and four-line staff. Two 2-line initials printed in red and blue with decorations, other initials printed in red. Trimmed unevenly, measuring about 315 x 230 mm. at the widest. Probably once used as lining for a binding; crease at fore-edge stained on verso, other lesser imperfections. Matted and riveted between two sheets of plastic.

Lilly Library call number: M 2148.55 .P9 vault

From BMC I, 18-19 (IB. 72). The text comprises the end of Psalm XXXIX, all of XL, and the beginning of XLI, in the Vulgate version (King James version, XL:16-XLII:4). The text of the antiphons between Psalms XXXIX and XL is in the smaller type, the closing portion of both music and text being inset in the right margin of the first two lines of Psalm XL. As often with vellum, and perhaps additionally from dampness, the text measurements have increased to about 290 x 192 mm. in the body. Type 234 is of particular interest as the type used, with modifications, for the controversial "Constantine" Missale Speciale (see no. 23). Also of interest is the printing in two colors besides black.

Goff P-1036. There is no complete copy, or anything approaching it, recorded in America. Single leaves are owned by Huntington, Lilly, Library of Congress, and Newberry, and two are at the Morgan; three others, one imperfect, are in two private collections. All are on vellum. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection; described as the Gage-Toovey-Slade copy in the catalogue of a New York dealer, and identified as De Ricci, Premières Impressions de Mayence, 54.38.


[BIBLIA LATINA. Mainz or Bamberg: Printer of the 36-line Bible, about 1458, not after 1461.]

One leaf only. Gothic type, 2 columns and 36 lines to the page. Two chapter numbers and one chapter initial in manuscript, in red; text initials rubricated. An imperfect copy (see below). Mounted between sheets of plastic, framed.

Lilly Library call number: BS 75 1458 vault

From GKW 4202, the "36-line" Bible, the printing of which is variously attributed to Albrecht Pfister, Gutenberg, Heinrich Kefer (discussed by Geldner, Die Buchdruckerkunst im alten Bamberg, p. 22) and/or an unknown printer. Dating is conjectural; the terminus ad quem is set by a rubricator's note in the Paris copy. Apart from this note, and the fact that the same type (with additional characters) was later used by Pfister at Bamberg, little is actually known about the book. Dr. Zedler bases a strong case for printing at Bamberg on the watermarks (Die Bamberger Pfisterdrucke und die 36zeilige Bibel, p. 93). The watermark in this leaf consists of a tau cross, the points moline, within a circle 43 mm. in diameter; a single line rises 48 mm. beyond the circle, and is crossed by a short single line 12 mm. from the circle. The form resembles the watermarks numbered 1424 to 1432 in Zonghi's Watermarks. This watermark is classified as "E" in Dziatzko's analysis (Gutenbergs früheste Druckerpraxis).

This leaf has been grievously trimmed, possibly for use in lining a smaller book; three and one-half lines have been cut away at the head and half a column at the binding edge. The text present starts with Wisdom vii:25 and ends with Wisdom ix:16. Verses vii:25 to viii:6 and ix:7 to ix: 16 are affected by the vertical cut, and other lacunae are caused by the trim at the head. The remaining total area — 330 x 205 mm. — is further damaged by three defects in the body of the text.

The 36-line Bible is much rarer than the 42-line "Gutenberg" Bible. GKW lists only 13 owners of complete sets, single volumes, or sizeable fragments, all European; and 16 European and American owners of one or two leaves. To this last figure must be added five American owners not listed in GKW but listed in Goff. No American institution or individual owns more than one leaf except the Grolier Club, which owns two. Lilly's leaf was acquired with the Poole collection.


[PSALTERIUM "AD HONOREM SANCTI JACOBI." Mainz: Fust and Schöffer, 29 August 1459.]

One leaf only. Printed on vellum. Gothic type, 26 and 25 lines on these pages. In all, 47 lines of small Psalter type with occasional manuscript music on four-line staves, and 4 lines of music alone. Three 2-line initials printed or stamped in red and blue with decoration, other initials and some text printed in red. Trimmed unevenly, measuring about 350 x 232 mm. at the widest; the trim affects the decoration of the large initials and text at one edge and bottom. Creased and stained near all four edges, horizontal stain at center, minor defects from piercing; the leaf was obviously once used for the cover of a small quarto or octavo book. Matted and riveted between two sheets of plastic.

Lilly Library call number: M 2148.55 .P93 vault

BMC I, 19-20 (IC. 75). The text is from the Hymns for the Proper of the Saints and comprises part of an unidentified hymn; the complete music and text for the hymn "Abrea luce et decore . . ." for the Feast of Sts. Peter and Paul, with titles of the hymns for Nocturns and Lauds; titles of hymns for the celebration of the Conversion of Paul and Visitation of the Virgin; the complete music and text of two hymns for the Feast of St. Mary Magdalene; and the caption heading for St. Peter ad vincula. The width of the text agrees with BMC's 208 mm.; the depth of the matter runs only to 315 mm., but a line may have been trimmed away at bottom. Because of spacing the verso is out of register with the recto.

Apart from the typographical interest of the small Psalter type and the two-colored initials, the leaf is prized at Lilly for the manuscript neume notation of three complete hymns; the famous Ave maris stella is unfortunately present in title only. The two hymns for the Feast of St. Mary Magdalene make it also a fine companion piece for our leaf of the "Constantine" Missal, which prints the larger portion of the Gospel for the same Feast.

Goff P-1062 records two separate leaves of this Psalterium in America, at the Newberry Library and at Lilly, and one complete copy at the Morgan Library. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


BALBUS, JOHANNES (de Janua). [The Catholicon, a Latin grammar and dictionary.] Mainz: [Fust and Schöffer?], 1460.

Folio 1: Prosodia quedam pars grammatice nuncupatur. 373 leaves, complete. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 65 lines to the page. An illuminated and historiated initial at the head of each volume (as here bound); small initial guides in black ink in the grammar, none in the dictionary. Manuscript headlines in the dictionary, many mutilated by trimming. A few emphases and minor marginalia, a leaf of manuscript inserted at the end of the second volume. Bound in two volumes (folios 1-189, 190-373), folio, 18th-century French dark red morocco, gilt edges. Leaves 360 x 275 mm. Folio 373 genuine but supplied, a large portion of the lower corner clumsily restored; folios 205 and 206 badly stained, some others with minor soiling. At the front of Vol. I, the bookplate of Ivan Petr Suchtelen, inscriptions, and other indications of previous ownerships.

Lilly Library call number: PA 2342 .B172 vault

GKW 3182: editio princeps of the first printed major work of secular instruction, the text originally written in the 13th century. This copy is without the incipit in red on folio 1, and has only a one-line space between text and colophon at folio 372 recto; the paper is watermarked with a capital D, the inner line of the upright extended with further devices, as pictured in Zedler's Das Mainzer Catholicon, page 36, figure xii. GKW 3182 summarizes the points of the four states described by Zedler, as does BMC I, 39; BMC adds a caution that Zedler's "conjectural explanations of them are matters for controversy."

The insertion of the terminal leaf, folio 373 ([Q] 4), is signaled by its smaller size and by the presence of a watermark, which in this copy also appears at [Q] 1. The same stub to which folio 373 is fixed also serves for the insertion of the leaf of manuscript, in a 15th-century gothic hand. The text appears to be on the canon law and is only a fragment, yet bears at the foot of the verso the word "Catholicon" and a signature "Bouchet" (?) with a paraph. This leaf is of the same size as the text leaves, is soiled, and has a marginal stain possibly caused by the turn-in of leather on an inside cover. It may be a terminal flyleaf preserved from an earlier binding.

The two historiated initials of 15th-century origin imply that the work was bound in two volumes many years before the present covers were put on. They are French in style, which would jibe with the signature on the manuscript leaf. In the first volume, the initial "P" is embellished with a delicately worked butterfly; in the second volume, the initial "I" forms a long marginal grotesque, a bird with dog's face and with horns. It is to be regretted that such a capable artist went no farther in the book.

Indications of ownership in the first volume include an inscription in French to the effect that the Catholicon fetched 700 Dutch florins at one of the Crevenna sales (Amsterdam, 1776, 1789, 1793); it does not state whether this copy came from that distinguished collection. On the verso of the flyleaf is the manuscript name, "Percy, Viscount Strangford." The books of Percy Clinton Sydney Smythe, sixth viscount, were auctioned in London 12 August 1831, but De Ricci (Premières Impressions . . . , 90.55) says this book was not sold then. Apparently of a later date are the armorial bookplate and the stamp "Bibliotheca Suchtelen(sis)" with the arms displaying the Russian order of St. Andrew. Count Suchtelen, Russian general and diplomat, died in 1836. A number of his books found their way into Russian imperial collections. Next in order are a shelf label in Russian and a stamp with an imperial crown, which suggest the Imperial Public Library of St. Petersburg, where De Ricci reports the book; it was bought as a duplicate from the Imperial Libraries by Lathrop C. Harper, New York bookseller, from the Soviet government about 1928. Why it should also have the stamp of the "Bundesdenkmalamt," the Austrian rarities export control, is not known.

Goff B-20 locates ten complete copies and one incomplete copy in American institutional libraries, with three held in private hands. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


[ACKERMANN VON BOEHMEN. Bamberg: Albrecht Pfister, about 1463.]

One leaf only. Gothic type of the 36-line Bible, 28 lines to the page. Two manuscript chapter initials in red, text initials rubricated. Measures 233 x 150 mm.; trimmed close to text. A few words rubbed or imperfectly inked. Inlaid in a folio sheet of modern paper, matted.

Lilly Library call number: PT 1501 .A2 vault

From GKW 194, the second edition. Only two complete copies are known, in libraries at Paris and Bamberg; this is the only leaf in the New World of any book definitely printed by Pfister. It is folio 19, the text being the end of Chapter xxvii, all of Chapter xxviii, and 13 lines of Chapter xxix. The extent of the trim may be judged by De Ricci's measurements for the Paris copy, 301 x 206 mm. (Premières Impressions de Mayence, 29.1).

Ackermann von Böhmen, a "Prosadichtung" printed 11 times in the incunable period, is considered a landmark in the history of High German. Johannes von Saaz, its presumed author, was a "Stadtschreiber" at the court of Karl IV in Prague; the death of his wife 1 August 1400 is supposed to have inspired the work. Ackermann, newly widowed, sues Death in court for the murder of his wife. God finally confirms Death's authority, but only as the instrument of His providence. In Chapter xxviii, all present on this leaf, Death recites the many petty annoyances of married life. In the portion of Chapter xxix, Ackermann starts his defence of the chaste and godly wife.

This leaf is listed by De Ricci in the work cited, as No. 29.7. At that time (1911) it was in an album of similar leaves which had appeared three times at auction in London, as the property successively of Sir Thomas Gage (1867), Felix Slade (1868), and an unnamed owner (Sotheby's, 16 June 1910). It was offered separately by New York bookseller Hans P. Kraus in his Catalogue 69, The Cradle of Printing, and was purchased from that catalogue by Mr. Poole.

Goff A-39. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


BIBLIA PAUPERUM. [Netherlands or Germany, printer unknown, between 1465 and 1470.]

Two leaves only (of 40). Printed by woodblocks on one side only, in light brown ink, with Latin text and illustrations. Over-all dimensions 282-285 x 425-428 mm. The fold repaired. Matted.

Lilly Library call number: Z 241 .B6 vault

Schreiber, Manuel de I'Amateur de la Gravure . . . , IV, pages 4 and 10, Group I, Edition III, folios i and k; Hind, History of Woodcut, I, pages 233, 236, and 241; Sotheby, Principia Typographica, I, page 63, Edition IV. Hind is inclined to place this issue earlier in the series.

Leaf i has a watermark resembling those reproduced by Briquet at Nos. 11851-11888, the "mountains or hills" design. The three "peaks" are within a circle 33 mm. in diameter, and the central one is surmounted by a Latin cross extending 55 mm. beyond the circle. The lateral bar of the cross can just be discerned 30 mm. beyond the circle.

Each leaf has five illustrations. Those in the center are from the life of Christ, with Old Testament scenes on both sides, and half-length "portraits" of Old Testament characters appear at top and bottom. All are surrounded with architectural frames. Leaf i portrays three mercies — the Baptism of Christ, the drowning of Pharaoh's army, and the spies returning from Canaan. Leaf k portrays three temptations — the Temptation of Christ, Esau and the pottage, and Adam and Eve with the Serpent. All are captioned. Short homilies are carved in the top corners, in part pointing out the parallels between the Old Testament happenings and the life of Christ.

The term "Biblia Pauperum" is of modern origin and somewhat misleading. Since the two blocks are printed close together and a portion of text would consequently be difficult to use when bound, it has been suggested that they were intended to be mounted or pasted on a wall. There are examples, however, in which each sheet has been folded in two and the blanks pasted back to back to form a "leaf"; these "leaves" are stitched together along what was originally the broader outside margin. The Lilly sheet does not show any signs of such treatment. It has also been suggested that blockbooks were prepared not only for the impoverished devout but also for the use of the minor clergy, providing them with homiletic material for sermons.

Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS. De officiis, Paradoxa. Mainz: Fust and Schöffer, 4 February 1466.

Folio 1: Marci Tulii Ciceronis Arpinatis, consulisque romani, ac oratorum maximi, Ad M Tulium Giceronem filium suum Officiorum liber incipit. Printed on vellum in red and black. 88 leaves, complete. Rounded gothic type, except for the sectional headings of Paradoxa, which are in Greek type; 28 lines to the page. Elaborate manuscript initials in color and silver at the head of each book of De officiis and at the head of Paradoxa. The two Ciceronian texts with chapter initials in red or blue, the terminal verses rubricated. Penciled foliation, two early quiring systems in ink (one with many entries shaved). Folio in eights, 19th-century full red morocco, sprinkled edges. With ample margins, the leaves averaging 253 x 174 mm. A wormhole at front; some minor repairs, faults, and soiling. Royal Society stamp on spine, modern ownership note inside front cover.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6296 .D5 1466 vault

GKW 6922, a close reprint of the 1465 edition. All leaves have the characteristics of the 1466 edition described by H. M. Adams (The Library, June 1924) except for a contraction sign in "ipsis" at folio 30, perhaps omitted by error in that article. Folio 69 verso is a line short, the missing chapter heading being supplied in manuscript. The text ends with 12 epitaphic verses on Cicero by various authors and an Horatian ode (IV, 7) here titled De vitae humanae brevitate. This ode, the "Diffugere nives . . . ," was admired and translated by Housman; its printing here is four years earlier than the date assigned to the first collected Horace.

At the head of the Paradoxa, five lines of marginalia in a contemporary hand comment on Cicero's prefatory remarks, interpreting them as an excuse to his fellow Academicians for offering debatable propositions. An example is indicated on the following page, the first paradox, "Quod honestum sit, id solum bonum esse."

The penciled note at front reads, "Bought at the Sale of the Royal Society's books, Sotheby May 1925 by me W. H. Woodward," and correspondence at Lilly records subsequent sales by Woodward to a London dealer, by this dealer to New York bookseller Lathrop C. Harper, and by Harper (in 1954) to Mr. Poole. Unfortunately nothing remains in the book to prove an earlier provenance suggested in the correspondence, that it may have been among those books given to the Royal Society by the son of Thomas Howard, second Earl of Arundel. The 19th-century Royal Society binder preserved three earlier flyleaves of indeterminate date, unwatermarked, but the earliest inscription on these is a reference to Panzer's Annales. Both quiring systems, including the one partly trimmed, use the older form of arabic numerals; but, since the sprinkling of the edges appears earlier than the binding, the vandalism of such trimming need not be charged to the Royal Society. This copy appears to have been unknown to De Ricci.

Goff C-576 reports 14 other copies owned in America, of which seven are printed on vellum. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


[BIBLIA GERMANICA. Strassburg: Johann Mentelin, before 27 June 1466.]

Folio 1: Brüder Ambrosius der hat vns pracht ein cleine gab. Folio 4, column 1, line 38: In dem anegang geschieff got den himel vnd die erde. (The Vulgate version in German, with prologue of St. Jerome and appended commentaries on the Psalms.) 405 leaves (of 406), lacking the blank folio 356. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 61 lines to the page. Headlines on rectos only, incipits and explicits, and chapter numberings in manuscript, in red ink; in the same color and hand, the Latin incipit for each Psalm given at the head. Prologue, book, and chapter initials painted in red; printed initials rubricated. Further inscriptions in the same manuscript, dated 1472. Folio, modern maroon velvet. Leaves measure 376 x 280 mm. Folio 12 misbound as folio 2. A number of leaves on stubs, a few repaired, some with minor soiling and foxing; a light damp-stain in the gutter throughout. A 15th-century ownership inscription at folio 401 verso, armorial library stamp at front; two leaves of modern German manuscript, concerning this edition, bound in at front.

Lilly Library call number: BS 236 1466 vault

GKW 4295. The first Bible printed in German, and the first printed in any vernacular tongue. The date given above is based on inscriptions in the Stuttgart and Munich copies; Schorbach's date of 1461, based on inscriptions in the Apel copy at Ermlitz, would seem to be defeated by his reproduction of those inscriptions (Plate VIII, Der Strassburger Frühdrucker Johann Mentelin). The terminal digit in both is quite clearly the usual form for an arabic seven of the period, as evidenced by the inscriptions in the Lilly copy.

The total of 406 leaves is not as in Hain (*3130), which gives 405 in apparent ignorance of the blank folio 356. Copinger's correction leaves the number at 405, noting the blank leaf without realizing its effect upon the total, while GKW gives the correct total but does not mention the blank. Correct totals and identifications of the blank leaf will be found in BMC I, 52, and Schorbach (op. cit., appended p. *3, No. 3).

The manuscript date 1472 in arabic numerals, in the rubricator's hand, appears at the end of II Kings and the Psalter, and at the end of text on folio 406 verso. A longer inscription in the same hand, in Latin with the date spelled out, is written at the end of Apocalypsis (folio 401 verso, column 2). It records that this copy was rubricated and bound in 1472 for Haynricus de Monster (thus, possibly for Heinrich von Münster?), an Augustinian canon regular and chaplain of the Teutonic Order "in colle p(ro)pe grez"; a German paraphrase of this inscription, written below in an 18th-century hand, translates these words as "auff dem Higel bei grez" — "on the hill near Grez." (A further inscription of two lines just below, in German, erroneously describes the dates in figures as meaning 1452.) We have not been able to identify "Grez," as it is spelled in both Latin and German versions. It may possibly be the Austrian city of Graz, but this would place a foundation of the Teutonic Order in an unlikely area. A more reasonable candidate would be the Saxon city of Greiz, close to the Bohemian border and more nearly in the Teutonic Order's sphere of influence. Both cities have prominent hills in their vicinities.

Goff B-624 records incomplete copies at the Grolier Club and the Huntington Library, and complete copies at Lilly and the Pierpont Morgan Library. Five other complete copies are reported in private collections, two in the Silver collection which was sold to the Newberry Library. In spite of the duplication in the Silver collection, no copy was offered publicly in the Newberry duplicate sale of November, 1965, at Sotheby's. This copy is not recorded by Schorbach; it was purchased in Europe shortly after World War II. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


AUGUSTINUS, AURELIUS (St. Augustine). De arte praedicandi. [Strassburg: Mentelin, about 1466.]

Folio 1 verso: Canon pro reconmendacione huius operis siue libelli sequentis de arte predicandi sancti augustini. (Book IV of De doctrina Christiana.) 21 leaves (of 22), lacking the terminal blank. Rounded gothic type, 39 lines to the page. Large red initial painted at the head of the Augustinian text; paragraph marks as sectional guides painted in blue or red. Introduction and text with printed initials rubricated. Marginal locators for the sections, following the letter system used in text and terminal index, painted in red by a contemporary hand, as suggested in the introduction. Small folio, full red levant, gilt edges, type-signed "Duru" on verso of front endpaper. Leaves measure 277 x 199 mm. A number of marginal repairs, some affecting the locators; some leaves soiled. Folio 11 with an unrepaired tear, a stained erasure at bottom of folio 3.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .A92 D63 Book IV 1466 vault

GKW 2871; the first edition there listed, and probably the first printed, with Mentelin mentioned by name in the introduction. An edition by Fust and Schöffer, with the marginal alphabetical locators printed in place, is described by GKW as published "before March 1467." The suggestion in the introduction to the present edition that the reader insert the marginal locators "manu sua per pennam" has been taken to indicate that Mentelin must have seen Fust's edition before printing his own; however, BMC II, 52, supporting the priority of the Mentelin edition, suggests that the writer of the introduction had seen marginal locators inserted in a manuscript. See also BMC I, 21 (the Fust edition) for textual evidence of the same tenor.

The alphabetical locator system runs from A to Z (minus J, U, and W) plus the ampersand and the contraction for "con-" (an alphabet often used for early collations), followed by double alphabets AB . . . , BG . . . , and CD to GL. The seven-and-a-half page index is alphabetical by subject and takes into account the vagaries of Latin word order; sections C and H are entered together three times, under "Auditorum benivolencia captanda est," "Benivolencie . . . ," and "Captacio. . . ."

The reading "reconmendacione" in the caption title of the introduction is given in GKW 2871 and Ham *1956; BMC I, 52, and Pellechet 1472 have "recommendacione." In the present copy, at the third page of the introduction (folio 2 verso), the first word in line 21 lacks a letter — "gaude it" for "gaudebit" — here supplied by hand. Correspondence with other American owners shows that the same dropped letter occurs in the Chapin, Rosenwald, and Yale copies but not in the Huntington, Pierpont Morgan, and Scheide copies.

Of further interest in the introduction is the statement of the (to us) unknown editor that he had had to search libraries at Heidelberg, Worms, Speyer, and Cologne for manuscripts on which to base this edition and had found them not only hard to come by but also often corrupt. A large part of this text is devoted to his reasons for issuing this fourth part of the De doctrina Christiana separately from the balance of the work, because of the immediacy of its practical and spiritual values for the instruction of regular and secular clergy in a basic duty of such importance as preaching. The text of the introduction is most villainously contracted, and only somewhat more so than the Augustinian text, which would seem to argue a manuscript prepared by a scholar familiar with the most obscure and abbreviated usages and writing for others as learned as himself.

Goff A-1226, one of eight located. Acquired with the Poole collection.


AUGUSTINUS, AURELIUS. De civitate dei. [Subiaco: Sweynheym and Pannartz,] 12 June 1467.

Folio 1: Aurelii Augustini de ciuitate dei libri primi incipiunt Rubricae. (The City of God, prefaced by the pertinent passage from the Retractationes, "Interea cum Roma. . . .") 269 leaves (of 271), lacking the two blank leaves between the preliminary tables and the text. Roman type, 2 columns and 44 lines to the page. Folio 15 with three-quarter border and book initial in red, blue, green, gold, and light penwork, the colors and gold serving as background for a vine-like, intertwining design in the self-color of the paper. Other book initials in the same style, chapter guides and initials painted in red or blue; some incorrect initials struck through and corrected. Two manuscript captions in red; marginalia in Latin and Greek, mostly of the 17th century or later. Folio, late 16th-century pigskin decorated in blind, later lettering and dates in gold, edges tinted blue. Skillfully rebacked in vellum, probably in the late 18th century; the original covers worn and scarred. A good copy with ample margins, leaves measuring 360 x 250 mm. With painted 16th-century arms on folio 15, later ownership inscriptions on folio 1, and the bookplates of the Provost of Kloster Polling and the Duke of Sussex.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .A92 C58 vault

GKW 2874; editio princeps, the full twenty-two books. This copy is one of those with the cryptic letters "GOD / .AL." printed to the right of the colophon.

