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The Ian Fleming Collection of 19th-20th Century Source Material Concerning Western Civilization together with the Originals of the James Bond-007 Tales: a machine-readable transcription

Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)

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Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington). The Ian Fleming Collection of 19th-20th Century Source Material Concerning Western Civilization together with the Originals of the James Bond-007 Tales. [4], 3-53 p. : ill., ports., facsims. ; 28 cm. [Lilly Library], [Bloomington, IN] [1971].

Lilly Library call number: Z881 .I394 I12

The Ian Fleming Collection of 19th-20th Century Source Material Concerning Western Civilization together with the Originals of the James Bond-007 Tales



Ian Fleming has listed under "Recreations" in Who's Who, "First Edition Collecting." Aside from this he did nothing to publicize his hobby, nor the fact that he was the founder and proprietor ofThe Book Collector, the famous British antiquarian quarterly.

His collection first came to public notice when the IPEX exhibition,Printing and the Mind of Man, was held in London in 1963. This was unquestionably as claimed, "the most impressive collection of books ever gathered under one roof." Sixty-three libraries and individuals from over a dozen countries lent over four hundred titles. Of these about 10 percent came from the Fleming collection (forty-four), exceeded only by King's College, Cambridge (fifty-one), and followed by Lilly Library's thirty-one. The exhibition began with the only known surviving proof sheet of the Gutenberg Bible, lent by the Lilly Library, and ended with Churchill's famed "Battle of Britain" speech, 1940.

The Fleming contributions included two books of the 18th, twenty-nine of the 19th and thirteen of the 20th centuries. All of these, with their original descriptions, are printed in Part I of this catalogue. Though he had many other books which were also included in the exhibition, this portion is restricted to only those which were actually exhibited. Part II is an attempt to show something of the variety of subjects in which he was interested, aside from the conventional high-spots. He was passionately interested in ideas: books which he said "started something," or "made things happen."

Bill from Elkin Mathews for the books which began Fleming's collection.

It was, four decades ago, an unexplored field. The earlier traditional "milestones" didn't interest him very much, as, even at that time, he couldn't or wouldn't pay the going price for them. But he assembled, under the guidance and with the help ofPercy Muir, his oldest and closest friend in the book world, not only asJohn Hayword recorded "the primary printed sources for the great discoveries, inventions, and scientific theories of modern times ... but also a fascinating selection of minor treatises." And he added: "We hope [the collection] may be preserved intact. It is of immense educational interest and should be on permanent exhibition in the youth-thronged halls of London's Science Museum."

Indeed, during the prolonged negotiations before the Lilly Library acquired the collection, there were serious doubts that an export license could be obtained for the books and manuscripts. Happily these fears proved groundless.

The fullest account of why, how, and from whom Fleming acquired the books isPercy Muir's article in The Book Collector, Spring, 1965. Though the idea was Fleming's, the work was Muir's, and the collection was made in a remarkably short time, largely concentrated in the last half-decade of the 1930's. Muir comments: "It would be invidious for me to speak too highly of the collection. Suffice it to say that in its formation is one of the proudest achievements of my life."

When Fleming lost interest in collecting, the writer of these notes attempted, through John Carter, then Scribner's London agent and a long- time friend of Fleming (they were at Eton together), to purchase the collection. However, the wily Fleming preferred to let it sit in a London depository as a hedge against inflation. In this he was right. After his death, the books were left in trust for his son; eventually, through the good offices of Percy Muir, head of the famed rare book shop Elkins Mathews, Ltd., of which, incidentally, Fleming was a Director, they came to Indiana University.

Space limitations allow the exhibition of about a hundred and fifty (of the more than a thousand) books in the collection. Forty-four of these, as is mentioned, were in thePrinting and the Mind of Man exhibition and form Part I of this catalogue.

The selection of Part II, about one hundred representative works from the remainder of the collection, presented a problem. We finally decided to eliminate literature entirely, as well as most of the well-known works in mathematics, medicine, science (which are often exhibited), and to show in arbitrary groups, some "minor treatises" less often seen or indeed, even now, collected.

The following Précis, written for this catalogue byPercy Muir, gives a better account of what the collection is all about than can this necessarily limited catalogue.

Fleming's library in his home at Sevenhampton, near Surndon

The Fleming Collection

Modern civilization was fashioned in the nineteenth century. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that the world of 1800 was much closer in its essentials to prehistoric Egypt than to the world of 1970. Without particularising too closely one may remark a few indicative details.

Candles were, in 1800, still the commonest form of illumination; horses on land, and sailing ships at sea were the most efficient forms of traction and transport. Although steam was not unknown as a source of power, the commonest use of coal was to burn it in an open grate to heat rooms. The industrial revolution had begun, but cheap manual labor was responsible for the vast majority of manufacturing processes, although supplemented by four-footed beasts where possible.

Communication between distant points could be effected under favorable circumstances by a chain of visual semaphore stations—to describe which the word "telegraphy" was devised—even the heliograph had to await the invention of Morse before its flashes could be built into words. The commemoration of Paul Revere's ride is a reminder that speedy horsemanship was resorted to in emergency.

In medicine the remedies of quacks and "old wives" were still prescribed by the profession. Surgeons were classed with barbers, and the unhappy subject of a major operation, if he survived the shock caused by lack of anaesthetics or loss of blood, might well succumb to the sequel due to ignorance of the need for aseptic precautions.

In pure science the position is, perhaps, indicated by the fact that the science was generally referred to as natural philosophy. Thomas Young, almost the last of the great dilletantes who dabbled—and in his cases to some purposes—in almost every branch of science, was as typical of the old regime as the new class of professional scientist, typified by Davy and Faraday, was of the new.

The Fleming Collection was an attempt to gather together, in first editions, the original contributions of the scientists and practical workers, the total body of whose work has been responsible for the modern revolution.

Thus, in relation to aeronautics, he had the original edition of Lilienthal's great work on gliding; the first printed papers of the Wright Brothers—which incidentally pay tribute to the fundamental nature of Lilienthal's experiments—and Langley's description of his machine, which has strong claims to having forestalled the Wrights. There is also considerable supplementary material in the shape of early training manuals, Sir George Cayley's important paper on airpropellers (1809-1810), etc.

On the telegraph he had the original papers of Wheatstone and Cooke, Ronalds and Steinheil; while Bell's original description of his invention of the telephone, although as late as 1876, is one of the principal rarities in the Collection.

On radio there are the original theoretical contributions by Faraday and Clerk-Maxwell which led directly to the discovery of the waves named after him by Heinrich Hertz. But the collection also covers the translation of these theoretical experiments in pure science into the practical sequel of wireless communications as we know it with, for example, Marconi's own description of his "detector," read to the Royal Society in 1902, and Fleming's first announcement of the valve that eventually made broadcasting a possibility—Royal Society, 1905.

But, generally speaking, the principle upon which the collection was based is a recognition that invention tends more and more to result from the practical application of some phase of advance in pure scientific theory; that is to say, of a discovery in pure science which has a wider and deeper significance than the particular gadget devised from it, which may become frontpage news.

In no sphere of activity is this more obvious than in the realm of atomic fission, the history of which is covered from its very onset and in the closest detail in this collection, and which includes a number of papers of the utmost rarity, judged by any standard.

The foundation stone was laid by Rontgen in the two papers of 1895-6 describing the X rays. Becquerel guessed that these rays were not unique and discovered radio-activity in uranium. His assistant, Madame Curie, and her husband carried the investigation further and isolated radium.

Meanwhile, theoreticians like Lorentz and Thomson, following up experiments with cathode tubes by Crookes and Lenard, had discovered the electron (which was christened by Stoney), and Ramsay, Aston, Soddy, Moseley, and others had made further progress based on the Curie and Thomson discoveries, which enabled Rutherford and his associates finally to split the atom. In the collection, every single step in this process is fully covered by means of the original material, and with a wealth of detail impossible to mention here; included as well is the early background of the atomic theory, with its original pronouncement by Dalton; the compilation of atomic tables by Newlands, Meyer, and others; and the closely relevant relativity theory, with all Einstein's papers and those of his associates, Minkowski, Lorentz, and Millikan; the original account of the Michelson-Morley experiment, which can be accounted for on no other ground; the background work of Robert Brown (Brownian movement), van't Hoff, and others; and the discovery that Euclidean geometry did not work in practice, with the devising of a new geometry that does, by Lobatschewski.

This is perhaps, and fittingly, the most strikingly and thoroughly complete of all sections of the library and it is notable here, as elsewhere, that a large number of the papers and books contained in it won Nobel Prizes for their authors.

But whether in the development of the germ-theory of disease—with the major contributions of Pasteur, Koch, Lister, Schick, Wassermann, Ross, Ehrlich, Metchnikoff, and others; of economic theory and sociology with Moore, Marx (including the very rare first issue of the "Communist Manifesto"), Engels, and Lenin (a remarkable collection of original material) on the one hand, or Hitler ("Mein Kampf" and the exceptionally rare programme of the Nazi party on a throw-away) and his background, Fichte, Gobineau, Stewart-Chamberlain, and Richard Wagner, on the other hand; of evolution, with Darwin (not only the "Origin" of 1859), Lyell, Lamarck, W.C. Wells, Chambers, Mutton, and other forerunners; of mathematics, with almost every single figure of consequence during the period— Laplace, Charles, Euler, Gauss, Crassmann, Cauchy, W. R. Hamilton, Crelle, Hankel, Plucker, Staudt, Weber, Booke, Dedkind, Steiner, etc.; of psychology and psychiatry, with Freud (all the important books in first editions), Jung, Pavlov, Watson ("Behaviourism") Chariot, Binet (deviser of the "I.Q."), William James, Braid, Bernheim, Prichard (moral insanity), Pinel, etc., etc., etc.—in almost every direction the collection is amply representative.