The trim and binding affect outer areas of the elaborate decoration of folio 15, indicating that the leaves were millimetres larger when decorated in the 16th century (before 1569) and were trimmed and edged when bound in the present covers (before 1610, probably during the 1560's). These covers are so worn that much of the design is obscured, the details being clearly visible only on a portion of the back cover. The initials "H S" can be seen in one section of a repeated half-inch roll, and other sections display possibly armorial designs — three triangles, a fortress wall with two crenelated towers, and the eagle of the Palatinate. Central panels are stamped on both covers, the Visitation at front and the Presentation at back; the accompanying texts are only partly legible. The initials lettered on both covers in gold, in places over the original design, probably refer to the presentation of the book to M. Elia or Elias of Ehingen whose name appears inside with the same date — 1610 — as that lettered in gold on the front cover, and to the subsequent transfer of ownership to Johannes Kesenbrod whose name appears inside with the same date — 1612 — as that lettered in gold on the back cover.

The extensive manuscript notes in the volume, in several hands, date from the 17th century or later. The pious references inside the front cover and the marginal notes in text — most of which are apparently guides for ready reference — offer little of interest. The notes at folios 1, 15, and 271, however, tell much about the provenance and decoration of the book.

The earliest dated inscription on folio 1 is that of M. Elia or Elias of Ehingen, a suburb of Rottenburg. Two years later the owner was Johannes Kesenbrod, Rector of the school at Rottenburg. Below these inscriptions Provost Franciscus of Holy Saviour Monastery, Kloster Polling, wrote in 1768 that the book then belonged to Kloster Polling, having been received in a trade with the Monastery of the Holy Cross in nearby Augsburg; both were foundations of the Augustinian Canons Regular. Kloster Polling was suppressed in 1803, and the next owner of record is represented by the bookplate of Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (1773-1843), on the front flyleaf. The book was sold in his sale, Part I, 15th Day, 17 July 1844, Lot 3293, by Evans of Pall Mall. Inside the front cover is a dated inscription, "Coll. perf. F. C. Brooke / Jan. 1845," and a later penciled note referring to the sale of the Sunderland copy in 1881.

In the fore margin of folio 15, Johannes Kesenbrod, the owner of 1612 whose small, neat script in red is easily identified, has written that the decorations were done at the expense of Johannes Hornberger, an official of the City of Rottenburg and a former resident of Buda, who died in 1569. This identifies the initials "I. H." flanking a wreathed coat of arms displaying three hunting horns, in the decorative border of the same leaf.

On folio 271, a further inscription by Kesenbrod suggests that the book was probably printed at Rome or Venice. Two other notes, probably in the hand of Provost Franciscus of Kloster Polling, make reference to works by Vollaterranus and Father Laire in which this edition is discussed. The reference to Laire's Specimen Typographiae Romanae (Rome, 1778) is to his opinion that the book was printed by one Hans Laudenbach, whose epitaph (1514) at Heidelberg reads in part, "... Die ersten Bücher truckt ich zu Rom," and gives Laire's interpretation of the letters "GOD / .AL." — "Gratias Omnipotenti Deo A Laudenbachio." Laudenbach, whose later connection with the printer Heinrich Knoblochtzer at Heidelberg is recorded, may well have worked with Sweynheym and Pannartz as a young man. BMC IV, 2, states that the initials are understood to be those "of the corrector of the press." A further possibility is that the letters "AL" may stand for "Aleriensis," the episcopal title of the German Joannes Andreae, Bishop of Aleria in Corsica, then at Rome, who edited other works printed by Sweynheym and Pannartz. BMC IV, vii, and viii, states that the bishop became editor for the press only after it was moved to Rome and had nothing to do with the books in Subiaco type; however, the same account notes that, during the preparation of the Augustinus, the partners were apparently working at both Subiaco and Rome. At any rate the speculation is interesting.

In the prefatory letter to the Pope in Vol. I of the Postilla of Nicholas de Lyra, printed by Sweynheym and Pannartz in 1471, the number of copies issued of De civitate dei is given as 825; this figure is taken to cover the three editions of 1467, 1468, and 1470. Other entries in this list of their publications would indicate that the first edition of De civitate dei probably amounted to 275 copies. Goff A-1230 locates six other copies in the United States, all in institutions, and Yale has recently acquired a copy. The present copy was acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


HRABANUS MAURUS. [De proprietate sermonum, sive de universo, an encyclopedic compendium. Strassburg: Adolf Rusch,] June or July 1467.

Folio 1 [?]: Epistola Rabani ad ludouicum regem inuictissimum &c. incipit foeliciter. 169 leaves, including 2 terminal blanks; probably lacking an initial blank. Roman type, 2 columns and 56 lines to the page. Bound with the De excellencia evangelii of Zacharias Chrysopolitanus (1473) in one volume, folio, doeskin over wooden boards, tooled in blind, with metal bosses, executed at the Dominican Monastery in Vienna about 1475. Manuscript leaves as endpapers. A tall, clean copy, the leaves measuring 412 x 288 mm. Three 15th-century ownership inscriptions of the Vienna monastery appear in the book.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .Z3 vault

Editio princeps. Hain * 13669 gives a total of only 167 leaves; Copinger (Corrections) gives 170 leaves with an initial gathering of 10, including a blank. Army Medical Library, Incunabula, 383, and Bibliotheca Osleriana, 7478, both assume an initial gathering of 8+1 printed leaves, without a blank, while Osler, Incunabula Medica, 1, simply gives a count of 169 leaves. BMC I, 60, gives 168 leaves (including the two terminal blanks) with an initial gathering of only 8, presumably lacking a leaf. In the Lilly copy, an initial blank has been excised, but since that blank was on a surviving stub, an original first gathering of 10 with initial blank may only be assumed, not proven.

The central panels of the binding are diapered and filled with small floral tools, within borders of foliage and typical Viennese cresting. The initials "PW" [for Praedicatores Wiennenses] appear at three places, and there is also a "W" alone. There are two clasps (metal mounts and catches missing) and center and corner metal bosses, of a later vintage, front and back. Three of an original four heavy iron studs remain driven into the bottom edges of both covers, and there are traces of a chain staple at the top of the back cover. Vestiges of a paper label survive on the front cover. For a similar binding, see Goldschmidt, Gothic and Renaissance Bookbindings, p. 139 and plate 100:9.

Free endpapers at front and back are formed from two sheets of vellum, written on both sides, each being two leaves of an octavo manuscript. The sheet at back is carried around the last signature and the portion appearing as a stub bears the name "Burley" and, in a highly contracted form, the title "De materia prima," which indicates that the sheets are probably from a contemporary manuscript of a work by the famous 14th-century English commentator on Aristotle, Walter Burley. The text, a scholastic and metaphysical treatise on the nature of substance, is written in two columns, about 50 lines to the page, in a minute and highly contracted 14th-century hand. A portion of text on the folded-over piece, written in full-page measure, is in another hand and probably is a short commentary. The printed works of Burley include at least one title, the Tractatus de materia et forma, to which this text might belong.

At folio 138 verso (here foliated 137) begins the famous section De medicina. This passage has won the book a place in medical history as the first compendium to carry an article completely devoted to the subject. Gerson's briefly precedent tract De pollutione nocturna, while on a medical subject, approaches it from the viewpoint of moral theology, resolving a question of priestly competence on the dictum sine voluntate peccatum non est. While Hrabanus' summary is not free from theological insertions, such as equating the pestilence with heresy, he recounts briefly the Greek legends, mentions Hippocrates, describes the four humors, and lists the classic types of diseases.

Goff R-l; one of 12 copies in institutional libraries in the United States. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


AUGUSTINUS, AURELIUS. De civitate dei. [Rome:] Sweynheym and Pannartz, 1468.

Folio 2: Aurelii Augustini de ciuitate dei primi libri incipiunt Rubrice. 271 leaves (of 274), lacking the initial blank and 2 terminal blanks; blank folio 16 present. Roman type, 46 lines to the page. Folios 2 and 17 with colored and illuminated borders; book initials in colors and gold, chapter initials painted red or blue, opening tables rubricated. Up to Chapter 2, Book III, each chapter has a manuscript caption title and marginal guide in red (faded). Folio, 18th-century calf, sprinkled edges; hinges repaired. Leaves measure 395 x 277 mm. Tables and last leaf of text soiled. Painted 16th-century coat of arms and the name "T. Hobart" in a late hand on folio 2.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .A92 C58 1468 vault

GKW 2875, second edition. Probably issued in the same number of copies as the first edition, about 275.

The decoration of folio 2 and of the book initials is in much the same style as that of the Lilly copy of the first edition — the intertwining, vine-like design with background of light green, light red, and blue, Italianate in feeling. The border and initials on folio 17 are heavier and more German in style, the background in green, blue, and purple, and the "vines" heavily shaded in penwork. A trial sketch for the border of folio 17, in penwork only, appears at folio 9. If a date prior to 1569 must be set for the decorations in the first edition, the same should be set for the decorations of folio 2 in this edition, with the proviso that they may be decades earlier if Hornberger's death in 1569 took place at an advanced age. The work on folio 17 may be considerably later.

On folio 2 appear the ecclesiastical arms of Strassburg, gules, a bend argent, surmounted by a bishop's hat of precedence vert terminating in three tassels. In the bottom margin of folio 17 is a painting of St. Augustine as bishop, with a copy of De civitate dei open on his knee. A marginal note in a 16th-century hand at folio 15 in the tables draws attention to the confusion in Chapter 8 of the final book, where a number of sections are provided with initials as if they were separate books.

Goff A-1231, locating 11 copies in America. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


ARISTOTLE. Ethica ad Nicomachum, Politica, Oeconomica. [Strassburg: Mentelin, before 10 April 1469.]

Folio 1: Aristotelis ethicorum libros latinos facere nuper institui. . . . (The three works in the Latin translation and with the prefaces of Leonardus Brunus Aretinus.) 198 leaves, complete for this state (see below). Rounded gothic type, 32 lines to the page. The first three gatherings with initials painted in red, manuscript headlines and captions, printed initials rubricated; these embellishments become infrequent and are abandoned after the fifth gathering. Books I-IV of Ethica copiously annotated in an early 16th-century hand; a few marginalia in later hands elsewhere. Small folio, 15th-century German calf, intricately tooled in blind with panels and borders; metal corners and centers with bosses, metal and leather clasps hinged on the back cover. One clasp and one center piece missing; edges worn, hinges cracked, only a portion of the spine remaining. Leaves with ample margins, measuring 292 x 217 mm. Some minor soiling, fore-edge tabbed for reference. A bookseller's ticket and manuscript notes inside covers.

Lilly Library call number: PA 3890 .A8 M69 vault

GKW 2367; the Lilly copy as there collated, with a total of 198 leaves and terminal gatherings [v]8 and [x]8, all leaves in these two gatherings printed. BMC I, 53, ends differently — gathering [v]8 with last leaf blank, gathering [x]6 with all leaves printed, and gathering [y]4 with terminal blank, giving a total of 200 leaves. There is no apparent major difference in text, but merely in imposition. The GKW collation (as in Lilly) prints the beginning of Oeconomica on [v] 8 and completes the text in 8 more leaves in one fold; the BMC collation has [v] 8 blank, begins Oeconomica on [x] 1, completes Oeconomica in 8 more leaves to [y] 3, and leaves [y] 4 blank. Since BMC also reports two separate copies of "Part I" (Ethica), it may be presumed that the change in imposition for Oeconomica was made to permit separate issue of this part as well.

Pellechet 1238 records yet another variety, totaling 200 leaves but with the terminal imposition as in GKW. In this instance, the first gathering, elsewhere [a]10 all printed, is apparently [a]12 with first and last leaves blank. This arrangement most curiously places the second blank leaf (as shown by the textual indicator for folio 13 in Pellechet) right in the middle of the second sentence of Chapter xvii, Book I of the Ethica— "... forsan (blank leaf) esset. ..."

Significant tools used on the binding include a scroll with the name "maria," a circular tool with a running stag, and a drop-shaped tool with a dragon of vulpine features. One border, on the front cover, has been worked with a vine tool to which the finisher has alternately attached strawberries and acorns with the leaves thereof, perhaps as moral emblems but certainly in defiance of nature. The back cover imitates in enlargement the quartered and crossed central panel of the front cover. The clasp and catches are stamped "[Ies]usM[aria]."

The copious marginalia, in a difficult and highly contracted 16th-century hand, at the front of the book, soon give way to short comments or references in two or three more formal book hands of indeterminate but early date. After the fourth book of Politica, we find a number of short 18th-century inscriptions, done with a drafting lead; the same hand appears to be responsible for the crudely drafted figure of a person in the stocks on the last leaf of Book VI, Politica. The initial chapters of books are marked in pencil from the middle of Ethica.

Inside the front cover is the small label of B. Westermann & Co., 290 Broadway, and below this in pencil, "Ordered throug B Westerman from J. O. Weigel Leipzig;" above this is a German bookseller's catalogue description. The book, therefore, came to America from Europe not before 1848, when Westermann set up an importing business in New York. A clumsily-drawn coat of arms and the name "Haendel" (?) in German script, inside the back cover, may or may not indicate an earlier ownership.

Goff A-983 records nine other copies owned by American institutions and three more in private hands. From the collection of J. K. Lilly, Jr.


CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS. [Epistolae ad familiares.] Venice: Johannes de Spira (von Speyer), [1469].

Folio 2: Ego omni officio ac potius pietate erga te caeteris satisfacio omnibus .... (A collection of Cicero's letters to his friends.) 135 leaves (of 136), lacking the initial blank. Roman type, 41 lines to the page; spaces for headings and Greek text not filled in. Two sectional initials in color, at the heads of the letters to Sulpicius and to Metellus, other such spaces left empty; initials for separate letters in red or blue, with contrasting penwork, supplied. Left and right margins with double pen-lines in red; foliated in ink (faded). Folio, 18th-century Continental binding of full oasis niger, gilt edges; scarred, some minor repairs. The leaves fine, with good margins, measuring 326 x 217 mm.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6297 .A3 1469 vault

GKW 6801. The colophon in Latin verse states that this edition was finished within four months of the completion of de Spira's first edition of the text; both appeared before 18 September 1469. 300 copies were issued.

The binding is probably of native-dyed oasis niger, a leather which made its way into Europe early in the 16th century. The spine is full gilt with run-up dotted roll sides, urn centers with floral shoulder decoration, and four variant rolls used transversely; the sides are framed with a linked roll. The endpapers are fine examples of early marbled paper, and the free leaves are unlined. Two flyleaves, with countermarks lettered "G F B," have been provided at front and back. The gilding of the fore-edge, still brilliant, was undoubtedly done on the round. The foliation is contemporary with the binding and makes no allowance for the missing initial blank.

Goff C-505, one of five copies in America, the others being at the Huntington Library, the Library of Congress (Thacher Collection), the Pierpont Morgan Library, and in the private collection of Mr. and Mrs. John D. Gordan.


PLINIUS SECUNDUS, CAIUS. Historia naturalis (sometimes called "History of the World"). Venice: Johannes de Spira, 1469.

Folio 1: PLINIVS secundus nouocomensis equestribus militiis industriae functus. . . . Line 12: LIBROS NATVRALIS HISTORIAE. ... 356 leaves, complete including terminal blank. Roman type, 52 lines to the page; tables set in 2 columns, spaces left in preface for the insertion of Greek terms. Preface and book initials illuminated and embellished with intertwined, vine-like decorations against blue, green, and claret backgrounds; similar decorations (incomplete) in the borders of folio 1. Chapter initials in red or blue in a less skillful hand, tables rubricated. Most chapter headings supplied, in a light shade of red, by another inexpert scribe. Portions of the text with marginalia in four 16th-century hands. Folio, 18th-century sprinkled sheep, sprinkled edges; rehinged, a few decorations shaved. Leaves measure 414 x 283 mm. First and last leaves soiled, otherwise bright; correspondence indicates that area cleaning (not washing) and minor repairs were executed by Donnelley of Chicago. The name Josephus Mineus at front and back.

Lilly Library call number: QH 41 .P58

BMC V, 153; editio princeps of this famous compendium, of incalculable influence in its field for centuries. The text is preceded by a digest of the life of Pliny; the opening tables include lists of authorities cited in each chapter. Contemporary documents state that it was printed in three months in an edition of only 100 copies, and published before 18 September 1469. It was the last book completed by Johannes de Spira, who died during the production of his next work.

The decorations of the initials and the first page are in much the same style as those noted in the descriptions of the 1467 and 1468 editions of De civitate dei. The border decorations of the first page of the Pliny, however, are contained within rectangles in two margins and, at top, within a series of lozenges. All three designs are embellished with finials, golden dots, and colored rosettes. A small landscape fills the medallion of the fore-edge border, but the medallion at the bottom contains merely the sketched outline of a shield. Apparently some later hand attempted to deepen the reds and blues of this decoration, for patches of these colors have offset on the facing 18th-century flyleaf; elsewhere a much lighter shade of red is used. The decoration was undoubtedly the work of a superior artist. There is not as much shading as in the later work in the 1468 De civitate dei, but a further sophistication is developed — the apparent piercing of the gold of the initials by the white viniform intertwinings. The superiority of the workmanship to the other two examples is striking.

The preface and first 18 chapters of Book I have marginal references and corrections in a semi-cursive roman. The corrections are grammatical and typographical, the offending word generally being indicated in text by two superscript dots. The Greek interpolations in the preface (all but one filled in) were probably added by the same writer. Portions of Books XI and XII have marginalia in an upright roman and in another, slanting hand, the latter probably the hand of the scribe who wrote the inserted captions. Books XX and XXII, on medicines and simples, have copious notations in a later upright roman, in varying inks. Corrections include the substitution of terms, in some cases for more modern forms, and the emendation of grammatical errors. The word to be corrected is generally indicated by a caret above or two dots and a line.

The present copy of Historia naturalis was purchased by Mr. Poole from New York bookseller Bernard Rosenthal in 1957, and replaced one bought earlier by Mr. Poole from the same dealer. The measurements of this copy (414 x 283 mm.) are, according to a table included in Mr. Rosenthal's correspondence, taller than the Lothian, BM, or Morgan copies, although not so wide as the Lothian or as Mr. Poole's first copy.

Goff P-786 records nine other copies in American institutions, and three in private hands. With other titles, this might indicate a common book. However, with the Pliny, it is rather an indication of the book's desirability and its certainty of finding a ready market in any American collection in the fields of early printing, the classics, or natural history, provided that the not inconsiderable funds necessary for purchase are available. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


PETRARCA, FRANCESCO. [De obedientia ac fide uxoria. Cologne: Ulrich Zel, about 1469.]

Folio 1: Epistola . . . De Historia Griseldis. . . . ("On wifely obedience and fidelity," or "History of Griseldis.") 12 leaves, complete including terminal blank. Rounded gothic type, 27 lines to the page. First initial painted in red with pen-work decoration, other initials and paragraph marks in red, printed initials rubricated. One marginal note, corrections and indications of punctuation, and marginal emphases, all contemporary. Small 4to, two gatherings of six, 18th-century Italian sprinkled calf, red edges. Leaves measure 201 x 135 mm. Lower corner of terminal blank defective. Inscription on back endpaper, "Collated perfect . . . S. de Ricci."

Lilly Library call number: PQ 4490 .H4 1469 vault

BMC I, 186 (IA. 2382), the issue with "Francisci" contracted in the incipit and the misprint "floreutinum" in the explicit; this issue placed first in order by BMC. The text prints shortened versions of the initial letter to Boccaccio and of the story which served as the source for the Clerk's Tale in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.

The half-dozen corrections of text are, on two occasions, themselves incorrect; the others emend fairly obvious typographical errors. The indication of punctuation is by stroke and is not carried through to the end, while some of the marginal emphases in the form of grotesque profiles may have been done more in the spirit of doodling than seriously. An early foliation in red at the top of each leaf, from cxlii to cliiii, indicates that this text was removed from a lengthier volume, while a shaved manuscript note and shaved quirings at the bottom edge testify to a severe trim. The foliation shows traces of an unsuccessful attempt at obliteration, doubtless with intent to deceive.

Goff P-400 locates only five other copies in America, all in institutions. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


AUGUSTINUS, AURELIUS. De civitate dei. Venice: Johannes and Vindelinus de Spira, 1470.

Folio 2: Aurelii Augustini de ciuitate dei primi libri incipiunt Rubricae. 272 leaves (of 274), lacking blank folio 16 and terminal blank. Roman type, 50 lines to the page; initial tables set in 2 columns. Folio 17 with colored border of intertwining, vine-like design, and two similar illuminated initials; book initials in same style. Chapter initials and headlines in red or blue by one hand, and chapter caption headings by another hand in pale red. From folio 17 to end a 17th-century foliation system repeating 84 and omitting 201; traces of a 16th-century quiring system. Folio, 19th-century scored morocco; hinges repaired. Leaves measure 405 x 287 mm. One tear repaired, marginal repairs in last gathering; some soiling and minor stains. With the armorial bookplate of a member of the Laurie family and, partly covering it, the bookplate of Sir Edward Sullivan (1822-1885).

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .A92 C58 1470 vault

GKW 2877; the fourth product of the first Venetian printers. The printing was begun by Johannes de Spira (von Speyer) and completed, after his death, by his brother Vindelinus. The decoration in the present volume is similar in style but inferior in workmanship to the decoration of the Lilly copies of the two earlier editions of this work; the greens are generally brighter, and an additional color — almost a maroon — is used. In the border of folio 17, at bottom, is a painting on a shield, representing a Pope in tiara. It is doubtful that any of the decoration or manuscript insertions of this copy are earlier than the 16th century.

Goff A-1233, locating 12 other copies in America. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


EUSEBIUS PAMPHILI (Caesariensis). De evangelica praeparatione. Venice: Nicolaus Jenson, 1470.

Folio 1: EVSEBIVM PAMPHILI de euangelica praeparatione latinum ex graeco. . .effeci. ("On the evangelical preparation," a work on the sources of Christianity, in the Latin translation of Georgius Trapezuntius.) 142 leaves, complete. Roman type, 39 lines to the page. Decorative initial in red and blue ink at folio 1, other initial spaces empty or with small manuscript guides. Book and chapter headings in manuscript, marginalia and inscriptions in at least four hands. Small folio, late 18th-century quarter sheep and sprinkled cartonnage; rubbed, hinges cracked. Leaves measure 313 x 225 mm. First and last leaves soiled, some foxing. Library stamp on folio 1, owners' inscriptions at beginning and end.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .E7 E92 vault

BMC V, 167 — "The sharpness of the impression has caused this book to be received as the first of Jenson's productions, printed with new type, but its superiority in this respect over the other books of 1470 is not so marked as to make this certain." Pellechet 4642 and 4642a, the variations in setting occurring at folio 1, recto and verso, and at folio 142 verso. The Lilly copy in mixed state, folio 1 recto and verso being in the same state as 4642, but folio 152 verso, line 4, having the last word "vrbi" as in 4642a, instead of "urbi" as in 4642. The use of the lower case letter form "v" for the vowel "u" is most unusual in this text, which is set on page after page without the lower case "v" at all, the "u" being used for both consonant and vowel values. It therefore must be possible that the lower case "v" in this line is an earlier state, corrected with a lower case "u" to conform. In the Lilly copy, the "v" appears to be a sort from another font.