Near the end of Fleming's collecting, an attempt to represent the important literary figures of the period was begun. Although it did not progress very far, this section includes first editions of Goethe (including the rare first issue of "Werther"), Byron ("Childe Harold"), Balzac, Butler, Dickens, Maeterlinck, Maupassant, Lautreamont ("Le Conte de Maldoror," now claimed by the surrealists as their foundation work), Pater, Kipling, Proust, Rilke, Schiller, Schnitzler, Scott, Gertrude Stein, Stevenson, Strachey, Synge, Tennyson, Tolstoi, Turgenev, Zola, etc.

It should be emphasized that, in every case where literary, scientific, or philosophical works are concerned, the books are in the language in which they were originally issued.

Every item in the library is preserved in a fleece-lined buckram box, with a morocco lettering-piece of a color to indicate the section to which it belongs: red for sociology, orange for pure science, green for medicine, and so on.

Muir has recorded that he "grudged the money spent on boxes instead of books," as does the undersigned.

David A. Randall Librarian, The Lilly Library.

Part I: Printing and the Mind of Man

The genesis of this famous show was actually an exhibition of printing in honor of Gutenberg held at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England, in the spring of 1940. It drew heavily on Fleming's collection. However, it was little noticed at the time as, opening late in April, it was closed in less than a month because of the danger of bombing, "to be re-assembled in a happier time." This turned out to be July, 1963, at Earl's Court, London, at the Eleventh International Printing Machinery and Allied Trades Exhibition (IPEX). The forty-four items exhibited from the Fleming collection follow in chronological order, with their descriptions as there printed.


Leonhard Euler. Introductio in Analysin ininitorum. Lausanne, 1748.

Lilly Library call number: QA35 .E9 1748 vault

Euler wrote a number of works of great importance to the development of pure mathematics. The present book established analytical mathematics as an independent science and reduced analytical operations to a much simpler basis. Many of his principles are still used in teaching mathematics.


Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Principes du droit politique [i.e. Du contrat social]. Amsterdam, 1762.

Lilly Library call number: JC179 .R86 1762

Rousseau (1712-78) was fundamentally at odds with the established beliefs of his time. In the Age of Reason he advocated the greater force of intuition: against artificial refinement, he urged a return to the natural state. So, defying the absolute monarchy of France, he published his exposition of the social contract, never more clearly or powerfully stated, that government is dependent upon the mandate of the people. It had a profound influence on French political thought, and was perhaps more directly the cause of the Revolution than any other single factor. This is probably the second of two printings in 1762. The first, from the Lilly collection, is also exhibited.


Pierre Simon Laplace. Traité de mécanique céleste. Paris, 1799-1825.

Lilly Library call number: QB351 .L31 1799

In this codification of the work of his predecessors, the further consequences of the theories of Newton, Euler, d'Alembert, and Lagrange were brilliantly expounded. Laplace developed an analytical theory of tides, deduced the mass of the moon, improved the calculation of cosmic orbits, and predicted that Saturn's rings would be found to rotate. Most notably of all, he propounded the modern Nebular Hypothesis, independently adumbrated by Kant.


Alexander Volta. On the Electricity Excited by the Mere Contact of Conducting Substances of Different Kinds. In a Letter... to the Rt. Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., K. B., P.R.S. London, 1800.

Lilly Library call number: QC517 .V935

Volta's electric battery, 1800

Pursuing the investigations of Galvani, Volta took the practical step that produced the first continuous and controllable electric current. The voltaic pile revolutionized the theory and practice of electricity so that within 100 years of his invention more progress was made than in the 2,400 years between the tentative experiences of Thales and the publication of Volta's letter. The pile consisted of a series of copper, paper, or pasteboard soaked in a saline or acid fluid. Suitable connexion to an electroscope showed that the pile produced a regular flow of what Volta, with a gracious gesture, called the galvanic fluid.


Karl Ernst von Baer. De ovi mammalium et hominis genesi. Leipzig, 1827.

Lilly Library call number: QL 965 .B14 D27 vault

De Graaf (1641-73) and Haller (1708-77) had investigated the processes of ovulation, but it was left for Baer to plot the course of fertilization from its later stages back to the ovary and there to identify the minute cell which was the ovum. In a second great work, Über Entwicklungsgeschichte der Tiere, 1828-34, he enlarged the field of investigation, and became the founder of modern embryology.


Robert Brown. A Brief Account of Microscopical Observations ... in 1827 ... on the General Existence of Active Molecules in Organic and Inorganic Bodies. London, 1828.

Lilly Library call number: QC 183 .B879

Brown observed under a microscope the irregular movement of minute particles in liquid now known as the "Brownian movement." This movement was explained by Ramsey in 1879 as being due to bombardment of molecules, which was experimentally proved by Perrin in 1908 who was also able to calculate the weight of the molecule of water. The principle involved was further developed by Einstein. This paper also made a contribution to the theory of colloids.


Michael Faraday. Experimental Researches in Electricity. London, 1831.

Lilly Library call number: QC503 .F22

When Faraday was 41 he published the first- and when he was 64 the last- of his original scientific papers on electro-magnetism. They are the foundations of a large part of modern electrical engineering. Faraday himself said of them "it does surprise even my partiality, that [the different parts] should have the degree of consistency and apparent general accuracy which they seem to me to present," and, of the second, "I regret the presence of those papers which partake of a controversial character."