The manuscript chapter headings in red are in a fine, and professional, rounded gothic hand, probably dating not much later than the book. The bulk of the marginalia are in a legible humanistic hand of the same period and are usually references to sources and titles quoted in text. A few similar references occur in two later hands, and occasionally throughout the book, but mostly in front, there are notes in a bold 17th-century hand. This last writer has provided headings with the numbers of the books in arabic numerals and a correct pagination. A few of the earliest marginalia have been shaved.

At folio 1 a cursive inscription in an early 17th-century hand records the entry of the book in the catalogue of a Jesuit foundation at Milan; beside this appears the stamp and duplicate stamp of the Bibliotheque Nationale. Beneath the colophon is another inscription, "Antonii Morazani et Amicorum," with the name in large roman capitals, certainly predating the Jesuit inscription, and some few pen trials in another hand, mostly erased.

George of Trebizond's translation has been widely and often attacked, and Eusebius' purpose in writing the book, to prove that the New Testament is based upon the Hebrew Scriptures and not upon the religious philosophies of other ancient peoples, has been lost sight of in its humanist values as the only source referring to many minor classical authors. The volume's greatest distinction is earned as a fine, early example of Jenson's roman; the Newberry Library copy was used by Bruce Rogers in designing his Centaur type.

Goff E-118 records 21 American copies. The Lilly copy was acquired with the Poole collection.


[DONATUS, AELIUS. De octo partibus orationis, sive Ars Minor. Netherlands, "Speculum type" (Zedler). about 1470.]

Two conjugate leaves only. Printed on both sides of one sheet of vellum. Gothic type. Two manuscript initials in red, text initials rubricated. One side heavily obscured by deep stains; the other side clear except for marginal stains, rubbing, and minor defects. Leaves measure, at largest dimensions, 206 x 148 mm. Matted and framed in plastic.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6381 .D6 vault

From a 30-line edition, the type with characteristics and approximate measurements of type 110 (106) G., assigned by BMC to Utrecht, Printer of the Text of the Speculum, n.d. (IX, page 1 and plate IH). This type is designated in the recent and most welcome Fifteenth-Century Printing Types of The Low Countries, by Wytze and Lotte Hellinga, as Prototypography type 1.

The text on the legible side has been compared with that in Schwenke's Die Donat- und Kalendar-Type and consists at left of Chapter 28, lines 18-20, 29-30, 20-22, 33-59 (end), and Chapter 29, lines 1-17 (misnumbered 22 in Schwenke); at right, of Chapter 16, lines 43-73 (end), and Chapter 17, lines 1-10. The portion of Chapter 28 omits three paradigms found in Schwenke, and presents others in varying order. The whole is highly contracted and varies in usage ("cū" for "vt" and vice versa) in several passages.

The order of text indicates that when bound, the page at right was first in the fold, and the page at left was last, with the indecipherable pages inside the fold. Comparative measurement of Schwenke's text, with allowance for contractions, indicates that only one other fold was inserted within this one. Since text prior to the first page would require approximately 8 pages to print, it may be assumed that these leaves are folios 5 and 8, forming leaves 1 and 4 of signature [b], preceded by a signature [a] in four.

Goff D-327. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


[DONATUS, AELIUS. De octo partibus orationis . . . . Netherlands, "Saliceto" or "Doctrinale" type (Zedler). about 1470.]

Two conjugate leaves only. Printed on both sides of one sheet of vellum. Gothic type. One manuscript initial in red faintly visible, traces of rubrication. One side illegible; the other side rubbed, stained, and defective. Leaves measure 201 x 142 mm. Matted and framed in plastic.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6381 .D6 vault

From a 27-line edition, the type with characteristics and approximate measurements of type 123 G., assigned by BMC (at the same pages as the previous number) to the same place and printer as our other Donatus leaves. This type is designated by the Hellingas as Prototypography type 5.

The text is so obscured and defective that a perfect "Zugleichung" with Schwenke is impossible, but it appears to present at left Chapter 31 from line 16 and Chapter 32 to line 11, and at the right, Chapter 15 from line 4 to line 46. The order of text indicates that, as above, the right-hand page was first in a fold and the left-hand page last. Comparative measurement of text indicates that three similar folds were inserted within this fold. Since text up to the first page would have required about five pages to print, and that after the last page about six pages, it may be assumed that this pair of conjugate leaves were 4 and 11 from an edition of Donatus in one gathering of 14 leaves, possibly GKW 8779 or 8780.

Goff D-326. Acquired with the Poole collection.

Like many Donatus leaves, both pairs described above were discovered as lining-papers in the binding of a larger and later book. They were removed from an edition of Johannes de Turrecremata's Flos theologiae with his Quaestiones . . ., published at Deventer, Holland, by Pafraet in 1484. The presence of leaves in Prototypography type 1 and Prototypography type 5 in the same binding would tend to confirm the Hellingas' hypothesis that their Type 1 was indeed available to the same press using their Types 2, 3, 4, and 5, thereby supporting the assignment by Bradshaw in 1871 of all five types to the same press.

"On the eight parts of speech," called the "Ars minor" because it treats only of words as against the broader treatment of grammar in the Ars melior, was the standard textbook for beginners in Latin during the Middle Ages and early Renaissance. A dry-as-dust formal compilation of paradigms dating from the 4th century A.D., probably viewed by its young readers as an instrument of torture, it nevertheless played its part in the survival of Latin among the learned. With the invention of printing, editions multiplied like rabbits while schoolroom usage as steadily consigned the books to fragmentation and annihilation, even when they were printed on vellum. Because of their often crude printing, incunable scholarship once tended to assign early dates to the surviving pieces, but more recent study as often implies that their crudity is only that which is inseparable from cheaply produced work for mass consumption, and rarely assigns dates before 1460.


[MISSALE SPECIALE "CONSTANTIENSE." N.p.: eponymous press, ca. 1470?]

One leaf, with a portion of its conjugate. Gothic type, 18 lines to the page, printed in red and black. Manuscript initials and rubricated text initials rubbed and blotted. Early manuscript foliation on complete leaf, which measures 299 x 213-215 mm. Repaired and stained. A black "blot" in last two lines of complete leaf recto, 20 x 3-4 mm., irregular in outline and running on the diagonal. (See illustration.)

Lilly Library call number: BX 2015 .A3 C5 1450 vault

Missale Speciale "Constantiense," folio 44 recto, showing
                        "blot" in last two lines of text at left.

From Copinger 4075, folio 44 and part of folio 47 ([e] 4 and 7) in Hupp's "new" foliation (Gutenbergs erste Drucke, 1902). The manuscript foliation on the recto of folio 44 reads "39", as in Hupp's "old" foliation. The text of folio 44 is from the Proper of the the Saints and prints the Gradual, Sequence, and most of the Gospel (Luke vii: 36-47) for the Feast of St. Mary Magdalene (22 July).

The full leaf of the present pair has no watermark, and the remaining portion of its cognate is too narrow to show the area which might be watermarked. The research of Mr. Allan Stevenson on the use of paper in bibliographical identification and dating, and particularly on the dating of the Constance Missal, rests largely on the watermarks, and it is to be regretted that this leaf has none. His most recent work tends to date the Missal about 1470 or a little later, and a fuller documentation is awaited in a book which is close to publication.

The "blot" noted in the description above is of the same ink as the printing. It may have been caused by a sort, dropped along its width on an inked surface and then upon the printed sheet, much the same misadventure as is recorded in the Pelplin copy of the Gutenberg Bible, except that the Gutenberg sort shows only in outline and was dropped along its height, while in this leaf the entire width of the sort had become inked before falling to the paper. A streak consisting of two lines, the same 3 mm. apart, appears somewhat to the right of and parallel to the "blot" and may have been caused by the retrieval of another sort, inked only on the edges. This possibility is heightened by the fact that the left-hand line of the streak does not extend for the full 60 mm. of the smear but ends halfway, as if the sort were turned in the fingers as it was being lifted.

The outline of the "blot" is obscured at the upper end by text, but at the lower end appears to be rounded. If the piece were a sort, it must have been a space, without printing surface, and somewhat short of height to paper. Spaces as wide as 5 mm. are found in the text. The recto of the complete leaf shows that the black in this instance was printed first and the red afterwards, since the rubric for the Gospel overlays the preceding punctuation mark in black.

Goff M-655. The Pierpont Morgan Library holds the only American copy. Single leaves are owned by Lilly and Yale and, at the time of publication of the Third Census, one leaf was owned by New York bookseller Hans P. Kraus. The Goff entry includes a list of bibliographical studies written on the Missale speciale from 1898 to 1964. This leaf, with others, was recovered from an early binding formerly in the collection of Baron Neufforge and later in the Pierpont Morgan Library. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


BESSARION (Cardinal). [Epistolae et orationes.Paris: Friburger, Gering, and Crantz, April 1471.]

Folio 1: Reuerendo & doctissimo patri magistro guilielmo ficheti . . . Bessario episcopus sabinensis cardinalis, patriarcha constantino-politanus nicenus; [sic]. . . . ("Letters and orations" on the war with the Turks with preface addressed to Guillaume Fichet.) 40 leaves, including the terminal blank; without the two preliminary leaves of manuscript or printed presentation found in some copies. Roman type, 23 lines to the page; the translated oration of Demosthenes partly in broken measure, with printed textual insertions at the right. Illuminated initial on folio 1 verso, other initials and paragraph marks in red or blue; printed initials heightened in yellow, now faded. Manuscript correction in text. Small 4to, folded in tens, 19th-century morocco, gilt edges, by P. Lefebvre. Leaves measure 205 x 139 mm. Folio 1 soiled, folios 1 and 2 with marginal repairs. With Richard Heber's book stamp and the signature and bookplate of J. T. Hand; a name on verso of terminal blank. (See illustration.)

Lilly Library call number: D 173 .B55 E64 vault

Bessarion, "Epistolae et orationes," Paris, 1471, showing
                        variant state of folio 1, line 6.

GKW 4184; Pellechet 2254. The fifth book from the first French press. Folio 1, line 6, varies from the text as given in GKW and Pellechet, the added word "nicenus" being printed after "(constantino-)politanus" and the omitted terminal punctuation mark being inserted in ink after "nicenus." The adjectival ending "nensis" which begins the previous line varies from GKW in having both letters "s" in the long form; the first "s" is a manuscript insertion. In line 4, the misprint "Bossarion" is corrected to "Bessarion" by hand, as in other copies.

The addition of the word "nicenus" to line 6 implies a resetting not recorded by GKW or Pellechet. The manuscript corrections noted in some copies by GKW, at line 5, provide for the insertion at that point of "nicenus" (the adjective for Bessarion's archbishopric of Nicaea) which is otherwise omitted and, in the Lilly copy, appended at the end.

Bessarion, a Greek monk and native of Trebizond, came to Italy to assist at the conferences attempting a reconciliation of the Latin and Greek communions. He took the Latin side and was made a cardinal by the Pope. Remaining in Italy, his quarters became a meeting place for scholars. His library was given to the Venetian Senate and formed the nucleus of the famous library of St. Mark's. Fichet met Bessarion in 1471, while the Cardinal was on a Papal mission to Louis XI, and later in the year went in his train to Italy, where the Cardinal died. Fichet and his friend Lapierre, also an official at the Sorbonne, were responsible for bringing Gering and his partners to Paris and thus for the introduction of their press, the first not only in the city but also in France.

The name written on the last leaf in a 15th-century hand is difficult to decipher, but appears to be "Maistre gualtre aubrey." Its placement indicates an owner's note rather than a presentation. Heber's book stamp on the front flyleaf is surmounted by a manuscript price, four guineas. This copy was sold in the first Heber sale, fourth day, No. 918, 14 April 1834, at Sotheby's. J. T. Hand's signature on the same flyleaf is dated 1835; his bookplate, with canting arms, is inside the front cover. Books owned by a "Mr. Hand" — whether J. T. Hand or not is not specified in the BM List . . . of. English Book Sales ... — were sold in May 1837.

Goff B-519 records no other copies owned in America. GKW records 16 European copies, and IGI reports a seventeenth copy in Verona. Even in Heber's day, the book was catalogued as "extremely rare" and time has not altered the justice of the description. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS. Orationes. Rome: Sweynheym and Pannartz, [between May and July] 1471.

Folio 1: Io. an. Episcopi Aleriensis in Corsica ad Paulum .II. Venetum Pont. Maximum Epistola. M. Tullii quot potuimus orationes Pater beatissime Paule .II. Venete Pont. Maximus [sic!] num [sic!] in corpus nuper congregauimus. . . . (Edited by Joannes Andreae, Bishop of Aleria.) 357 leaves (of 358), lacking the terminal blank; blank folio 7 is present. Roman type, 46 lines to the page; initial spaces without printed guides. Folio, 18th-century vellum with endpapers of the period, flyleaves preserved from an earlier binding or (more probably) inserted. Leaves measure 407 x 290 mm. Folios 1 and 357 repaired and soiled, light dampstains and foxmarks elsewhere. (See illustration.)

Lilly Library call number: PA 6279 .A2 A6 vault

Cicero, "Orationes," Rome, 1471, showing variant state of
                        folio 1, line 4.

Hain 5121, Pellechet 3688, GKW 6761; all three authorities quote the first two words of the fourth line, folio 1 recto, not as above ("Maximus num . . .") but as "Maxime unum . . ." (BMC IV, 13, and Reichling H 5121 (II, 151), do not print this line). Since "Maximus" does not agree with the required vocative, and "num" as an interrogative particle has no place here, the words as printed in the Lilly copy may only be regarded as a typographical error, the forms "Maxime" (agreeing with the vocative) and "unum" (agreeing with "corpus") being corrections. Correspondence with other owners has not so far brought to light any other copies with the same errors. The Pierpont Morgan Library and Southern Methodist University copies have the correct reading. Dr. Curt Bühler has kindly informed us that his copy lacks the leaf, and Dr. Giulia Bologna reports that the leaf is also lacking in the copy at the Biblioteca Trivulziana, Milan.

The form of the colophon in the Lilly copy agrees with Reichling and BMC, and not with Hain, the words "quicunque" and "pannartzque" being abbreviated. According to Dr. Bologna, the Trivulziana copy is similarly abbreviated.

Goff C-541 records only the three American copies mentioned above in addition to the Lilly copy, which comes from the library of Mr. J. K. Lilly, Jr.


CAESAR, CAIUS JULIUS. Commentarii. Venice: Nicolaus Jenson, 1471.

Folio 2: CAII IVLII CAESARIS COMMENTARIORVM LIBER PRIMVS DE BELLO GALLICO AB IPSO CONFECTO. (The seven books of The Gallic War, with eighth book by A. Hirtius; also, the six books on the Civil Wars attributed to various authors.) 148 leaves, complete with initial and terminal blanks, both on stubs. Roman type, 39 lines to the page; initial spaces without printed guides. Manuscript title on initial blank. Folio, quarter calf and beechen boards with leather clasps hinged to upper board, yellow edges; rebacked. Leaves measuring 326 x 230 mm. The sheets probably washed, although some light damp-stains remain. Ownership inscriptions at front and back defaced in ink.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6235 .A2 1471 vault

GKW 5864, the second printing of the Commentaries and a prime example of Jenson's roman type. The text is that which was edited by Joannes Andreae for the editio princeps printed by Sweynheym and Pannartz at Rome in 1469. The paper exhibits one uncommon feature. The chainlines are spaced on an average of 40 mm. apart except for the watermarked area, where the distance is reduced to 30 mm.; the watermark is a well-drawn, banded hunting horn suspended from a strap as usual.

The ownership inscriptions, so far as they can be made out, appear to read "Iste liber est Canonicor. Regulariū bte Virgīs in Tierūscavi [?]" and "Iste liber est Canonicor. Regulariū bte Marie Virgis in Tierūstain [?]." The place name may be Thiers, although it is difficult to account for the locative noun endings and no Augustinian foundation is recorded there.

Goff C-17 locates 12 other copies in America, two of them in private hands. Records at The Lilly Library indicate that this was the first complete book in Jenson's roman bought by Mr. Poole (in 1947) and one of his earliest significant incunable purchases. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


AUGUSTINUS, AURELIUS. Epistolae. [Strassburg: Mentelin, not after 1471.]

Folio 1: Liber. Epistolarum. Sancti. Augustini. Incipit. Feliciter. 264 leaves, including the terminal blank; folio 70 with only the right-hand column of the verso printed, the blank outer half cut away as often. Gathering GKW [g] misbound before gathering [b]; [d] 3, 9, 10, and [p] 9, 10, all on stubs. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 50 lines to the page. On folio 1, an initial in colors and gold with marginal extensions; sectional initials in red, text initials rubricated. The letters numbered in arabic numerals, in ink, but incorrectly in part because of the misbinding. Two early quiring systems, one in error for the same reason. Folio, 15th-century pigskin over wooden boards with metal centers, corners, and sites and catches for clasps; the clasps lacking. Tooled in blind. Evidence of chaining on back cover. Leaves measure 396 x 295 mm. Blank flyleaf of the same paper as text inserted at front. First and last leaves soiled, other marginal soiling. An inscription erased from folio 1 and a library stamp from the front flyleaf.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .A92 E64 vault

GKW 2905, editio princeps. BMC I, 55, quotes the evidence for the dating.

The binding, almost exactly Goldschmidt's basic Augsburg pattern, is in a good state of preservation. The spine has received the worst wear, leaving only traces of the decoration and the inked title at top; the second panel has been repaired with a plain piece of vellum, probably in the 19th century. A title label has been scraped off near the top of the front cover, affecting some of the design. The inscriptions on the brasses are of interest, the center pieces bearing the "IHS", the corners reading "Maria h(i)lf uns aus Not," and the receivers for the clasps "Ave Maria gratia. ..." The center pieces are dated 1464 and the corners 1462 and 1464. A scroll handtool, repeated as an inner border to the central panel on the front cover, reads "Maria hilf." Other significant tools used include a dragon or similar mythical beast, a double rose, and a palmette.

Goff A-1267, locating five others in the United States. The book was acquired by purchase in 1957.


BIBLIA LATINA. Mainz: Peter Schöffer, 23 February 1472.

Folio 1: Incipit epistola sancti iheronimi. . . . (The Vulgate version, with the prologues of St. Jerome.) 374 leaves (of 481), lacking a portion of the Old Testament and all but three leaves of the New. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 48 lines to the page, printed in red and black. Prologue and book initials painted in red, blue, and green, with penwork decorations, with varying degrees of skill; headlines in red. Chapter initials in red or blue, printed initials rubricated. Occasional marginalia. Two volumes in one, modern quarter white pigskin over wooden boards, red edges; metal sites and catches for two clasps, the clasps lacking. Spine chipped at top and bottom. Leaves measure 401 x 283 mm. Extensively soiled and repaired; many leaves with bottom margin crudely supplied and text restored. A monastic ownership inscription at end.

Lilly Library call number: BS 773 1472 vault

GKW 4211, a page-for-page reprint of Fust and Schöffer's Latin Bible of 1462, GKW 4204. The Old Testament lacks Vol. II, [m] 5 (Micah vii:2 to end, all of Nahum, Habakkuk to i:6), and all after [n] 10 (from I Maccabees xi:53). The three New Testament leaves are Jude from the twelfth verse, Apocalypsis to the end of Chapter vi, and Apocalypsis xxi: 21 to end.

The early marginalia are mostly terse notes or emphases; a longer note, on the Chaldean astrologers, occurs at Isaiah xlvii, 12 and 13. Marginal interpolations in the psalter, generally at the head of a Psalm, are mostly pious phrases or exhortations, perhaps for a lector. The terminal inscription, in book hand, records the ownership of the Cistercian monastery in Gross Burlo, Westphalia.

Goff B-536 records three other copies in American institutions and three owned privately. The Lilly copy was purchased in November, 1960.


STRABO. [Geographia. Venice:] Vindelinus de Spira, 1472.

Folio 1: Geographiam multos scripsisse nouimus. . . . Folio 5 verso, line 5: Strabonis Cappadocis seu Gnossii Amasini scriptoris celeberrimi de situ orbis liber primus. (The Latin translation by Guarinus Veronensis and Gregorius Tiphernas, edited by Joannes Andreae, Bishop of Aleria.) 217 leaves (of 219), lacking the initial and terminal blanks. Roman type, with a few lines of Greek; 51 lines to the page, printed initial guides. Book initials painted in red or blue, paragraph marks in red and blue marking quotations. A later collation system in red ink in the lower corners. Folio, 18th-century sprinkled calf, sprinkled edges. Hinges cracked, inserted flyleaves loose. Top margin trimmed short, leaves measuring 365 x 257 mm. A painted coat of arms on folio 5.

Lilly Library call number: G 87 .S87 1472 vault

BMC V, 161. Based on the Sweynheym and Pannartz edition, Rome, 1469. Authorities differ as to which portions of the text were translated by Guarinus and which by Gregorius; the general opinion seems to be that Guarinus left the last seven books untranslated and that these were done by Gregorius, as indicated in the terminal table.

The coat of arms — bendy of six, gules and argent, surmounted with a lion rampant, or — is apparently of early date. It is attended rather than supported by two large, frolicking "cherubs" in Renaissance costume. A bookseller's or auctioneer's catalogue description, pasted in at front, probably refers to this copy; it is there described as the Sunderland copy. Two shelf marks bear this out, the older in ink on the verso of the free front endpaper, the more recent in pencil inside the front cover. While the letters and digits match the samples given by De Ricci, English Collectors . . . , page 39, the letter form of the initial "B" in the older mark does not match De Ricci's exactly.

Goff S-794 reports 15 copies in American institutions and one in private hands. The Lilly copy is from the Mendel collection.


VALTURIUS, ROBERTUS. [De re militari.] Verona: Joannes "Nicolai", 1472.

Folio 1: ELENCHVS ET INDEX RErum militarium ....262 leaves, complete with all blanks. Roman type, 37 lines to the page; more than 100 figures, sometimes two or more to the page, some captioned. Folios 1 and 7 with manuscript decorated initials and borders, book initials illuminated, chapter initials in red or blue with a few in black (in a later hand). Insertions in tables, manuscript title on folio 7, and book and chapter headings in later hands. A pagination system from folio 7, marginalia of various periods. Folio, modern full morocco, gilt edges, signed Binda-Milano. Leaves measure 320 x 223 mm., the trim affecting one illustration and a number of marginalia. First and last leaves soiled, minor soiling elsewhere. A painted 16th-century coat of arms on folio 7.

Lilly Library call number: U 101 .V2 vault

BMC VII, 948; editio princeps. The first work printed at Verona, noted for the illustrations of military engines for use by land and sea, supposedly after designs by Matteo de' Pasti. Except in the colophon of this book, the printer is nowhere further identified. Speculation as to whether "John, born in Verona, the son of the surgeon and physician Nicolas," was the same person as the Giovanni Alvise who set up the second press at Verona in 1478, rests largely on similarity of type and illustration.

The book is dedicated to Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini as Sigismund I, a valiant soldier whose eventual defeats were not so much due to lack of skill as to a habit of getting embroiled with much more powerful neighbors. He was one of the few such able men to campaign against the Turks in Greece, and died in 1468, before the printing of this work.

Although the author displays a greater fund of classical learning, particularly in Greek, than is to be found in the De re militari of the ancient Vegetius (first printed, without illustrations, a year or so later), the text has never rivaled that of Vegetius in importance or influence. The illustrations, however, are of the greatest interest. Apart from some grotesqueries such as the monster-shaped assault battery on the recto of [r] 10, they display serviceable implements of war and methods of military engineering in profusion. An unusual and controversial illustration appears on the verso of [t] 12, where the figures of a bombard and an elbowed mortar appear with two flaming bombs; the printed caption credits Malatesta with the invention of a method for firing explosive missiles from cannon at least a century before the practice was generally developed.

The marginalia are most frequent in the third book (on astrology) and the fifth (on the military virtues). Both sets are in early hands, the first in a fine, small cursive, the second in a bolder and more separated writing. Most entries are marginal references and emphases; a few of the first set are short, adverse comments on astrology.

The illuminated initials and borders feature the same white vine-like interwinings against blue, red, and green backgrounds as were noted in the first and second editions of The City of God and Pliny's Natural History. The arms on folio 7 recto are clumsily drawn; per fess or and gules, a bend azure, bordered or, with three mullets argent, in chief an eagle sable, displayed, in base an eagle's leg erased à la cuisse or. Beneath the lower half of this coat may be seen the painted-over outlines of another charge. An inscription at the head of folio 1, dated 1662, is unfortunately otherwise indecipherable.

Goff V-88 records 14 American institutional owners and one private one. To these the Lilly copy should now be added, as it was unfortunately overlooked in the report to the Census. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


[SENSENSCHMIDT, JOHANN, and HEINRICH KEFER. Advertisement in Latin for their edition of the Pantheologia or Summa of Rainerus de Pisis, edited by Jacobus Florentinus.] Nuremberg: Sensenschmidt and Kefer, in use after 8 April 1473.]

Printed on one side only of a single leaf of vellum. Rounded gothic type, 32 lines. First initial rubricated. Measures 281 x 198-199 mm. The impression uneven.

Lilly Library call number: Z 2223 .S3 vault

Pollard and Ehrman, The Distribution of Books by Catalogue . . . (Roxburghe Club, 1965), Broadsides and Advertisements concerning the Book Trade, No. 12; Einblattdrucke des XV. Jahrhunderts, No. 1313. Reproductions will be found in Burger, Buchhändleranzeigen, Plate 12, and in Catalogue 92, Einblattdrucke, of the firm of Jacques Rosenthal, Munich, No. 7.

Rainerus de Pisis, a Dominican, died in 1351 "non sine fama sanctitatis," according to Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum; his work was an alphabetical compilation on doctrine drawn from earlier writers. Specifically for learned reference, it did not have the circulation of more generally used "postilla" but yet was published in six or seven different editions during the incunable period.

The present advertisement was for the use of the traveling booksellers of the period, for at the end prospective buyers are invited to repair "ad hospiciū . . . subscriptum" to view the text; unfortunately, no inn or meeting place is here subscribed. The publishers do not stint their praise of the work any more than publishers do nowadays. It is recommended for teaching beginners, for refreshing the interest of more advanced students, and for providing the most learned with an inexhaustible font of doctrine, and it is described as the heart and marrow of the literature of sacred theology. The quality and completeness of the indexing is also mentioned.

Goff S-443 locates four copies in America, at Harvard, Lilly, Newberry, and the Pierpont Morgan Library, all except the first on vellum. Pollard and Ehrman add three European institutional owners. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


[IMITATIO CHRISTI, with other religious tracts. Augsburg:] Günther Zainer, [before 5 June 1473.]

Folio 111: Incipit libellus consolatorius ad instructionem deuotorum Cuius primum capitulum est de imitatione christi et contemptu damni vanitatum mundi. Printed general title for the collection on slip approximately 91 x 208 mm. inserted at front. 235 leaves (of 236, not 234 as in Hain, see below); lacking the blank leaf called for by Hain (folio 199), here excised. Rounded gothic type, 33 to 35 lines to the page, some tables in 2 columns. Initials painted in red. Folio, contemporary morocco tooled in blind, metal studs at corners and centers of both covers, one metal and leather clasp hinged at center of the lower board, fore-edge with reference tabs for nine sections. Resewn, very skillfully repaired. Leaves measure 305 x 210 mm. Some marginal soiling. Bookplate of J. K. Lilly, Jr.

Lilly Library call number: BR 60 .O7 vault

Hain *8589, editio princeps of De imitatione christi; spelling of Zainer's first name corrected in ink in the colophon to the Imitatio. This, and the other tracts contained in this copy, were also offered separately; BMC II, 318-319, records seven sections purchased or given to the Museum at various times. Goff at H-192, following Hain, describes the book as being in 11 sections or parts and reports locations on each separately, in the order of their appearance on the general title, as H-192, H-179, A-1225, A-1333, A-1337, I-4, E-106, P-1001, G-221, A-1089; the total of 11 is reached by assigning Parts II and III to H-179. This part contains Hieronymus, De essentia divinitatis, and Thomas Aquinas, De articulis fidei etc., but since the Aquinas begins on the verso of a leaf, the section could hardly be separated. The Augustinian Soliloquium and Speculum peccatoris are one bibliographical unit also, collating [1-210 38], while Goff lists them as separate Parts V and VI. However, since Harvard and Illinois each have one without the other, they were either issued separately or were parted; the second piece starts on the recto of leaf 4 of a signature of 8. Suffice it to say that the Lilly copy is complete and contains nine units, listed below in the order of titles given in the general title:

  1. Hieronymus, De viris illustribus
  2. Hieronymus, De essentia divinitatis, with Aquinas, De articulis fidei etc.
  3. Augustinus, De animae quantitate
  4. Augustinus (Pseudo-Augustinus?) Soliloquium Libri II, the rubricator correctly beginning "Voluenti (not 'Solventi' as in Goff) mihi multa . . . ," with Augustinus, Speculum peccatoris
  5. (Thomas à Kempis?), De imitatione christi
  6. Errores judaeorum, with Probationes novi testamenti
  7. (Bartolus de Saxoferrato?), Processus iudiciarius
  8. Johannes Gerson, Donatus . . . per allegoriam traductus
  9. De arte moriendi

In the present copy, the moralization of Donatus follows De arte moriendi. This Donatus moralisatus was inserted later; the paper is washed to a whiteness not found elsewhere in the book, the first page is headed with a foliation or serial number "800" in a later hand, and there is no reference tab on the fore-edge. Also, on the front lining-paper, there is an inscription in a late 15th-century hand, reading, with contractions spelled out, "Ultimus liber Nobilissimus de arte moriendi," implying that at that time De arte moriendi was the last title in the book. In further proof is an inked foliation system, perhaps from the 18th century, which ends with the last leaf of De arte moriendi.

The variance of two leaves from Hain's count is caused by the text of the Processus iudiciarius, which in this copy consists of nine leaves instead of seven as reported by Hain, who allocates only folios 200-206 to this text. In this respect the Lilly copy agrees with the separate issue of the Processus recorded in BMC II, which reports nine leaves present and gives Hain's foliation without comment. Just to even things up, however, two other sections of the collated text agree with Hain in number of leaves and disagree with BMC in folding and number. The BM separate issue of De arte moriendi is described as having 23 leaves, the last two blank, folded [a]10 [b]12+1; the Lilly copy has 21 leaves (as in Hain) folded in two gatherings of 10 and 12, the fifth leaf excised in the second gathering. The BMC reports the separate issue of Donatus moralisatus as in a single gathering of eight leaves, the last blank; the Lilly copy has seven leaves in a single gathering of six with an insert between leaves three and four.

The binding exhibits many of the characteristics of Augsburg bindings of the period, and most probably is from the workshop of Ambrosius Keller (Goldschmidt, Gothic and Renaissance Bookbindings, No. 8), exhibiting twelve impressions of his small, circular, owl handtool. The basic design of the covers is worked with a broad line roll, which is used for a frame, a double border, and to outline a central panel. In addition to the owl, distinctive handtools used include a palmette, four circular tools with the emblems of the Evangelists, a lozenge with a double fleur-de-lys, and a small rosette. The central panel is diapered with a circular tool, the impressions interwoven with considerable skill, and the spine is decorated with palmettes. One minor sophistication may date the execution of the binding as late as the 1480's; this is the mitre executed between the corners of a border and the central panel, not always successfully joined. The metal bosses in some instances cover the decoration and may be an afterthought. The clasp site, the catch, and the clasp plate are stamped with shortened versions of the name of the Virgin. The leather repairs are executed skillfully by somebody familiar with modern techniques of, and attitudes toward, fine restoration.

The endpapers — or more properly, the lining papers and flyleaves — present a curious problem, not as to source but as to insertion. The front lining paper and flyleaf and the back flyleaf all exhibit watermarks present in the paper of the text, larger but very similar versions of the distinctive ox-head watermarks found in Bofarull y Sans, Animals in Watermarks, 101 and 94, assigned to Augsburg. The lining of the back cover is apparently a proof or waste sheet from a different text, either in Zainer's 118-mm./20-lines type used in the text, or possibly in the 120-mm./20-lines type used by or for Ambrosius Keller in his 1479 Aristotle; BMC II, 361, describes the two types as indistinguishable. Unfortunately the printed recto is pasted down, the blank verso showing. Characteristic letters can be identified and approximate measurements taken, but there is not enough text visible to identify the work except to say that it is not from any of the tracts here bound together.

The front lining paper (with the early inscription noted above) is pasted over two other papers, and a portion of the middle piece of paper, with a few letters of a 15th- or 16th-century inscription, shows through a repaired portion of the outer sheet; the back flyleaf has been remargined and further repaired, and has damp markings not traceable elsewhere. It is possible that the front lining paper was once a flyleaf, excised and pasted down over the middle leaf at an unknown period, and that the back flyleaf was removed from the lining of a binding and inserted in modern times.

Goff, in the Third Census, locates copies of the collected edition in the note to H-192, and also locates them as separate works, as above. A check of the pertinent entries as listed in the first paragraph of this note reveals only seven American owners of the complete group; whether these are separate pieces or collected in one volume is not recorded. The Lilly copy is complete, but the second section, the De essentia divinitatis of St. Jerome with the De articulis fidei etc. of Aquinas (Goff H-179) was not reported to the Census. From the library of J. K. Lilly, Jr.; the book was purchased by him from Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.


BOETHIUS. De consolatione philosophiae. Nuremberg: Anton Koberger, 24 July 1473.

Folio 8: Anity Manly Torquati Seuerini Boety . . . de consolatione philosophie liber primus incipit. . . . Line 18: Hie hebt sich an das puech von dem trost der weissheit. . . . (On the consolation of philosophy in the original Latin with the German translation of Peter von Kastel and appended Latin commentary incorrectly attributed to St. Thomas Aquinas.) 192 leaves (of 200) ; lacking 7 of the 8 blanks, folio 6 supplied from a copy of the 1476 edition (GKW 4526). Rounded gothic type, a dotted "y" used in Latin text for "ii" and in German text for "y"; Latin text set 23 lines to the page, German translation in 46 lines, and Latin commentary in 2 columns and 47 lines. Decorated manuscript initials at folios 8 and 12, the Boethian text otherwise unrubricated; some colored initials in the commentary. Book identifications and marginalia in an early book hand, other marginalia in a smaller contemporary hand, modern penciled foliation. Folio, 19th-century straight-grain morocco, filigree stamps on covers, gilt edges. Leaves measure 399 x 278 mm., the trim affecting some marginalia. First leaf soiled and wormed, some marginal repairs. With the bookplate of the Duke of Sussex.

Lilly Library call number: B 659 .C2 1473 vault

GKW 4573, the first printing of the German translation. GKW attributes the commentary to Thomas Waleys (Wallensis, Valois), a Welch Dominican. DNB and Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum describe it as with equal probability the work of another Thomas anglus, Thomas de Jorz (Joyce), a Dominican and Cardinal who died in 1310, and who had quite possibly met Aquinas.

The marginalia include highly contracted references, in one instance to Acts xx:35 — "It is more blessed to give. ..." A longer note at the first page of the commentary on the fourth book is shaved, but enough remains to make clear the reference to the wings promised by Philosophy at the end of the third book. There are a number of emphases both in text and marginally.

The records of the dispersal of the Duke of Sussex's library show that this title was sold on the first day of the fifth part of the sale, 22 April 1845, as Lot 195. Shortly afterwards on the same day, Lot 234, Cicero's Epistolae ad familiares (Milan, 1476), went under the hammer. The two books, after more than a century’s separation, are again under the same roof at Lilly (See No. 50).

Goff B-816 records eight other copies in America, all in institutional libraries. The Lilly copy was purchased in New York in 1958 with Special Collections funds.


SOLINUS, CAIUS JULIUS. [Polyhistor.] Venice: Jenson, 1473.

Folio 2: IVLII SOLINI DE SITV ET MEMORABILIBVS ORBIS CAPITVLA. 67 leaves (of 68), lacking the initial blank; terminal blank and blank folio 4 present. Roman type, 33 lines to the page, printed initial guides. Three initials supplied at folios 2, 30, and 31; otherwise unrubricated. Inscription at folio 2 recto, penciled note in Dutch on back endpaper. 4to, gathered in eights and one twelve, 18th-century dull red morocco, full gilt spine, covers with rolled frames and fleuron corners, gilt edges; well preserved. Leaves measure 263 x 188 mm. Folios 2 and 68 soiled, others with light stains. With the bookplate of Bernardo Mendel.

Lilly Library call number: G 113 .S7 1473 vault

BMC V, 173; probably the first printing. Solinus collected the "marvels" of the known and surmised world related by classical authors, and his compendium was reprinted through at least two centuries. Its importance in the history of discovery rests largely upon the fact that its popularity indicates the continuing belief in the fabulous during that period.

Bound for the eighth Earl of Pembroke, and further identified as his property by the faint red press mark, according to De Ricci's English Collectors. . . . The Earl's binder stands accused of taking an inordinate trim, cutting two letters from a very bold marginal manuscript note on folio 30 verso. The Dutch note at the end identifies this copy as the one sold as Lot 182 in the 14th Earl's sale at Sotheby's "26 June" (actually 25 June) 1914, incorrectly describes the book as complete and mentions blank folio 4 (not in Hain) and the inscription on the opening page of text. It is signed "J.S." The inscription at front gives an imprint and refers the reader to the colophon.

Goff S-615 lists 14 other institutional owners and two private owners in America. From the Mendel collection.


ZACHARIAS CHRYSOPOLITANUS. Unum ex quatuor, seu concordia evangelistarum. [Strassburg: " C. W., Civis Argentinensis,"] 1473.

Folio 11, here bound as folio 1: De excellencia euangelii. . . . ("One from four," a Gospel harmony.) 181 leaves (of 182), lacking the blank folio 10. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 52 lines to the page. Initials and paragraph marks painted in red, printed initials rubricated. Bound with, and preceding, the De proprietate sermonum of Hrabanus Maurus (see No. 14). Leaves measure 412 x 288 mm.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .Z3 vault

BMC I, 81; in the present copy the tables, gathering [a]10 in BMC's collation, are bound at the end. The blank leaf [a] 10 has been excised. An erroneous author and date are assigned to the title, in manuscript, on an inserted flyleaf. Both author and date, the latter in arabic numerals, are actually given in the colophon.

A description of the monastic binding will be found under Hrabanus Maurus, as above.

This book is of considerable rarity in America, and there is some uncertainty about the author's identity. The locative "Chrysopolitanus" has been taken to mean Besançon or a city in Asia Minor, but more probably means Goldsborough in Yorkshire, from which some scholars believe Zacharias emigrated to France. Greater confusion, unresolved, seems to cloak the identity of the Ammonius who authored the patristic harmony of which the work by Zacharias is an extension.

Goff Z-13 reports only three other copies in the United States, at Harvard (Honeywell deposit), the Pierpont Morgan Library, and the Library Company of Philadelphia.


HERODOTUS. Historiae. Venice: Jacobus Rubeus,] 1474.

Folio 2, here bound as the fifth leaf present: Herodoti Halicarnasei Historiarum Liber Primus. (Translated from the Greek by Laurentius Valla.) 259 leaves (of 260), lacking the initial blank; folios 257-260 here misbound at front. Roman type, 35 lines to the page; printed initial guides. Folio 2 recto with border decorations in red, blue, green, and gold, a coat of arms in bottom margin; book initials painted in the same colors and gold, sectional initials in blue (faded). Many marginalia in at least two hands, mostly erased beyond deciphering. Small folio, black morocco, with binder's ticket "Breth-erton, ligavit 1850." Leaves measure 280 x 206 mm. Washed, the process affecting the coat of arms and some initials; marginalia and decorations shaved. Repairs to folio 2, which is still heavily soiled. With the bookplate of J.K. Lilly, Jr.

Lilly Library call number: PA 4002 .A21 1474 vault

BMC V, 213-214; the first printing of this translation. Leaves 257-260, bound at front, print the letter of Benedictus Borgnolus to the Doge Marcellus. A fortunate wormhole in the first of these leaves, matching one in the last leaf of text as bound, guarantees that these four leaves are not supplied from another copy.

Not all the harm done to this volume can be charged to Bretherton, but sufficient guilt rests on his head. The repair of folio 2 was in part made necessary by an injudicious trial trim, and the obscuring of the arms and marginalia is the result of injudicious washing. Enough of the arms is left to guess at a blazon of quarterly, 1 and 4 azure, an increscent or, 2 and 3 chequy argent and gules.

The name Puttick and date 1849 appearing inside the front cover refers to the firm of auctioneers, Puttick and Simpson of London. The British Museum List ... of English Book Sales records seven book sales run by the firm during 1849, in six of which this book might have appeared; or the date may record when it was delivered by Puttick and Simpson to Bretherton for binding.

Goff H-88 reports eight other copies in American institutions and two (one imperfect) in private hands. From the library of J. K. Lilly, Jr.; purchased by him from Dr. A. S. W. Rosenbach.


ALBERTUS MAGNUS. [Mariale, sive Super evangelium Missus est quaestiones ccxxx. Strassburg: Mentelin, not after 1474.]

Folio 1: INCIPIT PROLOGVS IN OPVS VIRGINIS GLORIOSE. . . . Folio 3: MISSVS EST ANGELVS GABRIEL. ("Two hundred thirty questions on the Gospel 'Missus est,'" i.e., Luke i:26, the Annunciation.) Complete in 66 leaves. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 61 lines to the page. Manuscript colored initial in red, pink, and green at folio 1, another sketched but not colored at folio 3; other initials in various colors, printed initials rubricated. Pious inscription, probably by the rubricator, at end. Foliated in a later hand. Folio, full dark green oasis niger, by Donnelley of Chicago. A tall copy, leaves measuring 414 x 280 mm. Folio 1 soiled, with minor repairs. The leaves, or some of them, may have been washed. Two library stamps.

Lilly Library call number: BT 600 .A5 V6 vault

GKW 680; this text beginning "Clara est et que numquam marcescit sapientia," not to be confused with the De laudibus B. Virginis libri xii sometimes attributed to Albertus Magnus. The De laudibus attribution is queried by GKW, and the title is definitely cast out of the canon by Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum.

The smaller painted initials are characterized by extravagant descenders and occasional decoration of the letter "P", perhaps an indication that that initial formed part of the rubricator's name. The terminal inscription in Latin is brief: "Praise be to God, peace to the living and eternal rest to the dead."

Correspondence at Lilly states that, when bought by Mr. Poole, the book was in a half-leather binding. Accompanying the correspondence is a bookplate removed from that binding, with the monogram of T. R. Bent and subscript motto, "Bent not broken." The motto is not in Fairbairn. Library stamps at folios 44 and 66 are those of the St. Bride Foundation's Passmore Edwards Library, one of the London foundations of the Cornish journalist and philanthopist, John Passmore Edwards.

Goff A-272 lists eight other American owners, all institutions. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


PARALDUS, GUILLELMUS. Summa de vitiis. [Basle: Berthold Ruppel, about 1474.]

Folio 1: Incipiunt capitula summe seu tractatus de viciis.... ("Compendium on the vices.") 352 leaves, complete with terminal blank. Rounded gothic type, 34 lines to the page. With a penciled modern foliation. Folio, 16th-century calf over wooden boards, decorated in blind, metal bosses and corners; rebacked, a former spine mounted, later endpapers inserted. Two metal and leather clasps hinged on lower cover. Leaves measure 286 x 210 mm. Initial and terminal leaves stained, minor foxing and soiling elsewhere. Inscriptions and other marks of ownership at front.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .G9 S9 vault

BMC III, 715. The BMC introductory section on Ruppel's productions notes that he has been identified with the "Bertholff von Hannauwe" who testified in the suit of Fust vs. Gutenberg in 1455. Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum, I, 132, refutes at length the statement found in this book and elsewhere that the author, Paraldus, was Bishop of Lyons. He was famous for both works and piety in 13th-century France.

The front cover of the binding has a broad stamped border of crescents and foliage on three sides of a panel embellished with a floral border of small, narrow, rectangular tools. The center of the panel has a large saltire between four large, diamond-shaped, double fleur-de-lys tools. The hinge side of the border is filled with scroll tools reading "Maria," which also form the border of the diapered back cover. Mounting has obscured the impressions on the spine, but enough remains to show traces of a complicated 18th-century design.

The earliest notice of ownership is an 18th-century inscription on folio 1 recording this copy's presence in the library of a Franciscan foundation in Würzburg — a Conventual, or community living under a mitigated rule, named Holy Cross. Apparently next in chronological order is a faint signature in the fore margin of folio 1, which under ultra-violet light reveals the name "Ad. A. Sechey." Inside the front cover, at upper left, is a small oval stamp with monogram "H.L." At the bottom, center, is the book label of George Dunn of Woolley Hall, whose important collection of incunabula was dispersed in four sales at Sotheby's, 1913-1917. At the lower left is the blue stamp of the Bundesdenkmalamt (the Austrian art export control) ; above this, in pencil, is an abbreviated inscription "A 209 S de R (for Seymour de Ricci?) 29.I.25."

Goff P-89 reports four copies owned by other institutions, one in the hands of a private owner, and one in the stock of New York bookseller Hans P. Kraus. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


RODERICUS SANCIUS ZAMORENSIS (alias Rodrigo Sánchez de Arévalo et aliis diversis). Speculum vitae humanae ("Mirror of Human Life"). Paris: Friburger, Gering, and Crantz, 1 August 1475.