Theodor Schwann. Mikroskopische Unter-suchungen über die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur und dem Wachstum der Thiere und Pflanzen. Berlin, 1839.

Lilly Library call number: QH581 .S396 vault

Schwann adopted the cell theory which Schleiden had propounded but misapplied in 1838. He expanded it into a general theory as the basis of all vital phenomena. He anticipated Pasteur's fermentation theories, and discovered and named pepsin.


John Henry Newman. Remarks on Certain Passages in the Thirty-nine Articles. [London, 1841].

Lilly Library call number: BX5137 .N4

Perhaps the most controversial of the Tracts for the Times ("On the Privileges of the Church and against Popery and Dissent") issued by the leaders of the Oxford Movement. The argument of this tract is to the effect that the XXXIX Articles are capable of being interpreted in a sense compatible with the theology of the Roman Catholic Church. This alarmed many of the leaders of the Church of England, and led all but two of the Heads of houses at Oxford to condemn it.


Ernest Chadwick. Report to Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department from the Poor Law Commissioners, on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population. London, 1842.

Lilly Library call number: RA485 .G78 1842

Chadwick's epoch-making reports as chief executive officer of the newly formed Poor Law Commission. Young, in Early Victorian England, says of the report that it is "a step from which descends by regular stages the Health Board of 1848, the Local Government Board of 1870, the existing Ministry of Health." Engels quotes extensively from this report in his book The Position of the Working Classes of England.


Justus Liebig. Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie. Braunschweig, 1842.

Lilly Library call number: QP514 .L7

This and the companion volume on agriculture entitled him to be regarded as the founder of modern organic and inorganic chemistry. His analyses of innumerable compounds led to syntheses in the laboratory and, for example, to the great artificial fertilizer industry. He founded biochemistry by his researches into the raw materials of which organisms are built.


Boucher de Perthes. Antiquités celtiques et antédiluviennes. Paris, 1847-64.

Lilly Library call number: GN735 .B753 A6

Boucher could not reconcile his discovery of flint implements at Abbeville with the accepted Mosaic cosmogony on Ussher's calculations. He was ridiculed by the orthodox, but his postulate of much more remote human antiquity is now accepted.


Hermann von Helmholtz. Über die Erhaltung der Kraft. Berlin, 1847.

Lilly Library call number: QC73 .H479

This work contains the first comprehensive statement of the law of the conservation of energy— all kinds of energy, heat, light, electricity, and all chemical phenomena, are capable of transformation from one to the other, but are indestructible. Tartaglia, Carnot, Mayer, and Joule made contributions to this theory, but Helmholtz proved it mathematically as capable of universal application. His work led to the construction of efficient heat engines and eventually to the liquefaction of all known gases. Helmholtz invented the ophthalmoscope in 1851 and made many important contributions to physiology, mathematics, and electricity.


Joseph-Arthur Comte de Gobineau. Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines. 4 volumes. Paris, 1853-5.

Lilly Library call number: GB195 .G575

Gobineau championed the theory that "race" is permanent and unchangeable, and proclaimed the Nordic or, as he called them, "Aryan" peoples to be the élite, destined to rule the rest of mankind. Although he considered the Germans a poor mixture of Celts and Slavs, his theories were adopted with special fervour in Germany because they seemed to provide a biological foundation for racism, anti-semitism, and pan-Germanism, culminating in national socialism.


Ferdinand de Lesseps. Percement de l'Isthme de Suez. Paris, 1855.

Lilly Library call number: TC791 .L638 1855

On 30 November 1854 de Lesseps received a concession from the Egyptian Viceroy which authorized the construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Suez. The indifference of the Sultan and the declared opposition of the British were serious obstacles which de Lesseps had to overcome, with other obstacles nearer home. The first step was to outline his project in full in this book. Construction was begun in 1859, and the canal was formally opened to traffic ten years later.


Johann Carl Fühlrot. Menschliche Überreste aus einer Felsengrotte des Düsselthals. Bonn, 1857 and 1859.

Lilly Library call number: no call

Human remains handed by quarry workers in the Neander Valley to Fühlrot, an Elberfeld archaeologist, were described in these two papers presented jointly with Schaafhausen to a Rhineland natural history society. Described more fully and publicly in Müller's Archiv in 1858 they evoked Virchow's pronouncement that the skull was that of an idiot. Huxley took the discovery as a cornerstone in Man's Place in Nature, 1863, and thus the human race was brought within the scope of evolutionary theory.


Charles Darwin. On the Origin of Species. London, 1859.

Lilly Library call number: QH365 .O2 1859 Vault

The opening statement on the theory of evolution

Darwin was one of the great generalizers—Newton and Einstein are others “who have profoundly affected the mind of man. The scientific-cum-theological dogma of the immutability of species had been proof against sceptics from Lucretius to Lyell. They guessed at what Darwin was the first to prove. From being an a priori anticipation the theory of evolution became with Darwin an interpretation of nature and eventually a causal theory affecting every department of scientific research. This is what is essential in Darwin's contribution. The modifications due to the rediscovery of Mendel's investigations by Bateson, Weissman's germ-plasm hypothesis, and the virtual elimination of "natural selection" as the basic cause of evolutionary change do not affect Darwin's eminence as a pioneer. The joint paper by Darwin and Wallace was communicated to the Linnaean Society at the suggestion of J. D. Hooker, Darwin's mentor, to resolve the situation caused by the discovery that Wallace had been thinking along the same lines as Darwin, though without his wealth of observational material.


James Clerk Maxwell. A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. London, 1864.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no. 71

Faraday discovered that electricity could influence a light beam. Maxwell's twenty equations proclaimed the electromagnetic nature of light which brought both electricity and light within the scope of dynamics, the wave theory of electricity which led to wireless, and the corpuscular theory of electricity which foreshadowed the electron. The further implications of this discovery were worked out by Einstein.


Alexander Graham Bell. Researches in Telephony. New York, 1876.

Lilly Library call number: TK6018 .B4 R42

The first intelligible sentences exchanged over the telephone, were from one room to another in the same house. They were "Do you understand what I say?" "Yes; I understand you perfectly." In the same month, March 1876, Bell took out his first patent which, though often contested, was uniformly upheld by the courts. Bell was born in Edinburgh. He became an American citizen in 1874.


Robert Koch. Die Aetiologie der Tuberkulose. Berlin, 1882.

Lilly Library call number: RC 310.5 .K79

In this short paper Koch announced his isolation of the tubercle bacillus, and the special culture and differential staining methods he had first introduced in 1876. These new methods of identifying and later of photographing microscopic objects were further advanced by Ehrlich. Koch's great work on the etiology of surgical infections, 1878, is a medical classic.


Friedrich Nietzsche. Also sprach Zarathustra. Parts I-III. Chemnitz, 1883.
Friedrich Nietzsche. Also sprach Zarathustra. Part IV. Leipzig, 1891.

Lilly Library call number: B3313 .A46 1883 v. 1-4

The culmination of his aristocratic nihilism, his revolt against all convention, religious or social, cast in aphoristic form with epigrammatic wit and force of expression, are best displayed in this psuedo-prophetical work.


General William Booth. In Darkest England. London, [1890].

Lilly Library call number: HV4387 .B725 1890

In 1878 Booth founded the Salvation Army, and in 1890, the same year that Stanley published In Darkest Africa, he published In Darkest England and The Way Out. In this book he analyzed the causes of the pauperism and vi ce of the period, and proposed a remedy by ten expedients. These included land settlement, emigration, rescue work among prostitutes and at the prison-gate, the poor man's bank, and the poor man's lawyer. Money was liberally subscribed, and a large part of the scheme was carried through.


Sir Francis Galton. Finger Prints. London, 1892.

Lilly Library call number: GN192 .G18 F49

Though the use of fingerprints as identification marks is of very ancient origin, Galton was the first to explain their possibilities for identifying criminals. He also wrote Decipherment of Blurred Finger Prints (1893) and Finger Print Directories (1895). These investigations formed part of the general scheme of "Eugenics" formulated by Galton.


Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. Untersuchungen über die Ausbreitung der elektrischen Kraft. Leipzig, 1892.

Lilly Library call number: QC661 .H5

Investigating Clerk Maxwell's conception of light as an electromagnetic phenomenon, Hertz discovered that waves of electricity could be transmitted and received through space. This led directly to Marconi's perfection of wireless telegraphy.


Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. Versuch einer Theorie der electrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Körpern. Leiden, 1895.

Lilly Library call number: QC 670 .L868 V56

Concerned to extend the electromagnetic theories of Maxwell, Lorentz made the fundamentally new assumption that the behaviour of light and matter was explicable on the assumption of atoms of electricity, now called electrons. Later his hypothesis that a moving object is shortened in the direction of its movement was adopted by Einstein.


Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. Eine neue Art von Strahlen. Würzburg, 1895.

Lilly Library call number: QC481 .R65 1896

The discovery of X rays—"a new type of radiation"—by the fifty-five-year-old Röntgen, professor of physics at Würzburg, in 1895, marks the real starting-point of modern physical research. Such was the impact of this discovery on the world of science that in the next twelve months more than a hundred papers treating of these new effects appeared in the journals, over the names of scientists both amateur and professional, Becquerel was directed to the discovery of radioactivity by Röntgen's discovery; and X-ray analysis in the hands of such as Aston, Moseley, the Braggs, and Perutz and his colleagues has revolutionized modern science.


Auguste and Louis Lumière. Notice sur le cinématographe. Lyons, 1897.

Lilly Library call number: TR880 .L957

Whatever may be claimed for other early experimenters in cinematography, it is certain that Lumiére was the first to produce a practical machine with commercial possibilities. This brochure was his first public announcement of his invention, and several of the films listed in it were shown at the memorial exhibition in Paris in 1937 and found to be as good as new. It is worth noting that the reason for complete lack of flicker in these early films was the fact that Lumière used the same machine for both taking and projecting his films.