Folio 2: Ad sanctissimum et beatissimum dominum dominum Paulum secundum pontificem maximum; liber incipit dictus Speculum humane vite. 140 leaves (of 142), lacking blank folios 1 and 138. Semi-gothic type, 32 lines to the page, some printed initial guides. One initial painted in red and blue, other initials and paragraph marks in red, printed initials heightened in yellow. Some of these manuscript insertions crude or blotted. Two marginalia, traces of an early foliation. Small folio, 19th-century calf over wooden boards lined with vellum, covers diapered in blind in a derivation of the monastic ties design, embellished with Italianate tools; hinges cracked. Leaves measure 300 x 208 mm. Folio 2 remargined, possibly with one of the missing blanks (identified by characteristic contracted chainlines at the fore-edge) ; other minor repairs. Owner's inscription at end, coat of arms at folio 2, bookplate of Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D.

Lilly Library call number: HN 11 .S3 1475 vault

BMC VIII, 7. The author was a 15th-century cleric of an important Spanish family. The first book covers profane occupations and arts, and the second discusses the prerogatives and duties of the clergy. The whole is a sociological and historical document not only of sober interest but often of livelier attributes, as in the author's thoughts upon the "damnable and dangerous" profession of the lawyer and the brutalizing effects of a life at sea.

The great variation in the execution and the condition of the manuscript initials is due to later and inexpert attempts to embellish portions of the text in water-color which had been left unfinished by the contemporary worker in tempera. The coat of arms on folio 2 recto (azure, a chevron or [tarnished] between three ermine spots) is not very skillfully drawn. The book is unusual for the amount of smearing and dropped colors.

The two marginalia, in a difficult early hand, are a cross-reference and a correction of a reference in text. The ornate and paraphed signature at the end might be read "Fosscandi" or perhaps "Losscandi," while, among the abbreviated terms which follow, only the titles "doctor vicarius" can be transcribed with certainty. Dr. Nichols' bookplate, a beautifully etched view of an Alhambra-like library, is signed "S.L.S. 1905," probably Sidney L. Smith (1845- ?), American etcher and engraver.

Goff R-223 establishes this edition of the Speculum as quite rare in America, reporting only two other copies, at the Chapin Library of Williams College and the Pierpont Morgan Library. The Lilly copy was purchased by Mr. Poole in 1954 and was acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


THOMAS AQUINAS. [Catena aurea.] Nuremberg: Koberger, 8 August 1475.

Folio 2: Diui Thome aquinatis continuum in librum euangelii secundum Matheum. ("The Golden Chain," a series of commentaries on the four Gospels.) 433 leaves (of 436), lacking blank folios 1, 207 (roughly excised), and 436. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 53 lines to the page. Four magnificant illuminated initials, the first with a miniature painting; other initials and paragraph marks in red or blue, printed initials rubricated. Contemporary manuscript headlines in red through the commentary on Luke, later headlines in black for the commentary on John. Some units of a contemporary quiring system survive. Large folio, 16th-century calf stamped and tooled in blind, yellow edges; ten metal bosses and two clasps (hinged on lower cover) removed, mark of a chain staple at bottom of front cover. Rebacked, with other restoration, in the early 19th century. A book truly worthy of the adjective "monumental," the leaves measuring 482 x 326 mm. Folio 2 repaired, soiled, in on a stub; only minor soiling and staining elsewhere. Owner's inscription at front.

Lilly Library call number: BS 2335 .T6 1475 vault

BMC II, 413; the colophon with the misprint "Euangelistis" as in Hain * 1331, for "Euangelistas" as in BMC.

Although certain features of the binding suggest that it is to be dated late in the 16th century, the pattern of the front cover, a bordered floral diaper, is very close to the Nuremberg design of the late 15 th and early 16th centuries. However, the ragged staff border has here deteriorated into a weak, serpentine, leafy branch, and the regular semé of large and small rosettes on the back cover is not usual.

The first illuminated initial, at folio 2 (the beginning of the commentary on Matthew), is an "S" consisting of a dragon-type grotesque worked in reddish purple and blue against a gold background, with a marginal extensor reaching below the text. In the upper loop are two hills and a blue sky, with God the Father looking down from a cloud at right, depicted to the waist in a red robe, haloed in gold, with hands at prayer. In the lower loop St. Thomas kneels at prayer before an altar; he is also haloed in gold, and is robed in white with a red cloak and blue collar. Behind him kneels a tonsured acolyte in blue. To their left is a wall, and beyond that green fields. The decoration of the side of the altar is rather clumsily executed, while the rest of the miniature displays more skill. The gold is cracked but not chipped.

The decoration of the "R" at the head of Mark is in blue with decoration and shading in white; the design worked lightly on the gold is somewhat obscured as in the two later initials, but the surface is in better condition in all of these than in the first initial. The "I" at the head of Luke is in a vivid green outlined and shaded in yellow. The "D" starting the commentary on John is again in blue with white decoration but has a finial in green elaborating the bottom of the riser. The workmanship of all four initials is very professional and assured.

The ownership inscription inside the front cover is the same "Ex libris Hans Meyer Leipzig" found in the Lilly copy of the 1479 Augustinus De civitate dei. Pasted inside the same cover is an incomplete printed catalogue description in German of this title, though possibly not of this copy.

Goff T-227 lists three other owners in the United States — Huntington, the Library of Congress, and Newberry — and one in Canada, the Bibliotheque Saint-Sulpice of Montreal. The book was purchased for the Department of Special Collections, Indiana University Libraries, in 1957. While Lilly is proud to hold this title, it is also to be hoped that someday the Library may acquire incunable editions of other famous titles by the Doctor Angelicus as well.


AUGUSTINUS, AURELIUS. [De civitate dei.] Venice: Jenson, 2 October 1475.

Folio 2: Aurelii augustini de ciuitate dei primi libri incipiunt rubrice. 304 leaves (of 306), lacking the two terminal blanks; the initial blank is present on a stub. Rounded gothic type in text, headlines in roman majuscules; 2 columns and 46 lines to the page, printed initial guides. Manuscript title in a 16th-century hand on initial blank, traces of a later quiring system; a modern quiring system and foliation in pencil. Small folio in eights and tens, modern orange oasis niger, arms on cover in gold; edges with gilding from a previous binding. Covers warped. Leaves measure 288 x 208 mm. First leaf soiled, others with minor repairs and washed. With the book label, bookplate, and armorial binding stamp of C. H. St. John Hornby, founder of the Ashendene Press.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .A92 C58 1475 vault

GKW 2879, in the state without the word "gallico" modifying Jenson's name in the colophon. A note in pencil at front states that the book was bound by W. H. Smith & Co. (the bindery for the Ashendene Press) "under D. Cockerell's directorship," and the stamp "WHS" in monogram appears on the bottom turn-in of the back cover.

Goff A-1235, locating 29 other American private and institutional owners. This copy, bought from New York bookseller Philip C. Duschnes (his Catalogue No. 124), was the first incunable edition of De civitate dei to be purchased for the Department of Special Collections of the Indiana University Libraries, then housed at the Main Library on the Bloomington campus.


HERODOTUS. Historiae. Rome: Arnoldus Pannartz, 1475.

Folio 2: Tabula libri Herodoti. Folio 25: Herodoti historici Incipit. Laurentii Vallae. conuersio de Graeco in Latinum. (Valla's Latin translation, edited by Joannes Andreae, Bishop of Aleria.) 245 leaves (of 246), lacking the initial blank. Roman type, 38 lines to the page; spaces for book initials. Copious marginalia in several hands of varying dates, many shaved or faded. Some headlines and foliation supplied. Folio, 18th-century limp vellum, lettered in ink on spine, sprinkled edges. Covers soiled, front cover wormed. First and last three leaves repaired expertly. Minor stains and soiling. A 19th-century owner's name in three places.

Lilly Library call number: PA 4002 .A21 1475

BMC IV, 61; with the heading as above at folio 25, not as in Hain. The connection of Sweynheym and Pannartz, according to BMC, ended in 1473; late in 1474 Pannartz began printing on his own, but kept going only until 1476. In this piece he had the editorial services of the Bishop of Aleria, who had worked for the partnership in the same capacity.

The setting of the text, with very few indents and no other marginal locator devices, probably accounts for the many manuscript notes, most of which are marginal references. One early annotator, with a bold hand, occasionally adds a brief comment on a personality or custom. Longer comments in other hands are either faded or partly cut away. The dating of the various hands would run from the 15th to the 17th century, and all the annotators had done their work before the book was put in the present binding. The name of the later owner who inscribed the book three times is G. T. Blondeau.

Goff H-89 records 12 other copies owned by ten American institutions, and one copy in private hands. The Lilly Library copy was acquired with the Poole collection.


BEDA (the Venerable Bede). Historia ecclesiastica gentis anglorum. [Strassburg: Heinrich Eggestein, between 1475 and 1478.]

Folio 1: Gloriosissimo regi. Cioluuleo beda famulus cristi et presbiter. . . . Folio 2 verso: Incipit liber primus hystorie ecclesiastice gestis [!] anglorum. ("Ecclesiastical History of the English People.") 97 leaves (of 98), lacking the terminal blank. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 40 lines to the page. Initials painted in red, extensive marginalia in one contemporary hand. Small folio, 16th-century quarter pigskin over wooden boards, tooled in blind, with two clasps hinged on the lower cover, yellow edges. Lining papers supplied from a stenciled liturgical text with music. Spine repaired. Leaves measure 289 x 204 mm. Some light staining, partly from running of the edge tint. A modern ownership stamp erased; with the bookplate of J. K. Lilly, Jr.

Lilly Library call number: BR 746 .B5 1475 vault

GKW 3756; editio princeps. The most important mediaeval work on the early English Christian church. Born at a critical period when the informality of the Celtic church was undergoing regularization by the adherents of Rome, Bede was of the Roman party yet recorded faithfully and with charity the gesta of the 7th-century Celtic church from sources no longer available.

The marginalia, all in the same hand with a curious alternative "e" whose downstroke extends so far as to resemble a modern "p", are of considerable interest. The most frequent notes are corrections of the typographical and grammatical errors in which the text abounds. Some of these are obvious, while others, such as the variant uses of "voluptas" and "voluntas" in Gregory's answer to the eighth interrogation of Augustus (Book I, Chapter xxvii), indicates an acquaintance with another and purer text. Where a theological or liturgical question is involved, a very brief digest of, or opinion on, the matter often appears. Book V, Chapters xii (on a miracle) and xxi (on the date of Easter) have passages marked with the phrase "Arrige aures ..." — literally, "Lift up your ears ..." — the first addressed in the vocative, "monache." These passages may have been marked for a lector, but whether or no, there seems little doubt that the text was prepared carefully for use in religious instruction, probably in the cloister.

The book presents a variety of watermarks, occasionally within the same gathering. There are three readily discernible variations of the oxhead and also an anchor, a capital P with floweret, and a crown surmounted by a cross. The blind decoration of the binding, in addition to a three-line roll, has two hand tools on the front cover — a circular floral grotesque and a crowned imperial two-headed eagle. A plain paper label is pasted at the top of the front cover, possibly to strengthen the joining of the two boards from which the cover is made.

Goff B-293 records ten other institutional owners and two private owners in the United States. The Lilly Library copy is from the collection of J. K. Lilly, Jr., with his bookplate. Mr. Lilly purchased it from Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.


LANDRECHTBUCH (Schwabenspiegel). [Augsburg: Zainer, between 1475 and 1480.]

Folio 7: Hie hept sich an das lantrecht büch hie nach geschriben. 103 leaves (of 110), lacking folios 1-6 (preliminaries and woodcut) and terminal blank. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 44-46 lines to the page. Six woodcut initials; unfilled spaces for woodcut initials at folios 80 recto and 82 verso. A few marginalia at front. Large folio, late 15th-century blind-tooled pigskin over wooden boards, 5 metal bosses on both covers, metal remains of two clasps hinged on lower cover. Inner hinges strengthened with early vellum manuscript fragments pasted high on the boards and carried around the first and last gatherings. The leather on front cover slashed, binding worn. Leaves measure 403-408 x 280 mm. First leaf soiled, some other minor soiling. With the Liechtenstein bookplate.

Lilly Library call number: DD 110 .S2 vault

Hain 9868; the number of leaves there given, 109, corrected by Copinger. The probable collation, of the complete book would be [*6 a-i10 k6 I8]. The differences between this edition and Hain 9869, produced by the same printer at about the same time, will be relegated to the description of that piece. Suffice it to say that the present edition is the more sophisticated example of printing in its layout and use of white space.

The text is a compendium of the feudal and civil law obtaining at the time in the former Duchy of Swabia, an area of southern Germany extending from western Bavaria to the Rhine. Papal and imperial powers are defined, as well as those royal or noble. In addition to the laws of feudal tenure, inheritance, and service, statutes are set out on torts and procedures in equity and claims.

The binding seems entirely compatible with work from the area of printing. Of particular interest is the skill with which a scroll tool, bearing (as nearly as can be made out) the word "iohann," has been worked into a vine effect in the outer borders; the original guideline by which the tool was "set" with such accuracy may be seen on the back cover. In the diaper of both covers may be seen a lower-case "a" in a shield-shaped impression.

The vellum manuscript fragments used for strengthening the hinges are of great interest. They are from the Advent section of a Missal, with mnemonic neumes (lineless) for the performance of sung portions, and are cut from one sheet horizontally, the top portion put in at the back of the book and the bottom portion at the front. The text comprises, when reconstructed, sections of two Advent Masses:

  1. Part of an Epistle from Romans, a Tractus, the Gospel from Luke iii:l-6 ("The voice of one crying in the wilderness"), and the beginning of the Gradual.
  2. Part of a Lesson from Isaiah, the Gradual, the Gospel from Luke ii: 15-20, and the beginning of the Offertory.

The Gospel of the first leaf, now used for the Fourth Sunday in Advent, was formerly used for the Saturday of Ember Week; the Gospel of the second leaf is and was used for the dawn Mass on Christmas Day. The liturgical matter required between the two, even with the sung portions as here reduced to smaller manuscript and compass, would indicate that the visible portion of this manuscript may constitute folio 1 verso and folio 8 recto of a fold of eight.

The writing is a square Carolingian minuscule dating from the 10th or 11th Century, characterized by a remarkably even line at base, "f" and "s" not descending, and by risers cut off square and beaked to the left. A primitive cedilla is used to indicate the omission of "o" and "a" in the diphthongs of the word "poenitentiae" and the ampersand is used for "et" in the body of one word. A combination of characteristics both French and German, plus the place of printing and probable area of binding, seem evidence enough to assign the manuscript to the Rhineland.

The marginalia and interlinear corrections at front are mostly in German. The majority of the marginal notes are corrections or amplifications of text, but in two instances somebody has labeled as "Mendacium" two passages on the temporal supremacy in feudal law of the Pope.

Goff L-46 locates only three copies in America, the others at Harvard Law Library and the Pierpont Morgan Library. The entry for the Lilly copy does not note that it is imperfect. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


LANDRECHTBUCH (Schwabenspiegel). [Augsburg: Zainer, between 1475 and 1480.]

Folio 11: Hie hebt sich an das keyserlich landtrechtbüch. . . . 163 leaves (of 164), lacking the terminal blank; folios 1 and 10 of the first gathering placed in reverse to the order given in BMC and no longer cognate, the leaf with woodcut on verso (wormed) coming first and the blank last. Rounded gothic type, 33 lines and (on most leaves) foliation to the page; preliminary tables in 2 columns. Woodcut of the Emperor and his court at folio 1 verso; woodcut initials (hand-colored in red) on folio 2 recto and verso. Large initial in blue and red (rubbed) at folio 11, other initials in red, printed initials rubricated. Small folio, contemporary calf over wooden boards hand-tooled in blind with elegant and characteristic tools, the receiver only of a single metal clasp remaining on the upper cover. Top of spine and parts of covers worn. Leaves measure 285 x 198 mm., lightly browned, with a few paper faults.

Lilly Library call number: DD 110 .S3 vault

Hain 9869; BMC II, 324. As in BMC, folios 11 to 115 are numbered i to cv on both sides; then, after a lapse of four unnumbered leaves, the foliation is resumed and carried to the end. The four unnumbered leaves are an insert in the middle of a regular gathering of ten foliated leaves. BMC notes that the matter on these inserts is not recorded in the preliminary table of contents.

On the verso of the third of these unfoliated leaves, the text of this edition and that of the large folio edition by Zainer (see No. 45) go their separate ways for some distance. Where the present edition (118 verso et seq.) proceeds to the discussion of "das edel lehenrecht," or feudal tenure, at the same place in text the large folio edition (75 verso et seq.) prints matter on seals and common law. However, both cover the same ground. The matter on feudal tenure appears in the large folio edition beginning at 82 verso, and the present edition finally gets to the seals at 157 verso (numbered cxxxxiii). In some cases the sectional captions, so clearly separated in the large folio edition, are crowded into line endings in this smaller version. A definition of priority between the two editions may be within the grasp of scholars, but in general one finds errors in one only to be matched by different errors in the other. A difference in terms and usage may imply that they were prepared for two sets of readers differing in dialect.

In the opening line of folio 11, quoted above, the long "s" of "keyserlich" has the appearance of a lowercase "l", being without any top stroke. However, close examination indicates that the letter was more probably an imperfect sort or imperfectly inked, the base not having the characteristic swoop to the right of the "l" in this font.

The binding presents a number of unusual tools. The spine is quite simply tooled with palmettes. The outside border of the covers is composed of semi-circular gouges with acorn tool finials. Within this is a solid border of square rosette tools. The center is partly filled with six diamond-shaped tools, the design being a unicorn with one forefoot raised, the tail over his back ending in four branches. The central panel, blocked in with a three-line roll used elsewhere, is a narrow strip in the Erfurt style made of four vertically placed circular rosettes. The catch of the clasp remaining on the front cover bears the "Ave" of the Invocation to the Virgin; lettered paper labels on cover and spine are probably remnants of titles. The form of the unicorn tool is not approximated in any of the reference works at our disposal; it measures 28 x 19 mm. Tools and style tempt one to seek further for positive identifications, but the whole general feeling is as South German as the text and the binding is certainly from the same area. A two- or three-word inscription inside the front cover is strategically wormed where it might be most useful.

Goff L-47 locates three other copies in America, at the Annmary Brown Memorial Library, Harvard Law School, and the Library of Congress. Both editions of this book may be seen side by side only at Lilly and at Harvard. The Lilly copy was purchased in 1958.


LUDOLPHUS DE SUCHEN. [Iter ad terram sanctam. Strassburg: Eggestein, between 1475 and 1480.]

Folio 2: De terra sancta et itinere iherosolomitano et de statu eius et alijs mirabilibus que in mari conspiciuntur videlicet mediteraneo. (Folio 2: "On the Holy Land and the journey to Jerusalem and of the state of Jerusalem and other wonders which are to be seen in the sea, that is, the Mediterranean.") 34 leaves, complete with initial leaf of contents. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 40-42 lines to the page; initial spaces without printed guides. Illuminated initial in color, other initials in red or blue, printed initials rubricated. Bound with, and following, Breydenbach's Peregrinatio . . . in Iherusalem of 1486, outside the date limits of this catalogue; two volumes in one, small folio, 18th-century dark red morocco, full-gilt spine with drawer-handle tools, gilt edges, probably executed in the Low Countries. The leaves measure 295 x 210 mm. They have been washed, affecting the initials; the merest ghosts of marginalia haunt four leaves. Library stamps in the Breydenbach of the Jesuit Collège Notre Dame at Antwerp.

Lilly Library call number: DS 106 .B7 vault

BMC I, 74, the 40-42 line edition identified by pressmark IB. 794. BMC also describes the 41-line, single-column edition issued by the same printer, and states that it is "slightly more correct than that printed in double columns [i.e., the Lilly copy] . . . but it is difficult to find any decisive proof as to which is the earlier." Regardless of which edition appeared first, the book is important as the earliest printed account of the Holy Land.

The leaves of this book were washed at some time after binding. Traces of gold tooling on the raised bands, and discoloration of the bands, indicate that the book has been removed from covers and later recased, with the addition of new headbands.

Goff L-363 records four other American institutional owners. However, one of these is recorded as the New York Times Exhibit of the Printed Word. The greater part of the contents of this exhibit was sold at the Parke-Bernet Galleries 26 January 1965 (Sale 2325), and the Ludolphus fetched $550 as Lot 180 in that sale. The present owner is not known to us.


POGGIUS FLORENTINUS (Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini). Historia Fiorentina. Venice: Jacobus Rubeus, 8 March 1476.

Folio 3: HISTORIA DIMESSER POGGIO, TRADOCTA DILATINO, IN NOSTRA LINGVA, DA JACOPO SVO FIGLIVOLO. ("Florentine History" as translated into Italian by Poggio's son.) 115 leaves (of 116), lacking the terminal blank. Roman type, 41 lines to the page; spaces left for initials, some with guide letters. Inscriptions in English on folios 1 and 115. Small folio, full morocco stained to simulate old calf, tooled in blind in facsimile of 16th-century workmanship, red edges; probably executed about 1800. Leaves measure 311 x 210 mm. Some soiling and foxing. Two 17th-century owners' inscriptions.

Lilly Library call number: DG 737 .A2 B79 1476 vault

BMC V, 215. Signed with roman numerals except for leaves 3 and 4 of signatures d, e, and f; leaf m v signed "m u." Poggio the elder (1380-1459) was a Renaissance classical scholar of major importance who uncovered many codices in monastic libraries and who, according to the Britannica, was not above the use of bribery in abstracting them from those libraries.

The decoration of the binding is executed partly with two double-face rectangular tools of an earlier period outlining two concentric panels; the fleuron corner tool in the inner panel is of later date. The mitreing is done with studied inaccuracy to ape the early 16th century.

The first inscription on folio 1, at the head, has been partly trimmed away. Written in an upright 17th-century roman, it is the tail end of a legal opinion, reading (the lacunae being trimmed away), "Surmised yt he beynge a noble man wyll not . . . for anye . . . sett doune [ ? ] in the chauncerye, havynge no power to touche hys bodye. Mr. Harryses opynion." On the verso of folio 115, upside down, a similar hand has written, "Sthephen Acton dwellynge in temmes Streete / at ye sygne of ye Tarlbotte. / the xxiiii daye to enter my bargene." Right side up on the same page, in a crabbed hand with 16th-century letter forms, are the names of several people with London addresses, each entry with details of an inn or shop sign, and some with dates. This group has every appearance of being a sign-painter's appointment book; a few words of Italian, describing a costume, only add to the confusion.

Below the inscription on folio 1 there is, in an upright 17th-century roman hand, the name "Mr. Lee of marrlyn colledge," and a date, "the xxi of Maye the Gewell." On the recto of folio 115 another name appears in an upright roman differing from that on folio 1 — "Charles Burcher of / Barensley Wythin iii myles / of Sissiter" [i.e., Girencester in Gloucestershire, sometimes thus pronounced]. Barnsley is actually four miles northeast of Cirencester.

Goff P-873, a book quite common among the incunable holdings of American institutions. Bought in 1961 and deposited at the Lilly Library.


PLINIUS CAECILIUS SECUNDUS, CAIUS. Epistolae. Naples: Mathias Moravus, July 1476.