Ebenezer Howard. To-Morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform. London, 1898.

Lilly Library call number: HT161 .H848 T66

Distressed by the overcrowding in large cities Howard wrote this impassioned plea for taking the city into the country-side. In 1903 he persuaded a group of financiers that this was a business proposition, and the first garden city in the world was begun at Letchworth. He was a poor man all his life but was knighted in 1927.


Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Die Arbeit der Verdauungsdrüsen. Aus dem Russischen von Dr. A. Walther. Wiesbaden, 1898.

Lilly Library call number: QP145 .P338 G3 Copy 2

World-famous experiments on dogs by which salivary reactions were produced by a kind of Barmecide feast, first "psychical secretions" and later "conditioned reflexes." The first full statement of Pavlov's experiments in English was in Conditioned Reflexes, 1927.


Sigmund Freud. Die Traumdeutung. Leipzig and Vienna, 1900.

Lilly Library call number: BF173 .F7 T7

Ernest Jones, Freud's biographer and friend, wrote of this book: "It is without any doubt Freud's greatest work, and one which contains the germ of all his later work." Its conclusions were completely new and totally unexpected. It contains all the basic features of psychoanalytic theory and practice—the erotic nature of dreams, the "Oedipus complex," and, above all, the theory of the unconscious and the libido. The new field of study opened by this one man is still largely unexplored and its implications have revolutionized our thinking in many fields.


Vladimir llyitch Lenin (Ulyanov). (What is to be done?). Stuttgart, 1902.

Lilly Library call number: DK254 .L3 C5 vault

The point of departure from the Social-Democrats, or Mensheviks, is here laid down. Denunciation of "spontaneity," "opportunism," and "democracy" are explicit. The need for a monolithic party ready to assume dictatorial powers—the complete basis of the seizure of power in 1917 is contained in What is to be done? Stuttgart publication is explained by its being the headquarters of Lenin and his fellow political exiles at the time.


Henri Becquerel. Recherches sur une propriété nouvelle de la matière. Paris, 1903.

Lilly Library call number: QC795 .B398

Inspired by Poincaré's exhibition in 1896 of radiographs sent him by Rö ntgen, Becquerel deliberately sought to investigate other phosphorescent phenomena. Accidental fogging of photographic plates in his dark room was traced to the presences of uranium ore, and this led to the theory of radioactivity. He suggested to the Curies that pitchblende might repay investigation and thus set them on the trail that led to radium.


Marie Sklodowska Curie. Thèses présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le grade de Docteur ès Sciences. Paris, 1903.

Lilly Library call number: QC721 .C95

Becquerel, following the discovery of Röntgen, had discovered the fact of radioactivity in 1896. Madame Curie read a paper on the subject to the Académie des Sciences, and in 1903, in two modestly entitled theses, she announced the final laborious isolation of radium.


Robert, Lord Baden-Powell. Scouting for Boys. London, 1908.

Lilly Library call number: HS3313 .B74 B13

The beginning of the Boy Scout movement, 1908

Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scout movement in 1908 "to promote good citizenship in the rising generation." Honour, self-control, and practical efficiency are inculcated in a social organization which has since become world-wide. This is the only recorded copy in the original parts.


Hermann Minkowski. Raum und Zeit. Leipzig and Berlin, 1908.

Lilly Library call number: QA691 .M665 R2 1909

Two indispensable features for the extension of Einstein's special theory of 1905 into a universal theory in 1916 were here expounded: (a) time as a fourth dimension, one second corresponding to the distance travelled by light in that time, and (b) the corollary of a space-time continuum. In this new space conception, Euclidean geometry would not work, and thus the pioneering of Lobatchewsky and Riemann was perfected.


Paul Ehrlich and Sahachiro Hata. Die experimentelle Chemotherapie der Spirillosen. Berlin, 1910.

Lilly Library call number: RC112 .E33 E96 1910

This collaboration between a German chemist and a Japanese bacteriologist resulted in the discovery of Salvarsan ("606"), a specific cure for syphilis. This led to their theory of chemotherapy, the discovery of a specific that would kill bacteria without harming the host, and to modern antibiotics. Ehrlich also advanced considerably methods of differential staining in microscopy.


Frederick Winslow Taylor. The Principles of Scientific Management. New York, 1911.

Lilly Library call number: T60 .T241 P9

F.W. Taylor, an American engineer employed by the Bethlehem Steel Company, was the founder of "scientific management" in industry. He laid down the main lines of approach to the problem of increased efficiency by standardizing processes and machines, time and motion study, and systematizing "piece-work" or payment by results. All these systems have been welcomed in Russia, but are anathema to trades-unionists almost everywhere else.


Max von Laue. Interferenzerscheinungen bei Röntgenstrahlen. Theoretischer Teil. Munich, 1912.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 .A01

William Henry and William Lawrence Bragg. X-rays and Crystal Structures. London, 1915.