Folio 2: DE PVBLICATIONE EPISTOLARVM PLINII .LIBER PRIMVS INCIPIT. (The letters of Pliny the Younger, edited by Junianus Majus.) 107 leaves (of 108), lacking the initial leaf of dedication. Roman type, 30-32 lines to the page; spaces left for initials and for the insertion of passages in Greek. The Greek interpolations added in manuscript, marginalia in Greek and Latin in at least four hands, interlinear glosses in Latin. Bound with Savageti's Oratio lamentabilis (see No. 51) in one volume, small folio, 18th-century calf, sprinkled edges. Leaves measure 282 x 200 mm. Library markings and other unfortunate residue at front and back.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6638 .A2 1476 vault

BMC VI, 862. The hands of the annotators of this volume date from the late 15th or early 16th century into the 17th century, with an occasional note of more recent vintage. The most prolix commentator, and also the least legible, is also one of the earliest and most scholarly; his notes often extend to many lines, thirteen in the case of I:10 where he comments on the letter in praise of Pliny's teacher Euphrates with references to Cicero's In Bruto. The other commentators content themselves with identifications and short notes. The interlinear glosses indicate that the book may have been used for instruction. Two quotations and a "Carmen Decasticon" are written on the blank verso of the terminal leaf.

Goff P-806 records only two other copies of this edition in America, at Brandeis and Columbia Universities. The stamped and manuscript entries at front record that the book was accessioned at Main Library 20 April 1939, purchased with general funds from the Latin Department; the same flyleaf bears the perforated stamp of the University Library no longer used on rarities. The endpapers are further embellished with a charge card and envelope, neither of which records any circulation.


CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS. Epistolae ad familiares. Milan: Antonius Zarotus, 24 November 1476.

Folio 1: MARCI TVLLII CICERONIS EPISTOLARVM FAMILIARVM LIBER PRIMVS. 138 leaves, complete. Roman type, 41 lines to the page; some printed initial guides. Some unskillful rubrication in red or black, of a much later period. Marginalia and notes of varying dates; pen and pencil inscriptions in the hand of Theophilus Adam Wylie. Folio, 18th-century natural grain goatskin, contrasting labels; worn. Title in ink on bottom edge. Leaves measure 326 x 230 mm. First leaf soiled, a label removed at bottom; others with only minor soiling and stains. With several ownership inscriptions, and the bookplate of the Duke of Sussex.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6297 .A3 1476 vault

GKW 6820, not in BMC. In this copy the "d" in signature d 3 is printed upside down. The marginalia and interlinear notes are in three or perhaps four varying hands of the late 16th or 17th century. A number occur in Books II and III and are comments on the text, as at the head of a letter to Appius Pulcer where one annotator records that Cicero first excuses himself for not writing at greater length. On the front flyleaf, on the last two leaves, and on two inserts of Indiana University Department of Physics notepaper, are notes by Professor Wylie on the printer, the book, and the identity of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, the Duke of Milan mentioned in the colophon. At l 4 occurs, in red, the name "Nicolo Peroto," the last name twice, probably not an ownership inscription but a pen trial by the same hand which has made crude attempts at rubrication in the same opening. It is not likely that the name was written in much earlier than the 17th century, and one would hesitate in any case to think of the humanist scholar Archbishop Niccolo Perotti (1430-1480) marking his books in such a manner.

The earliest ownership inscription, probably from the early 17th century, is on the verso of the last leaf: "Hic Liber est Marci Antonii de Fed[ri?]cis de Eserdo Vallisce [Valliscamoniacae?]." Beneath this inscription on the last leaf is a similar Latin inscription by Professor Wylie dated 1868. Pasted inside the front cover is the armorial bookplate of Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex; the book was sold in the fifth part of his sale, No. 234 in the first day's session, 22 April 1845. Professor Wylie has written at the top of the Duke's bookplate, in Latin, a note to the effect that he purchased the book at New York in November, 1868, from one Luyster.

The connection with Professor Wylie is, of course, of the greatest interest to Indiana University. He was a Philadelphian by birth and a relative of Indiana's first President, Dr. Andrew Wylie. He came to Bloomington in 1837 as a young man of 26, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania and licensed preacher of the Reformed Presbyterian Church and, except for two and a half years (1852-1855) spent at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, was on the faculty here as Professor of Natural Philosophy and other disciplines until his death in 1895. In two "interregnums," one caused by the death of President Andrew Wylie and the other by the resignation of President Daily, he served as president pro tempore of the University. He also acted as University Librarian from 1841 until 1879.

Goff C-517 reports only one copy in America, that at Princeton; to this must be added the present copy, unreported at the time of the Census. Received with the Library of Professor Wylie, the gift of his grandchildren, Mrs. Bradley and Mr. Boisen. The library also includes another Wylie incunable, the Catullus printed at Venice in 1488, beyond the chronological scope of this catalogue.


SAVAGETI, JOHANNES (Canon and Archdeacon of the Churches at Constance and Basle). Oratio lamentabilis. [Rome: Wolf Han, after 12 December 1476.]

Folio 1: Oratio Romana curia olim causidici super turbatione dicte ecclesie Constantiense...habita, vna cum tractatu....(An oration on the dispute between Ludovicus de Freiberg and Otto de Sunnenberg over the tenure of the see of Constance.) 4 leaves (of 22), being the Oratio only, without the Tractatus. Roman type, 37 lines to the page, one printed initial guide. Bound with and following the Epistolae of Pliny the Younger, 1476 (see No. 49). Leaves measure 282 x 200 mm.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6638 .A2 1476 vault

BMC IV, 74. Hain 14329 attributes this piece to Ulrich rather than Wolf Han and varies in the incipit to the Oratio, giving in the eighth line "in ullo obstare" for the "in nullo obstare" of BMC and the present copy.

Proctor [3372 and 3373) lists the Oratio and the Tractatus separately. By the text of the Oratio (quoted by BMC), the Tractatus was composed first, and differences in the setting, according to the same authority, may imply that they were printed separately. However, on the strength of the "vna cum tractatu" quoted above, BMC prefers to consider them one publishing entity. This, then, leaves The Lilly Library with a fragment, but nevertheless an important one, for Goff records no copy of either piece, or of the whole, in the United States. The failure to report this copy to Goff is inherent in the history of this volume as recorded in the description of the copy of Pliny's Epistolae with which the Oratio is bound (see No. 49). It was purchased and catalogued for general use before Indiana University Libraries had formed a Department of Rare Books and Special Collections.


ARISTOTLE. Historia animalium, De partibus animalium, De generatione animalium. Venice: Johannes de Colonia and Johannes Manthen, 1476.

Folio 1: THEODORI : GRAECI : THESSALONICENSIS : PRAEFATIO : IN LIBROS : DE ANIMALIBVS : ARISTOTELIS : PHILOSOPHI. . . . (Latin translation by Theodorus Gaza, edited by Ludovicus Podocatharus the Cypriote.) 251 leaves (of 252), lacking the terminal blank; folio 251 misnum-bered in manuscript "249." Roman type, 35 lines to the page, printed initial guides. Initials painted in red. Manuscript title on initial blank, two manuscript corrections in terminal table. Small folio, 19th-century calf; spine coming loose, hinges cracked, label removed from inside front cover. Pious initials combining the names of Jesus and the Virgin on the bottom edge. Leaves measure 292 x 205 mm.; some foxing and soiling. Ownership inscriptions at folios 2 and 250.

Lilly Library call number: QL 41 .A7 1476 vault

GKW 2350; BMC V, 232. The editio princeps of this translation. The terminal register identifies the signatures by capital letters where lower case is used in the text, except for signature k and the second letters of those signatures with double letters; two omitted guide words are inserted by hand. The signing includes one error, dd [1] being signed "d", and ordinal forms are used.

The translator, Theodorus Gaza, was a refugee from the Turkish invasion of his homeland and one of the many such Greeks who gave a great impetus to Grecian studies in Italy. He was known to the great Cardinal Bessarion and enjoyed his protection. He died in 1478, two years after the publication of this translation. In the colophon, it is noted that the text was edited "ex Archetypo ipsius Theodori."

The initials painted in red are remarkably uniform in execution and in many instances monogrammatic in letter form. The outer strokes of "M" are curved inwards to make a perfect circle, standing upon a thinly drawn base; "S" is completely closed and circular, with extensors curving down to the left and up to the right; and others are equally geometrical. The effect is pleasing and regular, if at some variance with the fine roman of the text, and the lettering is probably of later execution.

The ownership inscriptions at the beginning and end of text, in similar 17th-century hands, identify the book as once the property of a religious foundation or church of Sancta Maria Incoronata at Martinengo, which is in Bergamo in Lombardy.

Goff A-973 reports a large number of copies in America. This copy is from the collection of Mr. J. K. Lilly, Jr., and was purchased by him from Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.


PLINIUS SECUNDUS, CAIUS. Historia naturalis. Venice: Jenson, 1476.

Folio 1: HISTORIA NATVRALE DI .C. PLINIO SECONDO TRADOCTA DI LINGVA LATINA IN FIORENTINA PER CHRISTOPHORO LANDINO FIORENTINO. ... 413 leaves (of 415), lacking the initial and terminal blanks. Roman type, 50 lines to the page, printed initial guides. Tables set in two columns. Some marginal references and emphases. Folio, twice rebound over the wooden boards, portions of a 16th-century Italian cover preserved; boards and hinges cracked, spine worn. Title in Spanish on fore-edge. Leaves measure 421 x 275 mm. Some damp-stains, last printed leaf loose.

Lilly Library call number: QH 41 .P58 1476 vault

Hain *13105; BMC V, 176. The first printing of Pliny in a vernacular tongue. Folio 400 recto with reading "Schisto" as in BMC IC. 19694, but with none of the variants recorded by Hain in three other gatherings.

The marginalia mostly call attention to simples and remedies more or less marvelous. Inside the back cover appears the name "Don Claudio Manrique de Lara" with accompanying looped penstrokes as if the writer were practising a paraph. The De Lara family is one of great distinction in Spain; unfortunately the inscription contains no statement of ownership.

Goff P-801 records over 20 copies in America. From the Mendel collection, exhibited at the dedication of the Mendel Room of The Lilly Library, 15 April 1964, and described in the catalogue of that exhibition as No. 73.


CHRONIQUES DE FRANCE (dites "de St. Denys"). Paris: Pasquier Bonhomme, 16 January 1476-77.

Folio 1: Prologue des Croniques de france. In three volumes. I — 295 leaves (of 296), lacking terminal blank; not as in GKW and Pellechet. II — 329 leaves (of 332), lacking terminal blank, folios 1 and 10 in facsimile. III — 314 leaves (of 315), lacking blank folio 170 (GKW [s] 6). Lettres bâtardes, 2 columns and 40 lines to the page. Folio I:1 with a divider and initial painted in red, blue, and gold; folio III:3 with an illuminated initial (tarnished). Book initials, other initials, and paragraph marks in red or blue. Folio, full red levant with letters only, gilt edges over marbling, by Chambolle-Duru. Leaves measure 295-299 x 220-224 mm. Last gathering of Vol. Ill loose; all volumes with repaired leaves at beginning and end. Vol. I with the bookplate of Henri Bordes.

Lilly Library call number: DC 37 .G7 vault

GKW 6676, Pellechet 3575 A, with the colophon of Vol. Ill ending on line 37 of the second column. In Vol. I, gathering [v] consists of only 9 leaves, without the extra half-sheet of repeated text sometimes found.

For Vol. I, GKW gives a total of 296 leaves with folio 296 printed; Pellechet gives the total as 296 or 297, depending on whether the extra leaf is in signature [v], with the last leaf printed. Hain and Claudin give the total as 295 leaves, Copinger correcting Hain 5007 to add a terminal blank. In this confusion of authorities, with only 295 leaves present in the Lilly copy and no obvious lacunae, we suspected that there might be a blank in the body of the book not accounted for by Hain and Claudin, not reported by GKW and Pellechet, and omitted in the Lilly copy, but the book is bound too tightly to check the folds. Dr. Curt F. Bühler, Keeper of Printed Books at the Pierpont Morgan Library, very kindly examined for us the only other copy in America, PML 25473-5, and reported 295 printed leaves with a terminal watermarked blank. He also provided a text check which agrees with the Lilly copy — Book II ending with leaf [o] 8 and Book III beginning with leaf [p] 1. A further check of the Lilly copy disclosed that, in the evenly folded gatherings, every watermarked half-sheet had an equivalent unwatermarked half-sheet, its putative cognate, in the right place; and that, in the gatherings with inserts, every leaf required was present, without lacuna in text. We must therefore assume, with the weight of Dr. Bühler's evidence, that the folding collations given in GKW and Pellechet are correct, but that the total of printed leaves is 295, with the terminal leaf 296 a blank.

The watermarks include a version of the mark of Jean Le Bé II (Briquet 7251, 7252; Le Clert, Le Papier ... principalement à Troyes . . . , II, Plate XLIV, fig. 168) in the same form as that to be discussed at some length in the description of the 1477 (-86?) Petrarch, Septem Psalmi Poenitenciales, etc., attributed to Johan Veldener (see Nos. 61 and 62). In Vol. I, paper with this mark shares the honors about evenly with paper watermarked with a pitcher surmounted by a cross; one sheet only bears a rather clumsy, narrow anchor with a pendent cross. Vol. II is printed almost entirely on the Le Bé paper with only two or three of the pitcher sheets and again one anchor. Vol. Ill starts out with the Le Bé paper, but from gathering [m] on introduces an unwatermarked variety, with maybe a dozen Le Bé sheets and perhaps half as many with the pitcher mark.

The facsimile leaves II:1 and II:10 were once described by a bookseller as "almost undistinguishable," with perfect reason. The text is apparently very fine photolithographic reproduction, and the two initials with penwork decoration and the rubrication are supplied by hand. The absence of sewing dots and the mechanical regularity of the chainlines are the most readily observed indications of facsimile.

Goff C-483 records only two copies in America, the Pierpont Morgan copy PML 25473-5 and the Lilly copy. The Lilly copy was purchased by Mr. Poole from the New York office of Pierre Berès in 1952 and was acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


LEVI BEN GERSON, RABBI (known as Ralbag). [Perush Iyob — Commentary on the Book of Job. Ferrara: Abraham ben Hayyim, 17 May 1477.]

One leaf only, printed on both sides. Hebrew type, 18 lines to the page. Modern penciled numbers in upper margins. Measures 208 x 147 mm. at the widest point. The binding edge chipped, edges slightly stained.

Lilly Library call number: BS 1415 .L5

From Hain 10061. In unpointed Hebrew, the letter derived from manuscript sources.

The text is from the interpolation beginning at the last verse of the twenty-first chapter (xxi:34), with sectional title "Explanation of the Words (Details) of the Answer of Job [to Zophar]." The portion present begins three or four words after the sectional title and comprises only a small part of the "Explanation." Dr. Henry A. Fischel, Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Literatures at Indiana University, kindly provided us with this identification, a task made difficult not only by the lack of the sectional titles and the printer's omission of Scriptural quotations, verse numbers, and punctuation, but also by the fact that Ralbag, to open his argument, reverts to verses 2-11 of the text. The author was an Aristotelian of note, and the purpose of his commentary was to compare the Aristotelian and Judaeo-Christian concepts concerning Uod's cognition of the state of the physical world; consequently, his work is filled with philosophical interpolations not found in the usual grammatical commentary, which is ordinarily concerned with references to Rabbinical and Talmudic literature only.

Unorthodox in other respects as well, Levi ben Gerson (1288-1344), a native of Spain and a physician, spent most of his life in Provence. Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebraea, No. 1348, lists works by him on exegesis, philosophy, astronomy, and the Aristotelian commentaries of Avicenna. Long overshadowed by more popular and more orthodox (but often less original) commentators, his scientific works may bring him a greater renown in future with the increasing interest in the history of science, according to Dr. Fischel. The name Ralbag is made of the initials R(abbi) L(evi) b(en) G(erson), with two vowels added in speech but not in the Hebrew spelling.

Goff Heb-70 lists three American institutions owning complete copies and two with incomplete copies. The fragment is listed here as the only piece of Hebrew incunable printing yet to reach The Lilly Library, a symbol of hopes (often blasted) to obtain a more significant representation in this language. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


ASCONIUS PEDIANUS, QUINTUS, and others. [Commentaries on Cicero.] Venice: de Colonia and Manthen, [after 2 June 1477].

Folio 2: senatu contra.L.Pisonem. 184 leaves, complete with blank folio 89. Roman type, 35-36 lines to the page, printed initial guides. Writing and sketches on flyleaves. Small folio, late 15th-century Italian calf over thin wooden boards, tooled in blind, with four sites for clasps no longer present (one each at top and bottom, two on fore-edge). Worn and repaired. Leaves measure 298 x 203 mm.; light stains. With the book label of Jacopo Manzoni.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6284 .A3 1477 vault

GKW 2739. The authors, subjects, and placement of the commentaries in the volume follow:

  1. Asconius Pedianus. On the oration against Piso, and others. Folio 2
  2. Georgius Trapezuntius. On the technique of the Ciceronian oration. Folio 57
  3. Antonius Luschus Vicentinus. Inquiry into 12 orations of Cicero. Folio 90
  4. Xicho Polentonus. Arguments on some orations and invectives of Cicero. Folio 176
  5. Hieronymus Squarzaficius Alexandrinus, the editor. Letter to Antonio Seracho. Folio 183

Two states of the colophon to the commentary of Polentonus are reported by GKW; the type at this point has been damaged in the Lilly copy, but it was probably in that state which has "finiunt" misspelled "fiuiunt." The signing shows some vagaries, including mixing of arabic and roman numerals in the same signature.

The binding is characteristic of Florentine or Venetian work of the period with panel and two borders, the outer worked with a knotwork tool, the inner with a double cross tool with finials. The panel is filled with three diamonds vertically arranged, each composed of four impressions of a square knotwork tool. Lining papers, flyleaves, and blank verso of the last leaf are covered with sketches in pencil and ink; those at front are rough designs for machinery, and those at back are architectural and figure drawings. The paper of the flyleaves and linings is watermarked with an oxhead surmounted by crown and floweret; a similar watermark, but without the crown, is found in the text.

On the blank recto of the first printed leaf, in an early 19th-century Italian hand, is some verse in Italian, with variant lines and corrections. This, with a book label bearing the name Jacopo Manzoni, brings to mind the author of I Promessi Sposi, Alessandro Manzoni. Unfortunately, the writing does not resemble his hand.

It is curious to note that the first treatise was printed from a transcription of the codex found at the Monastery of St. Gall by Poggio Bracciolini, whose taking ways with such material have been mentioned in the note to his Historia Fiorentina (see No. 48.)

Goff A-1154 reports 14 other copies in American institutions, two defective, and one in private hands. This copy was purchased by Mr. Poole in 1952 and was acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


NICOLAUS DE LYRA. Postilla super evangelia. Mantua: Paulus de Butzbach, 24 July 1477.

Folio 2: Postilla super Matheum fratris Nicolai de lira ordinis fratrum minorum Incipit. ("Commentaries on the Gospels," with additions by Paulus Burgensis and Matthaeus Doringk.) 242 leaves (of 244), lacking the initial and terminal blanks. The blank leaves present at beginning and end are of early manufacture, but the first is definitely not (by watermark), and the last probably not, original. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 50 lines to the page. Folio 2 recto with an initial in gold and colors and a divider in gold and blue with elaborate floriated finials, the one at bottom with a miniature painting of a very fat rabbit, and other marginal decorations. Marginalia, mostly at the beginning. Small folio, modern maroon oasis niger, Jansenist, uncrushed. Folio 235 misbound between folios 232 and 233. The leaves with some foxing; measurements approximately 277 x 188 mm. Folios 2 and 243 with major repairs, the latter with text supplied in facsimile. Worming at end.

Lilly Library call number: BS 2555 .A2 1477

BMC VII, 931. This description speaks of the Hain entry *10386 as "ignoring the misprints 'oridinis' and 'dycesis' in the colophon." In this copy, the misprint "oridinis" is present, but "dyocesis" is correctly spelled, and the possibility must exist that copies may be found with both words correct.

The marginalia are in three or four early hands and most frequent in the first ten chapters on Matthew. The most interesting and lengthy notes are here, in a crabbed and highly contracted contemporary hand. This commentator has written on the names of the Saviour, on the Dual Nature as implied in the genealogies of Matthew, and at particular length on the Fast in the Desert and the Temptations of Christ. Another commentator has entered references to the Homilies of St. Gregory throughout.

Goff N-130 locates 11 other American owners, seven of them institutions and four of them private; one of the privately owned copies is incomplete. The book was purchased for The Lilly Library in 1961.


APPIANUS ALEXANDRINUS. De civilibus romanorum bellis. Venice: Maler, Ratdolt, and Löslein, 1477.

Folio 2: Ad diuum Alfonsum Aragonum . . . regem in libros ciuilium bellorum ex Appiano Alexandrino in latinum traductos Praefatio incipit felicissime. (The second part of two, being the Civil Wars without the Roman History, in the Latin translation of Petrus Candidus Decembrius.) 211 leaves (of 212), lacking the initial blank. Roman type, 30-32 lines to the page, printed marginal notes. Woodcut border printed in black on folio 2 recto (partly traced in brown ink on verso), woodcut initials. Manuscript notes on verso of last leaf; a late foliation, to folio 170, partly trimmed away. Small folio in tens with one signature in twelve, 19th-century half dark brown morocco, edges with earlier tinting; rehinged. Leaves measure 263 x 202 mm. Two leaves repaired, a puncture in bottom margin of last signature; some foxing, mostly marginal. Two 18th-century ownership inscriptions on folio 2: with the bookplate of Theodore L. De Vinne, New York master printer.

Lilly Library call number: PA 3873 .A2 1477 vault

GKW 2290, Part II only. BMC V, 244, describes this as Part II also, quoting the passage in the preface that the Roman History had been completed by the translator first; Hain and Pellechet describe it as Part I, possibly because the Civil Wars had first been printed separately in 1472. The translator, a man esteemed in his time for his character as well as his erudition, was President of the short-lived Republic of Milan.

The manuscript notes on the verso of the last leaf date from the late 17th or early 18th century and are curious in many respects. Trimmed at top and bottom, what remains are directions for the performance of five dances, two in a code consisting of initials and numerals only. The language is Italian with a number of terms in dialect and a few of Hispanic flavor, such as the word "baxa" in the titles of two of the dances. The titles with this word may have a regional significance, as in "la baxa di castello" and "la baxa francisa."

The two inscriptions on folio 2 recto may indicate French ownership in the 18th century. The one at bottom, "F. [?] P. Gallus Reuisor," is in an upright school hand. The one in the upper fore margin, shaved at the end, is cursive and probably a pressmark; with much less certainty it may be read "n. 4. d. Braij Fini . . . ," the last word, or portion thereof, being quite conjectural. Under "Brajum," Deschamps' geographical supplement to Brunet gives a cross reference to Bibrax, a location there variously defined by several scholars, three of whom merely "penchent" towards one definition. We should be doing no worse than much more learned men if we suggest that the complete locative may be "Braij Finium" and so point to Fismes, one of the possibilities recorded.