Lilly Library call number: QC481 .B8

Laue had suggested that the regular arrangement of atoms in a crystal would provide a diffraction grating sufficiently fine to produce spectroscopic effects from X rays and thus prove that these are light waves of very short wavelength. The Braggs tackled the problem from the other end, concentrating on the knowledge of atomic structure which X-ray shadows could provide. This has revolutionized both pure and applied chemistry. The discoveries of Aston and Moseley were immediate sequels in pure science. The discovery of the chemical basis of life—DNA—by Perutz and others is only the most recent of the sensational results of the Braggs experiments.


Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley. The High Frequency Spectra of the Elements. London, 1913-14.

Lilly Library call number: QC783 .M898

Moseley used the crystal method of analysis for determining the wavelength of X rays to the spectra of the elements. From his results he deduced that a new atomic number could be attached to each element based on its nuclear charge. This replaced the fallible table based on atomic weights—a discovery as fundamentally important as the discoveries of the periodic table itself and of spectrum analysis. Four new elements were immediately discovered by his method.


Albert Einstein. Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Leipzig, 1916.

Lilly Library call number: QC6 .E35 G88 1916a

Einstein was on the track of his theory of gravitation ("general relativity theory") in 1913-14. In this paper the theory first appears fully fledged. Its importance was at once recognized by specialists, but it was not until 1919, when one of its leading predictions was confirmed by the British Eclipse Expeditions, that it attained public notoriety. It has been said that in 1919 not more than a dozen people in the world had mastered the theory, and not one of them could understand any of the popular summaries of it. The copy shown belonged to Eddington and has his notes.


Ernest, Lord Rutherford. Collision of Alpha Particles with Light Atoms. London, 1919.

Lilly Library call number: QC721 .R975 C7

Rutherford revolutionized the science of radioactivity in countless ways. Photographs of the tracks of alpha particles which Rutherford shot through nitrogen showed hydrogen atoms emerging from the nuclei of the bombarded element. He described this as "controlled distintegration of the elements." We know it as nuclear fission with its end-product, the H-bomb.


Francis William Aston. Isotopes. London, 1922.

Lilly Library call number: QD466 .A856 I8

Aston, a pupil of Thomson, developed one of the first efficient spectroscopes which enabled him to discover many isotopes as the constituents of chemical elements. He discovered 212 of the 281 naturally occurring isotopes, and was able to measure with great precision their exact masses which are fundamental to the nuclear theory and the development of nuclear energy—leading directly to Urey's discovery of "heavy water."


Adolf Hitler. Mein Kampf. Munich, 1925, 1927.

Lilly Library call number: DD247 .H5 A28

The programme of a political gangster who herein told the timid and incredulous politicians of his own and other nations exactly and in detail what he would do if he had the power.


Albert Einstein. Zur einheitlichen Feldtheorie. Berlin, 1925-9.

Lilly Library call number: QC6.5 .E35 Z96

In 1865 Clerk Maxwell correlated electricity and light. Einstein's repeated attempts to bring gravitation within the same correlation were successfully completed in this paper. Thus every form of activity within the sphere of physics was united in a common explanation, and the theory of relativity was perfected. The first of a series of papers on this subject.

Part II: Some Special Interests



Report of the First Exhibition of the Aëronautical Society of Great Britain. Held at the Crystal Palace, on the 25th June, 1868 and Ten following days. Greenwich, (1868).

Lilly Library call number: TL506 .G7 L8

This report concludes: "With respect to the abstract question of mechanical flight we are still ignorant of the rudimentary principles (but) no tangible evidence has been brought forward to show that mechanical flight is an impossibility for man."


Der Vogelflug als Grundlage der Fliegekunst. By Otto Lilienthal. Berlin, 1887.

Lilly Library call number: TL570 .L728 V87

A foundation-stone of modern aeronautics, the most detailed and accurate series of observations ever made on the properties of curved wing surfaces. Based on these Lilienthal built his first glider in 1891 and began the sensational feats of gliding which ultimately cost him his life.


Experiments in Aerodynamics. By S.P. Langley. Washington, D.C., 1891.

Lilly Library call number: TL570 .L283 E96

Langley, with only a high school education, was a pioneer in solar radiation and became third Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Becoming interested in aviation he devised novel instruments for lift and drift of the moving plane surfaces, described here. These resulted, in 1896, in the first sustained free flights of power-propelled heavier-than-air machines ever made.


All the World's Airships. (Aeroplanes and Dirgibles). First Annual Issue. By Fred T. Jane. London, 1909.

Lilly Library call number: TL501 .J33

The first of a famous (still continuing) series. It has many remarkable features, perhaps the most extraordinary being the large number of designs which could not possible have risen from the ground. A footnote to the preface explains that "only a proportion of the aeroplanes here given have actually flown or arrived at a stage to be photographed."

It is of interest to note that of the eighty-one firms listed for the U.S.A. as having built, or planning to build, aeroplanes, only one, Curtis, is in existence today.


The Aero Manual. A Manual of Mechanically-Propelled Human Flight... with full constructive details concerning Airships, Aeroplanes, Gliders, etc. London, 1909.