Goff A-928, one of the many American copies, but Part II only and not the entire work as implied in the entry. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


PIUS II (Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini). Historia rerum ubique gestarum. Venice: de Colonia and Manthen, 1477.

Folio 2: PII .II. PONTIFICIS MAXIMI. HISTORIA RERVM VBIQVE GESTARVM. CVM LOGORVM DESCRIPTIONE NON FINITA ASIA MINOR INCIPIT. 105 leaves (of 106), lacking the initial blank. Roman type, 35 lines to the page, terminal register in 2 columns; printed initial guides. A very few marginalia. Bound with, and preceding, the history of the Visconti family by Georgius Merula, 1500, outside the dates covered by this catalogue. Small folio, early 16th-century calf with blind-stamped, historiated panels; rebacked in morocco. Traces of four ties. Leaves measure 305 x 207 mm. First leaf soiled, some light foxing. With bookplates of William Morris, George Dunn of Woolley Hall, and Bernardo Mendel.

Lilly Library call number: G 113 .P48 vault

BMC V, 233; editio princeps. Leaf k [1] missigned with letter "l." All signatures with leaves 3 and 4 or 3-5 signed in the ordinal form with superscript "o".

The original calf covers of the binding present an excellent example of French workmanship of the period 1500-1525, and may be from the Parisian shops of the booksellers André Boule or Pierre Guiot (or Gipot). The rebacking extends an inch onto each cover, and that area is decorated with a four-line frame as on the other three sides and "monastics ties" to the raised double bands; the spine has been tastefully decorated with a vine and flower tool similar to one on the original cover. This vine and flower decoration, on the original covers, occupies the border just inside the four-line edge frame and is obscured by wear and repair; it is probably not a roll. Within this is another four-line frame, and within that, the central design. This design is decorated at top and bottom, in narrow horizontal strips, with alternating rosettes and fleurs-de-lys, three and two respectively. The four-part central panel, made up of two strikes each of two rectangular, historiated dies, is enclosed on the three outer sides by a roll of diamonds filled with quatrefoils. The dies themselves, placed 1 and 4 against 2 and 3 and varying in placement on the covers, are beautifully cut, and show to best advantage on the back cover. One die, measuring 82 x 51 mm., is divided into three vertical sections, all decorated with climbing vines, in which are entangled storks or cranes, three types of dragons (one quite jovial in appearance), and a bunch of grapes. The other die, measuring 82 x 55 mm., pictures St. Peter with his key and St. Paul with his sword, in robes with decorated hems, standing beneath a double crocketed arcade surmounted by a leaf design. Grass is depicted in the foreground, with one panicled flower to the right, and a star appears between the two figures at shoulder height. One feature not in other samples of the period available in reproduction at The Lilly Library is the appearance of the bare feet below the robes in almost Byzantine style. Reproductions of work from the two Parisian shops mentioned above may be found in Goldschmidt II, Plates XXII-XXIV.

This, the only incunable edition of the general history and geography of Pope Pius II, is a most important book in the history of discovery, a copy once in the possession of Christopher Columbus and annotated in his hand, being preserved today in the Biblioteca Colombina at Seville. Passages from the text are quoted in the Columbus letter of 7 July 1503, and much of the preliminary matter on the shape of the earth and the possibility of circumnavigating the eastern hemisphere land masses must have been of surpassing interest to him.

Goff P-730 lists 19 other American copies, one in private hands. The Lilly copy is from the Mendel collection. A distinguished previous provenance is indicated by the collation inscription of G. Martini and the bookplates of George Dunn and William Morris. Morris must indeed have been delighted with the Gothic stamps on the covers.


POLO, MARCO. Buch des edelen Ritters und Landfahrers Marco Polo. Nuremberg: Creussner, 1477.

Folio 2: Hie hebt sich an das puch des . . . Marcho polo. In dem er schreibt die grossen wunderlichen ding dieser welt. ... 58 leaves, complete with initial captioned woodcut "portrait" of Polo. Rounded gothic type, 34 lines to the page; spaces for initials, some with printed guides, a few filled in casually. German marginalia in a 16th-century hand. Small folio, bound in two coverings of vellum, one from a printed book and one from a manuscript; soiled, small defects, traces of two ties. With good margins, the leaves measuring 287 x 206 mm. A few marginal stains, bad worming from the middle of the book to the end. With the bookplate of Clifford Rattey of Torquay.

Lilly Library call number: G 370 .P7 1477 vault

BMC II, 449; editio princeps, the first printing in any language. The first edition in French, the language in which the book was probably first written down at Polo's dictation, was not published until 1556.

An account of the background and importance of the work will be found in Lilly Library Publication Number 1, Discovery. An Exhibition . . . pp. [4-5]. It should suffice for us to say that some of the more remote areas visited by Marco Polo were not described again or adequately in European books of travel until the 19th century, 500 years after his expeditions.

The binding is quite curious, the 16th-century under layer of the cover showing clearly through the 14th-century outer covering. The original service book from which the inner covering was taken appears to have been an octavo work, printing alternate lines of words and music (on four-line staves) between double red rules, the printed area measuring at the widest 100 mm. This was pasted on with the horizontal tension (and lettering) running vertically, each cover with a full sheet of two leaves. Then, apparently to provide counter-tension and prevent warping, an earlier and larger manuscript leaf from a theological work written in two columns, was pasted in the normal reading position over each cover and turned in over the other vellum. These outer manuscript leaves lack a portion of the left-hand column; 67 lines survive on each. The text is in a rounded gothic with many contractions; initials, chapter headings, and paragraph marks are in red. Three chapter headings are partly present. On the front cover appear Chapter IV, on the difference between atheism and deism, and Chapter V, on the acts of worship. On the back cover is Chapter X, but not enough of the heading remains to make sense, and half the text below is cut away.

The German marginalia are textual references. Other inscriptions are modern and include a note on the binding.

Goff P-901 locates only four copies in America, the other three being in the Butler Library at Columbia, the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, and the James Ford Bell Library at the University of Minnesota. This rather reverses the pattern for American holdings of rare incunabula, the Midwestern ownerships for once matching the monolithic supremacy of New York, with the West Coast not in the running. The Lilly copy was acquired with the Poole collection.


PETRARCA, FRANCESCO. Septem psalmi poenitenciales. [? Louvain, Utrecht, or Culemborg: Johan Veldener, between 1477 and 1486?.]

Folio 2: INCIPIVNT SEPTEM PSALMI PENITENCIALES . . . PSALMVS PRIMVS. (Paraphrase of the Seven Penitential Psalms, followed by a prayer ascribed to Petrarch and a terminal invocation ascribed to St. Jerome.) 7 leaves (of 8), lacking an initial leaf, probably blank. Lettres bâtardes, with caption title and sectional headings in modified roman capitals, 22 lines to the page, initial spaces. Initials painted in red, printed initials rubricated.

Lilly Library call number: PQ 4490 .P8 vault

Bound with and preceding:


HIERONYMUS. Speculum valde horribile. [? Louvain, Utrecht, or Culemborg: Johan Veldener, between 1477 and 1486?.]

Folio 2: DESCRIBIT IHERONYMVS OCTAVO CAPITVLO. INCIPIT SPECVLVM. . . . (The text here attributed to St. Jerome followed by prayers to be said over those in articulo mortis.) 5 leaves (of 6), lacking an initial leaf, probably blank. Lettres bâtardes, with caption title in modified roman capitals, sectional heading in upper and lower case lettres bâtardes; 22 lines to the page, two initials painted in red, printed initials rubricated.

Lilly Library call number: PQ 4490 .P8 vault

Bound together in 19th-century boards, small 4to, in eight and six. Leaves measure 211 x 145 mm. Defects discussed below.

Wytze and Lotte Hellinga, The Fifteenth Century Printing Types of the Low Countries, Vol. I, pp. 64-65, assign these two productions, with scholarly cautions, to Johan Veldener the type-founder and describe them as possibly type specimens set up by this founder-printer. They write of two copies, one in the Bibliothèque Nationale and the present copy, identified in a footnote, purchased by Mr. Poole from Lathrop Harper's Catalogue No. 4 in 1956, Item 72. The attribution of the two works in that Catalogue to the printshop of Jean Brito in Bruges is supported by copies of two letters from Mr. Painter of the British Museum in the Lilly acquisition files and is printed by Dr. Kronenberg in her additions to Campbell's Annales. However, the Hellingas tellingly refute this with arguments that Brito's version of Veldener's type did not contain the curious looped "d" found in both titles and that he did not own the roman capitals used in both.

The possibility that the two works were printed by William de Machlinia of London is mentioned, and not approved, in the correspondence with Mr. Painter. The Hellingas argue against this also on the grounds that, although De Machlinia had the Veldener type with the looped "d" and the roman capitals, his looped "d" type was on a 116 mm./20 lines body, while the looped "d" type of the Paris copy of the Speculum valde horribile is on a 120 mm. body. Here the Lilly copy comes to the fore with no answer whatsoever, the type of both titles having the looped "d" and measuring 118-119 mm. to the twenty lines. The variation is neither so great as to prove anything nor so small as to be negligible. If the De Machlinia type is consistently 116 mm., the variation must speak for the Hellingas' conclusion that the typefounder himself may have printed these sheets as samples, in two very mildly variant bodies. The reduction of the Paris 120 mm. to the Lilly 118 mm. even suggests a further reduction to the De Machlinia 116 mm. before he purchased the type for use in London about 1486.

Any further speculations to be derived from this copy are, in part, unfortunately stymied by the condition of folio 8 of the Petrarch; worn on both edges, cut differently from the other leaves (only seven chain-lines appear below the watermark, where the others have eight), and tipped to the first printed leaf of the succeeding piece (which also lacks an initial blank), it may be supplied from another copy. If it is original in this copy, it would point to printing the outer fold in half-sheets since it bears a partial watermark, as do leaves 2 and 7. If it is not original, however, such speculations fail.

The watermark itself points quite definitely to paper of French manufacture and more particularly to the mills of Jean Le Bé II, who operated at Troyes from 1459 to after 1480. It may best be described as having in base, at left, an ornamental "J" of which the stem is a triangle with apex to the left; in center, a diamond; and at right a lower case gothic "b". This is surmounted by a fleur-de-lys of which the center petal rises to the bottom rim of a crown with five points, the points being pearled from left to right 2-1-3-1-2. Briquet 7251 is a close approximation, but the petal of the Lilly fleur-de-lys does not rise through the rim of the crown as in Briquet; Briquet 7252 is also close but has a floweret rising above the middle point of the crown which is not present in the Lilly watermark. Le Clert, Le Papier . . . principalement à Troyes . . . , II, Plate XLIV, fig. 168, has the floweret of Briquet 7252 at top but lacks the diamond in base between the two initials, as seen in Briquet and the Lilly sample. The usual dimensions of Le Bé's paper are given by Le Clert as 30 x 40 cm., which would not be incompatible with the size of the sheets of the Petrarch, folded and trimmed. Other sheets with this watermark, which would reach about 30 x 45 cm. unfolded and allowing for trim, are found in the Lilly copy of Les Grandes Chroniques de France, Paris, 1476 (see no. 54) ; the watermark in this case is without the diamond, as in Le Clert.

According to Briquet, paper with this type of watermark arrived in the Lowlands in the 1470's, its use being recorded in 1472 at Enghien, 30 miles from Louvain, where (according to the Hellingas) Veldener was operating in 1474. However, its use was not confined to France and the Lowlands, for it is recorded at Vienna in 1477 and Canterbury in 1480. BMC IX records only one watermark, quite different, although including fleur-de-lys and a crown, in a Veldener printing. The resources at Lilly offer no opportunity to consider this question, and we must hope for eventual information on watermarks in Veldener and De Machlinia books from other libraries.

The question as to whether the two titles were intended to serve as one book or two is academic. However, if planned as one, it must be evident that the seven printed leaves of the Petrarch and the five printed leaves of the St. Jerome would in all have run to twelve printed leaves to be printed on three quarto sheets, with a textual break being provided by the blank verso of the terminal leaf of the first title. Economy would have urged this as well, in place of a quaternion and a triernion each with a wasted initial blank leaf. The subjects, penitence and the presence of death, are cognate and reciprocal but not identical.

Goff H-191 and P-413, both recorded as the only copies in America and both attributed to Jean Brito of Bruges. The correspondence in the Lilly acquisition file mentions two copies at Paris in the Bibliothèque Nationale, while the Hellingas write of only one copy of the two pieces, in that library, bound together. The Catalogue Général of the Bibliothèque Nationale records two copies of the Petrarch (Pétrarque 112, Rés. D 9245; Pétrarque 113, Rés. D 9244) and one copy of the St. Jerome (Jérome, St., 207, Rés. C 1655). From the press marks, these would appear to be bound separately.


PLUTARCH. Vitae illustrium virorum. Venice: Jenson, 2 January 1478.

Folio I:2: THESEI VITA PER LAPVM FLORENTINVM EX PLVTARCHO GRAECO IN LATINVM VERSA. (The Parallel Lives in Latin translation by various hands.) In two volumes. I — 234 leaves (not as in BMC), complete with blank folios 1 and 17; II — 228 leaves (not as in BMC), with 2 initial blanks. Roman type, 50 lines to the page, registers set in 3 columns; printed initial guides. Folio II:3 with an elaborately decorated initial; 3 initials with green backgrounds near end of Vol. I, other book initials in royal blue or scarlet in both volumes. Headlines in roman capitals, marginalia in at least three hands. Folio, 18th-century vellum, edges with traces of earlier tinting. A tall copy, the leaves measuring 428 x 275 mm. A number of none too skillful repairs, and much evidence of dampening particularly affecting the decorations and marginalia. Historiated armorial cartouche at bottom of folio II:3.

Lilly Library call number: PA 4373 .V6 1478 vault

BMC V, 178. The collation there given describes signature b of Vol. I as consisting of 12-1 leaves; the excised leaf is present in this copy, folio 17 as noted above, and has the Paschal Lamb watermark found elsewhere in the book. In Vol. II, the first signature is in twelve leaves, not ten as in BMC, consisting of two blanks, four printed leaves signed A i, ii, iii, 4, and six unsigned leaves. The two outer sheets of the signature are bound in the wrong order, folio 12 as 11 and folio 11 as 12. The signing of Vol. I is consistent except in two instances, o [ 1 ] being signed "o i" and o 4 being unsigned. In Vol. II roman and arabic numerals are mixed in the signing of A (as above) and C (of which, in addition, the first two leaves are signed "cc") ; BMC notes the use of double minuscules in two later signatures.

The decorations, initials, headlines, and marginalia are later than the period of printing, with the possible exception of the cartouche at the foot of folio II:3, which shows two winged cherubs as supporters for a blank ecclesiastical shield surmounted by a bishop's hat of precedence. The painting is not incompatible with Italian work of the later 15th century and the gold is well applied and in good condition. Per contra, the gold has chipped in the large initial "P" on the same leaf, and the design itself, highly floriated in maroon, blue, green, and yellow against a black background and around a rustic brown initial, is far too sophisticated in the use of contrast and dimension to be of the 15th century; it should be assigned at the earliest to the very late 16th century. The three bi-colored initials in Vol. I, and the scarlet and royal blue of the other initials, as well as the sophistication of many individual letter forms used, all point to the same general period.

The marginalia are, in some instances, in quite early 16th-century hands, but others are probably of the period assigned to the decoration. The lives most heavily annotated are those of soldiers and politicians and the notes consist of marginal references or digests of passages without particular comment.

The presence of the earlier decoration — the cartouche with the unfinished ecclesiastical arms — in Vol. II may imply that the two volumes did not become a pair until the 16th century. Such arms would imply a similar mark of ownership in Vol. I, which is not present. The two were certainly a pair, however, by the time the annotators got around to writing their marginalia. When the decision was taken to decorate the book further, the initial "P" may have been added to Vol. II because of the previous decoration, rather than to Vol. I.

Goff P-832; a common book in America, the entry listing several institutional owners, four private owners, and a copy belonging at the time of publication to dealer H. P. Kraus. The Lilly copy was purchased for the Department of Special Collections, Indiana University Libraries, in 1958.


PLINIUS CAECILIUS SECUNDUS, CAIUS. Epistolae. Milan: Philippus de Lavagnia, 26 February 1478.

Folio 1: Caii Plinii Secundi Nouicomensis Oratoris facundissimi epistolarum Liber Primus incipit. 91 leaves (of 92), lacking the terminal blank. Roman type, 33 lines to the page, printed initial guides; spaces left for the manuscript interpolation of Greek phrases and terms, of which only a few at front are filled in. With marginalia in several hands. 4to in eights and sixes, 18th-century tree calf, rebacked in sprinkled calf. An attractive copy with good margins, the leaves measuring 265 x 192 mm. First leaf with a marginal tear, first and last leaves soiled; an ink blot on folios 1 and 2.

Lilly Library call number: PA 6638 .A2 1478 vault

BMC VI, 706. Eight books only; the full text of nine books, with the eighth complete and in its correct order, was not published until after the incunable period.

Among the notes in varying hands at front, some of which may be as late as the 17th century, are a few which appear to be attempts at building vocabulary, but most are marginal references to elegant phrases or to persons and places. After the first signature, most of the notes are in a "fine Italian" Renaissance hand. This annotator most often draws attention to the moral gems in the text and probably had no Greek, for no interpolations in that language appear after the first three leaves.

Goff P-807, reporting seven other copies owned by American institutions, none in private hands. The book was purchased from Maggs Brothers in 1958 for the Department of Special Collections, Indiana University Libraries. No decipherable clue to its prior owners is to be found in the volume although there are several early pressmarks.


NICOLAUS DE AUXIMO. Supplementum Summae Pisanellae. Nuremberg: Anton Koberger, 27 June 1478.

Folio 2: ... Incipit liber quod dicitur Supplementum. Quoniam summa que magistrutia seu Pisanella vulgariter nuncupatur .... 323 leaves (of 324), including the initial blank but lacking printed folio 14. Rounded gothic type, 2 columns and 52 lines to the page. First initial in red and black, others in red or blue (a few historiated with grotesque profiles); printed initials rubricated. Folio, 16th-century calf over wooden boards, brass corners (two missing) and center pieces, clasps of leather and metal hinged on lower cover; the covers lined with vellum manuscript leaves. Binding worn, spine and hinges painted off-white with 17th-century manuscript title and later pressmark; two vellum labels on front cover with 16th-century manuscript title and pressmark. Leaves measure 400 x 278 mm. Marginal stain on a few leaves near the center. Folio 17, cognate with the missing folio 14, loose.

Lilly Library call number: BX 1935 .N6 vault

BMC II, 416. This is the Summa de casibus conscientiae of Bartholomaeus (Pisanus) a Sancto-Concordio, 14th-century Dominican, with the Supplement of Nicolaus interspersed through the text and an appended extract on the penitential canons by "Frater Astensis" (Conradus Astensis, obiit 1462?). The additions of Nicolaus are indicated in text with an initial "A" and terminal "B". The title of the original text by Bartholomaeus is misleading; it is not, as usual with this title, on the examination of conscience and assignment of penance in the confessional, but on the canon law as applicable to the administration of the sacraments and the exercise of ecclesiastical and secular professions, with definitions of some of the more lurid sins.

Each lining sheet of this binding consists of a pair of cognate leaves of vellum from a book 230 mm. wide and at least 225 mm. high, the sheet pasted down so that the text runs vertically. A good portion of text is trimmed away at left, and an unknown amount at bottom. The roman initials and a few rubrics are in a faded red, the Carolingian minuscule of the text in a faded black. Portions of the text are accompanied by neume musical notation without lines. The leaves are from a book of offices for monastic use, and include texts applicable to Quinquagesima Sunday and the first week in Lent; the order in which they should fall is uncertain. Biblical references are to the announcement of Sarah's pregnancy to Abraham, to the sacrifice of Isaac, to the First Temptation of Jesus, and to His decision to go to Jerusalem. The period can be assigned to the 12th century and the place of origin to Germany, possibly the Rhineland. Strips of vellum, used to reinforce the front and back sections, are from a 16th-century document in German. A portion of the original face can be seen at back, sufficient to indicate that this was an instrument ensuring the yearly payment of twelve shillings and other benefits, apparently to one Geyslhaimer, a chaplain. The verso of this strip is a rough draft of a similar instrument.

Goff N-63, being one of ten copies owned by American institutions; no private owners are recorded. The date in Goff is given as 28 June instead of 27, possibly due to a lapsus memoriae assigning 31 rather than 30 days to June in the conversion of the kalends date. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


PTOLEMAEUS, CLAUDIUS. Cosmographia, or Geography . Rome: Arnoldus Buckinck, 10 October 1478.

Folio 1 verso: CLAVDII PTHOLEMEI ALEXANDRINI PHILOSOPHI COSMOGRAPHIA. (The Latin translation of Jacobus Angelus, edited by Domitius Calderinus of Verona.) 123 leaves (of 124), lacking blank folio 70. Roman type, 2 columns and 50 lines to the page except for the dedication on folio 1 verso; figures in text, 27 double-page maps. Printed initial guides. Folio 2 recto with illuminated divider and initial in three colors, other initials painted in red or blue. Folio 2 recto has the margins decorated with 19th-century binder's rolls in red, black, and gold, with gold rosettes at the corners; the verso is similarly decorated in colors without gold. All leaves in on stubs, the inner margins of the text leaves decorated with inked binder's rolls in red, blue, or black at the joining with the stub. Folio, early 19th-century light green, straight-grain morocco, with heavy blue moiré doublures and flyleaves, gauffered edges; rubbed and lightly stained. Leaves measure 412 x approximately 280 mm. (not including stubs). Folio 1 and the maps mounted; some leaves washed, folio 37 and some maps soiled. With the bookplate of the Duke of Sussex.

Lilly Library call number: G 1005 1478 vault

BMC IV, 78. This copy with the misprints noted by BMC in the dedication, and the omission in the Register, but without the repeated phrase "Taurice Chersonesi Situs" at the head of folio 27. The work was begun by Conrad Sweynheym, the first printer at Rome, but he died after three years spent on the plates, and it was completed by Buckinck. BMC notes that this is the only book recorded with Buckinck's imprint; the same source incorrectly, or perhaps ambiguously, calls the book "the first edition of Ptolemy with maps." An earlier edition with maps was published at Bologna in 1477, of which a lengthy description will be found in The First Engraved Atlas of the World by Edward Lynam.

The binding is of special interest for the manner in which the binder solved the problems involved in preserving a set of sheets which in part required cleaning, repair, or mounting, and in stubbing and binding them without an unsightly fall of the covers towards the fore-edge. The decoration of the joining of leaves and stubs with binder's rolls and colored inks is executed with considerable skill, and the similar decoration in gold has worn remarkably well. The use of very thick boards and the bevelling of the binding edges of the covers inside, to provide a recess for the excess in bulk of the stubs over that of the leaves, has reduced the apparent fall of the covers to a minimum.

From the library of Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, and sold in this binding as Lot 1651 in Part IV of his sale, the seventh day, in February 1845.

Goff P-1083, recording five complete copies in American institutions and one in private hands, with an additional copy owned by the firm of Lathrop C. Harper. The copy here assigned to Lathrop C. Harper is probably the one now at Lilly, which was presented to The Lilly Library by Mr. Bernardo Mendel on the occasion of the dedication of the Mendel Room in the Library.


EPISTELEN ENDE EWANGELIEN. [Plenarium.] [Utrecht: Johan Veldener], 4 November 1478.

Folio 2: Hier beghinnen alle die epistelen ende ewangelien mitten sermoenen vanden ghehelen jaere. . . . (The Epistles and Gospels for the liturgical year, de tempore et de sanctis, with sermons, translated from Latin into "goeden duytsche.") Complete in 328 leaves, the first and last two leaves blank, the printed leaves foliated from 1 to 325 (misprinted 305) in roman numerals, with many errors. Lettres bâtardes, 24 lines to the page. Sectional initials in red and blue, other initials in red or blue, printed initials rubricated. Casual notes on initial blank. Small 4to in eights, 16th-century calf ruled in blind, beveled edges, covers lined with vellum, two leather and metal clasps (one broken) hinged on lower cover. Rebacked in pigskin, some minor repairs. Leaves measure 205 x 145 mm. Some light marginal staining.

Lilly Library call number: BX 2003 1478 vault

Pellechet 4597, a variant edition of 4596; Campbell Annales, Second Supplement, 687 a, does not account for the two terminal blanks. Lotte and Wytze Hellinga, The Fifteenth Century Printing Types of The Low Countries, identify the type in their series as 5:114B (Vol. I, p. 47). The misfoliations noted above are most often omissions or inversions (as CCii for CCvii or CClxi for CCxli), but also include errors made during imposition.

With the question of the Petrarca Septem Psalmi . . . , etc. in mind (see nos. 61 and 62), the watermarks of this title printed by Veldener have been checked, but no identification with a watermark of Jean Le Bé II has been made; many examples are hardly to be made out, particularly in the center of this very tightly bound book. The most frequent watermark is a capital "P" with claw base and a surmounting quatrefoil.

Goff E-65, the only copy recorded in America. A description on the letterhead of bookseller Hans P. Kraus, from whom Mr. Poole purchased this book, describes it as the Prince Arenberg copy. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


SACROBOSCO (or SACROBUSTO), JOHANNES DE (i.e., John Holy wood). Sphaera Mundi, "The Sphere of the World". Venice: Franciscus Renner de Heilbronn], 1478.

Folio 1, in red: Iohannis de sacrobusto anglici uiri clarissimi Spera mundi feliciter incipit. Folio 29, in red: Gerardi cremonensis uiri clarissimi Theorica planetarum feliciter incipit. Complete in 48 printed leaves. Roman type, 25 lines to the page. Woodcut initials, printed marginal notes. Woodcut diagrams in text, one partly colored by hand and one probably printed in red and black. Five marginalia. Small 4to in eights, sixes, and tens, late 18th-century cartonnage, spine lettered in ink. Leaves measure 205 x 147 mm. First and last leaves lightly browned. With an ownership inscription, library stamps, and the bookplate of Bernardo Mendel.

Lilly Library call number: QB 41 .S2 1478 vault

BMC V, 195. In the first caption title, note "Spera" for "Sphaera." The 13th-century Sphaera Mundi was one of the most popular astronomical works of the incunable period and was reprinted many times. The authorship of the Theorica Planetarum or "Theory of the Planets" is generally attributed to Gerard of Cremona, the 12th-century translator of Ptolemy's Almagest, but may be the work of a 13th-century Gerard of similar cognomen.

On folio 27 verso, the schema of solar and lunar eclipses has been printed in black, the sun and the sunward sides of the moon and earth hand-colored in red, and the shadows cast by the moon and the earth hand-colored in green. On folio 38 verso, the diagram of the orbit of Mercury is in black and red, the red portion having every appearance of being printed, with traces of runoff into certain white areas.

The marginalia include one gross error, "correcting" the classical figure of 252,000 stadia for the earth's circumference to 52,000 stadia.

Marks of previous owners include the inscribed name S. P. Rigaud and date "March 27, 1832" on the free front endpaper, with notes on the book in French and English in the same hand on the verso; and two rubber stamps of the Radcliffe Observatory at Oxford.

Goff J-402. This edition is held by many American institutions, and by three private owners. One copy was owned by the bookselling firm of Lathrop Harper at the time of publication of the Census. From the Mendel collection


CHAUCER, GEOFFREY. [The Canterbury Tales. Westminster: William Caxton, about 1478.]

356 leaves (of 374), lacking the first 8 leaves, folio 169 (the ending of the Summoner's Tale and the beginning of the Prologue to the Tale of the Clerk of Oxenford), folio 266, folios 364-365, and folios 369-374; of these missing leaves, folio 1, folio 266, and folio 374 are blanks. Except for folio 266, the missing leaves have been replaced by blank leaves of different paper. Lettres bâtardes, 29 lines to the page; printed initial guides. Manuscript initials in red. A few inscriptions in early hands. Two modern foliations, one incorrect. Small folio, modern full maroon levant, gilt edges, by Rivière; hinges cracked, front hinge repaired. Leaves measure 285 x 204 mm. A number of leaves at front and back partially or entirely remargined, with some facsimile; others soiled, creased, and repaired. With three 17th-century ownership inscriptions, and the bookplates of Richard Bennett and J. Pierpont Morgan.

Lilly Library call number: PR 1865 1478 vault

GKW 6585; editio princeps of the first major poetical work in English literature to be printed. On the great virtues of the text, as well as the superior editing of the second edition, it should be enough to quote one of the sentences which the clergyman of E.E. Hale's My Double and How He Undid Me taught his illiterate stand-in: "There has been so much said, and, on the whole, so well said, that I will not longer occupy the time."

The Heber-Bright-Ashburnham-Bennett-Morgan-Poole copy, listed in the De Ricci Census of Caxtons as 22.11, although variations in the description will be noted by the careful reader. First among the discrepancies is De Ricci's count of missing leaves, in which he gives the correct total of 18, but omits to mention the lack of folio 169 in the detailed list. Second is the description of the binding as "Modern brown mor."; and third is the leaf size given by De Ricci as 288 x 210 mm. Since the Bennett Caxtons were already in the possession of Mr. Morgan when De Ricci started his census in 1905, he almost certainly did not see this copy but had to rely on information supplied; he mentions that he had often to convert measurements by inch into millimetres, with some probable slight inaccuracies, which may account for the discrepancy in size. Furthermore, the spine is so deeply soiled that, if the color of the binding were reported from the "shelf-back" position, it may well have been reported as brown.

In Heber's sale catalogue of 1834 (IV, p. 115, no. 815) the book is described as bound in red morocco — certainly not this binding, since Rivière was not at that time established in London. The Earl of Ashburnham's addition of leaves, described by De Ricci, would have required rebinding. When Rivière got the commission, probably about the time of the 1897 Ashburnham sale, as evidenced by the quality of the levant, the blank leaves for insertion apparently were supplied by Sangorski, since that name appears under ultra-violet light in an erasure on the inserted blank folio 364. The tightness of the binding, and possibly also mishandling, would account for the breaking of the front hinge, and a clumsy repair of this damage has disturbed the gilded fore-edge in the early part of the book. The cracking of the back hinge is apparently a subsequent injury.

Casual scribblings in early hands adorn several margins, some faded or erased. Typical of these practice phrases is one at folio 57, "Your good mayster-shypp," in a 17th-century hand. Also in a 17th-century hand, at folio 58, is the statement "This is Ihon Hauffurd boke." At folio 155, in a formal roman of the same period, appears an attestation in barbarous Latin: "Iste liber pertenit ad Johannes Hafordus de lamcot in Commentatu Predictum Warwicoo testatur Ricardus Bllickeus. R (paraph) B." With two words illegible, another inscription of the period is at folio 264: "Thys is Thomas Haufards boke......ii s." The names Shuckburgh and Sandipratt, again in a 17th-century hand, have been erased from the margins of two leaves. Lambcote and Shuckburgh are very close to each other in S. Warwick.

Goff C-431 reports six fairly complete copies in America, none, of course, perfect; this listing incorrectly identifies this copy as De Ricci 22.22. There may be some confusion here with 22.21, once Mr. Lilly's copy, which was sold by The Lilly Library in a sale of duplicates 8 November 1962 at the Parke-Bernet Galleries and is presently in the holdings of The Brick House, Mr. Paul Mellon's collection, in Virginia. The present Lilly copy, De Ricci 22.11, was purchased by Mr. Poole in 1954 from Hans P. Kraus, New York bookseller, whose penciled note on the missing leaves is inside the back cover. It was acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.

The Lilly Library also owns a copy of the second edition of The Canterbury Tales, the date of which precludes its appearance in this exhibition and catalogue. At present, the only libraries in America owning both editions are the Pierpont Morgan Library, The Brick House, and Lilly. The recently announced gift of Mr. Mellon's collection to Yale University, by the newspaper accounts, should include the two Canterbury Tales, a major addition to Yale's holdings, which presently include only a defective copy of the second edition.


AUGUSTINUS, AURELIUS. De civitate dei. Basle: Michael Wenssler [and Bernhard Richel], 25 March 1479.

Folio 3, in red: Aurelii augustini ipponensis episcopi doctoris eximii de ciuitate dei. contra paganos liber primus incipit. (The City of God with appended commentaries by Nicholas Trivet and Thomas Valois (or Waleys), and terminal index to the commentaries by Brother Nicholas Cerseth.) 247 leaves (of 248), lacking the initial blank. Rounded gothic type in three fonts, the text set in two large types in 2 columns and 56 lines to the page, the commentaries set in a smaller type in 2 columns and 73 lines to the page; printed in red and black, with two printer's marks in red. Manuscript headlines in red, four manuscript initials decorated in three or more colors, other initials in red and blue or red alone; printed initials heightened in yellow. Traces of an early quiring system. Folio, early 19th-century morocco over wooden boards, with metal clasps; rubbed. Leaves measure 480 x 335 mm. With two partially erased owners' inscriptions of the 17th century, and a modern one at front.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .A92 C58 1479 vault

GKW 2885. Gatherings [k] and [l] of the text are set in Richel's type I:119 G., which accounts for his bracketed inclusion in the imprint. On folio 2, the caption in red is in mixed state, with the words "Sentētia" and "retractatōnum" correctly thus, but with a standard and not a 2-form "r" in "libro." In the incipit to the commentaries, the text is in the state with "et" contracted between the authors' names. Nota bene: in the incipit at folio 3 (above), the word "ciuitate" appears to be "cluitate," but examination under proper magnification and light reveal this to be a fault in the inking and not a misprint.

The decoration and lettering are probably in two hands, the more expert providing the headlines and the multi-colored initials, the less expert doing the book initials in red and blue as well as the bulk of the other initials. The ownership inscriptions on recto and verso of folio 2, heavily erased, are those of an 18th-century Observant (strict) Franciscan Convent of St. Mary Magdalene. The modern inscription, "Ex libris Hans Meyer / Leipzig," is written inside the front cover.

Goff A-1241 locates eight other copies in America, all in institutions. The Lilly copy was purchased for Special Collections in 1957.


SOLINUS, CAIUS JULIUS. [Polyhistor.] Parma: Andreas Portilia, 20 December 1479.

Folio 5: De origine & temporibus urbis Romae .... 98 leaves (of 102), lacking folios 1-4, of which folio 1 is a blank. Roman type, 27-28 lines to the page, printed initial guides. Small 4to (mostly in eights), early 19th-century quarter sheep with contrasting labels. Leaves measure 201-208 x 150 mm., the fore-edge margin approximating the bottom margin in size. Some light foxing and soiling; the first leaf present has a perforated library stamp.

Lilly Library call number: G 113 .S7 1480 vault

BMC VII, 937. The form of the printed date in the colophon is "M. cccclxxx. xiii. Kalen̄ . Ianuariis." Leaves b 2, b 4, and c 1 unsigned. The perforated library stamp is that of Indiana University Library; two neat inscriptions in ink indicate that the book was bought with Latin Department funds 27 December 1927 from the bookseller Zanichelli. This is the first recorded purchase of any incunable included in this catalogue. A charge slip and manila envelope are pasted to the back endpapers, neither recording any circulations of this piece.

Goff S-619, reporting 15 American institutional owners, two private owners, and one copy in the hands of a dealer at the time of publication of the Third Census.


EUSEBIUS PAMPHILI (Caesariensis). Historia ecclesiastica. Mantua: Johannes Schallus, 1479.

Folio 1 verso: Illustrissimo & Inuictissimo Mantuanorum Principi Frederico Gonzage Iohannes Schallus Herosfeldensis physicus obsequentissimus. Folio 10: Incipit liber primus hystorie eccleslastice. (Latin translation by Tyrannius Rufinus, 4th-century presbyter.) 172 leaves, complete with terminal blank. Roman type, 34 lines to the page, folios 161-162 some lines short as described in BMC; printed catchwords. Some words and captions painted over in green. Book initials crudely painted in red and green, chapter initials in red, printed initials rubricated; marginal chapter guides in two contemporary hands. Book I with marginalia in an exquisite 17th-century hand. Folio, late 17th-century morocco pasted over a 16th-century binding of purple sheep, now heavily soiled; wooden boards, metal sites for clasps hinged on the lower cover. The front cover badly wormed. Leaves measure 297 x 205 mm. Minor damage to front and back leaves by protruding nails for missing metal pieces of original binding; some worming at front.

Lilly Library call number: BR 160 .E4 1479 vault

BMC VII, 933-934. The present copy with the name "Frederico" at folio 1 verso as above; Hain and Polain report "Federico." Apart from the three books definitely printed by Schallus at Mantua, in 1475 and 1479, nothing is known about him except his statement, transcribed above, that he was a native of Hersfeld in Hesse and a physician. The type used in this Eusebius closely resembles one used by Schriber at Bologna and may have been borrowed, which, together with his medical title, may imply that Schallus was a dilettante rather than a professional printer.

The text, written in the 4th century, is essential for the history of the Christian Church. Although not free from errors of fact and inconsistent in chronology, it brought together a body of information which has been drawn upon, added to, and continued for centuries.

The wooden covers of the original binding are unlined, although offset from a liturgical manuscript with traces of neumes for chanting is visible in patches inside the back cover. The removal of such a manuscript is regrettable, but it leaves clearly visible the routing out of the wood to receive the vellum cords of the binding and the pegging in of the cords to hold them firm. The stamp of a German bookseller appears inside the front cover, and the front flyleaf has a number of references and notes in modern Continental hands.

The paper is watermarked with a "basilisk" best described as a two-footed wingless dragon type. The flyleaf inserted at back is 15th-century paper and has for watermark an oxhead surmounted by a floweret, with a long line hanging from the jaw, crossed twice, and ending in a triangle with the apex down.

Goff E-127 records 36 American owners. Acquired by The Lilly Library with the Poole collection.


PEROTTI, NICCOLO. Rudimenta grammatices. Milan: Pachel and Scinzenzeler, 30 September 1480.

Folio 2: NICOLAI PEROTTI AD PYRRHVM PEROTTVM NEPOTEM EX FRATRE SVAVISSIMO RVDIMENTA GRAMMATICES. 104 leaves (of 106), lacking the initial and terminal blanks. Roman type, 36 lines to the page, printed initial guides, a few spaces left for the manuscript interpolation of Greek terms (unfilled). With marginal notes and scribblings. 4to in eights and one ten, 18th-century boards with narrow, mottled sheep spine, sprinkled edges. Full-size leaves measure 269 x 190 mm. Leaves much stained and repaired; the first gathering and some other leaves stubbed or remargined. With the bookplate of Giammaria Guizzetti, an 18th-century ownership inscription, and a perforated library stamp.

Lilly Library call number: PA 2073 .P4 1480

BMC VI, 748. Perotti (1430-1480) was a Latinist of distinction and an ecclesiastical functionary. He was close to Cardinal Bessarion and a legend persists that, as conclavist for Bessarion, he lost the Cardinal's election to the Papacy by refusing to disturb him at his studies.

This Latin grammar was widely used in the incunable period and the present copy bears striking testimony to its continued use in Latin instruction into the 17th century. Early 16th-century hands at various points enter marginal references and comment on grammatical matters or occasionally add bits of wisdom to printed examples ("et facilis est descensus averni"). Later hands add to the lists of Italian equivalents provided, as in the reflexive verbs. Finally two hands, similar in ink, immaturity, and period, which we take to be not earlier than the 17th century, add paradigms, casual remarks ("Hie liber est meus") and mock-pious thanks at having completed a section. On the last page appears twice — complete in one hand and unfinished in the other — the information, "Io re tengo caro come la vita mia propria galana." If the word "galana," as recorded in a modern Italian dictionary, here means turtle, we leave you with this thought unadorned — and also with the memory of what you once wrote in the Latin texts of your youth.

The engraved bookplate at front bears the inscription "Fratelli Guizzetti qm. Giammaria" and dates from the late 18th century. On the binder's leaf at end is the name Mathei Bellari in an 18th-century hand. The perforated stamp is that of Indiana University Libraries, and further ink inscriptions indicate that the book was purchased with general funds in February, 1928, from the Italian dealer Zanichelli.

Goff P-318. While many editions of this grammar are held by American libraries, only two copies of this edition are located by Mr. Goff, one at the Newberry and the other at Lilly, a strength for the Midlands which we would like to see repeated much more often.


VALLA, LAURENTIUS. Elegantiae. De pronomine sui. Venice: eponymous press, 1480.

Folio 1 verso: LAVrentii Vallensis elegantiarum compendiosae collectionis in ordinem alphabeti directae principium. Folio 179, line 8: LAVRENTII Vallensis . . . de reciprocatione sui & suus. (A grammatical work on the finer points of Latin usage.) 190 leaves, complete with terminal blank. Roman type with a few words of Greek, 37 lines to the page, printed initial guides; preliminary tables set in 2 columns. Foliated in a 16th-century hand (1-12, 1-177 [1]), chapters numbered in a later hand. Early inscriptions in Latin, and inexpert sketches, on both vellum flyleaves. Small folio, contemporary Belluno binding of brown morocco tooled in blind, 7 metal bosses of an original 10 remaining, 1 leather and metal clasp remaining of 4 hinged on the upper cover; edges painted, fore-edge historiated. Leaves 297 x 205 mm. Folio 2 in on a vellum stub; its putative cognate, folio 7, misbound or wrongly imposed, with the text of the recto on verso and vice versa. Either or both may have been supplied when the book went into this binding. Some leaves stained. Inscriptions by one early owner at front and back; bookplate of Sir Thomas Brooke and the "Bibliothèque Pillone" bookplate of the firm of Pierre Berès.

Lilly Library call number: PA 2311 .V17 1480 vault

BMC V, 297-298; there described as the only known product of this press. BMC accounts for Hain's error (*15809) in giving the number of leaves as 194, but then itself falters by describing the second signature as having only six leaves and by not recording the number of leaves in the last five signatures. A correct collation would be: [*]8 a8 b6 c-g8 h6 i8 k6 I8 m8 n-q6 r8 s6 t8 u6 x-z8 &8 [contraction for -rum]8, for a total of 190 leaves which would not be possible with a6.

This copy is No. 63 in the catalogue Bibliothèque Pillone of the firm of Pierre Berès, but some particulars are omitted in the description. The compiler did not record that this volume, in common with six other incunables in contemporary bindings described in the catalogue, has the initials "BC" literally burned into the front cover at the top of the central panel, the mark of a pre-Pillone owner not identified in the catalogue (but see below). The upper border of the front cover contains the words "Laurentius Valla" written in ink in an early roman hand. The fore-edge painting showing Valla in a professor's chair lecturing to three students also has the letters "L de V" at the bottom. Lionello Venturi's preface to the Berès catalogue presents the evidence for attributing the Pillone fore-edge paintings to Cesare Vecellio, cousin and pupil of Titian, and for dating their execution at some time between 1580 and 1590. The colors are faded and the picture is in part distorted by the uneven edges of the leaves. The top and bottom edges are also colored but not historiated; they are painted orange with a design in black of very irregular diamonds.

The Latin inscriptions on the vellum flyleaves are contemporary with the period of printing. On the recto of the front flyleaf, in a humanist hand, are eight terze rime in iambic tetrameter, admonitions to students, beginning:

"Dies vestros ne perdatis
Vanas curas deponatis
Et cor mundum habeatis."

On the verso, in a semi-cursive hand, are written seven adjectives and two verbs. The juxtaposition of "doctus" and "peritus" suggests that the writer was considering questions of usage such as are discussed in Valla's text. Neither word appears in the printed index. The sketches on the two flyleaves include a dog chasing a rabbit, a spearman, and other demonstrations of a total lack of artistic ability. The few words on the back flyleaf appear to be pen trials.

The ownership inscription inside the back cover is in roman with a Teutonic "h" and reads "Liber Troyli de Cauasicho, Amicorumque nostrorum." The inscription on the front flyleaf in unvaried roman records the purchase of the book: "Liber Troyli de Cauasicho emptus ab hercule de doyono die .25. Septembris 1484"; the date is given as 1489 in the Berès catalogue but the numeral forms of the second and fourth digits match, both being transitional arabic fours. The name Cavasicho brings to mind the letters "B.C." burned on the front cover, and the possibility that this may be the brand of another member of the same family. Mr. Anthony Hobson, in an article in The Book Collector (VII, 28 et seq.) on the Pillone library, reports that a book in the Belluno archives has an acquisition inscription signed by one Bartolommeo Cavassico [sic] of Belluno and dated 1528. He also presents evidence for the existence of binding facilities at Belluno, using characteristic tools found on the Lilly volume and other Pillone books and on the book with the inscription by Bartolommeo Cavassico. Therefore, a reasonable sequence would be that the Lilly copy of Valla's Elegantiae was bought by Troylus de Cavassico in 1484, was probably bound for him at Belluno, and then passed to an heir Bartolommeo de Cavassico, who branded it; and that from him it went into the Pillone library.

The Pillone library was collected by Antonio Pillone and his son Odorico during the approximate period 1490-1590. It remained at Belluno until 1874, when it went to Venice as the property of an antiquarian dealer. From Venice the decorated volumes went into the collection of Sir Thomas Brooke and were sold by his heirs, as a unit, to Pierre Berès in 1957.

Goff V-58 records five institutional owners, one private owner, and one copy belonging to the firm of Lathrop C. Harper when the Census was issued. To these owners The Lilly Library must now be added, not because of failure to report to the 1964 Census, but because the book was bought too recently, in fact during the compilation of this catalogue. We offer this information to our readers as an earnest that the interest in fine incunables continues at Lilly.

"Laus deo pax viviis
requies eterna defunctis"
— No. 38


All references are to catalogue number and to the book described at that point. There are no entries for other titles, persons, or places mentioned in the text of the note. Subjects covered by this index comprise author, title, printer or publisher, country and place of printing, editors and translators.


Beginning with Discovery, exhibit catalogs and other publications from The Lilly Library are numbered consecutively. A list of the unnumbered publications (most are out of print) issued prior to this numbered series follows:

One thousand copies of this catalog have been printed. The text is in 8-, 10-, and 11-point Baskerville.

The catalog was designed by the Office of University Publications. This exhibit was prepared and the descriptive notes written for the catalog by Josiah Q. Bennett and W. Gordon Wheeler.

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