Lilly Library call number: TL545 .A252 1909

The first "do it yourself" manual for building aeroplanes, etc., including a cycloplane. When in the air:

If, beneath you, planes appear, It is your duty to keep clear; To act as judgment says is proper, To port or starboard—rise, or drop her!


The Aeroplane in War. By Claude Grahame-White and Harry Harper. London, 1912.

Lilly Library call number: UG630 .G743 A25

The first use of planes in actual warfare was made by the Italians in their Tripoli campaign against the Arabs and Turks in 1911. They were used as scouts, and the authors remark that: "The courage of the officer-airmen in carrying out their scouting flights, was marked. Had their engines failed them at a critical time, and they had descended among a horde of wild Arabs, there is little doubt that their plight would have been uncommonly awkward."


Training Manual, Royal Flying Corps. 2 volumes. London, 1914.

Lilly Library call number: TL685.3 .G7 1914

This manual has a note dated "War Office, S.W. 3rd June, 1914," stating: "There is little past experience or evidence from actual campaigns to assist in laying down any definite principles for the employment of the aerial services in war. It is published to initiate and develop that understanding and cohesion between the Royal Flying Corps and the rest of the Army which already exist between the other arms."


The Aerial Year Book and Who's Who in the Air. London, (1920).

Lilly Library call number: TL531 .A252 1920

This contains accounts by Alcock and Brown of their first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic, from Newfoundland to Ireland, 1918 miles, June 14, 1919, in 15 hours 57 minutes. Brigadier General E.H. Maitland gives details of the airship R-34's crossing of the Atlantic, 3900 miles, July 2-6, the same year, in 108 hours, 12 minutes. This was the first west-east crossing by air. On July 9 she re-returned—the first aircraft to make the double journey.



Descriptions of an Electrical Telegraph, and of some Other Electrical Apparatus. By Francis Ronalds. London, 1823.

Lilly Library call number: TK5118 .R768

Sir Francis Ronalds invented the electric telegraph. In 1816 in the garden of his house in Hammersmith (subsequently known as Kelmscott House and occupied by William Morris) he installed eight miles of insulated wire over which messages, using synchronously rotating disks, were transmitted.

He offered his brilliant discovery to the government only to be told that "telegraphs of any kind are now (i.e. after the conclusion of the French War) totally unnecessary."

In this first published account of his invention he bids "a cordial adieu to electricity." He saw the full eventual effects of his discovery but wrote: "I feel very little disappointment and not a shadow of resentment... because everyone knows that telegraphs have long been a great bore at the admiralty."

He was indifferent to wealth and fame and was that rarity "the least pushing of original inventors." He had a fine scientific library.


Stenographic Sound-Hand. By Isaac Pitman. London, 1837.

Lilly Library call number: Z56 .P68 S82

This twelve-page leaflet, with two plates, has no title-page, the label on the board covers giving the title and price, four-pence.

Small as it is there are two states of the second plate, a "Postscript" noting that "In The Lord's Prayer,' haloud should be halod. This error exists only in some impressions."

Pitman popularized shorthand at a time when the advance of modern business methods was making it a matter of great commercial importance. Its general use revolutionized the work of reporting. Revised in 1840 with the title Phonography, also displayed, its principal feature was that it was constructed on a purely phonetical system.

Pitman was a lifelong vegetarian, non-smoker, and prohibitionist.


Ueber Telegraphie, insbesondere durch galvanische Kräfte. Ein öffentliche Vorlesung gehalten in der festlichen Sitzung der Königl. Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. By Dr. C. A. Steinheil. Munich, 1838.

Lilly Library call number: TK5115 .S822 U2

Faraday's discovery of the induced current pro duced by passing a magnet through a helix of wire forming part of a closed circuit was developed by Steinheil, who brought it to considerable perfection. The above is his description of a telegraph he constructed in the preceding year. The currents were produced by a magneto-electric machine. The receiving apparatus consisted of a multiplier, in the center of which were pivoted one or two magnetic needles, which either indicated the message by the movement of an index or by striking two bells of different tones, or recorded it by making ink dots on a ribbon of paper.


Neurypnology, or the Rationale of Nervous Sleep, considered in relation with Animal Magnetism. Illustrated by numerous cases of its successful application in the cure of disease. By James Braid. London, 1843.

Lilly Library call number: RC494 .B814 N49

The author, who introduced the term "hypnotism," demonstrated that it could be self-induced by fixed gaze on any inanimate object, the mental attention being concentrated on the act. This proved the subjective or personal nature of the influence, and that it did not arise from any magnetic influence passing from the operator to the patient. This led to violent opposition by mesmerists and other devotees of "animal magnetism," among whom was Edgar Allan Poe.


Light for the Blind: A History of the Origin and Success of Moon's System of Reading (Embossed in Various Languages) for the Blind. By William Moon. London, 1873.

Lilly Library call number: HV1678 .M7

The first sucessful system of embossed reading for the blind. Owing to its simplicity and the ease with which it is learned, the system is still in general use, side by side with Braille, largely for the illiterate who find the latter too difficult, or those with hardened finger-tips which cannot pick out its niceties.

Moon's is a simplication of the alphabet and it is said that pupils learn to read easy sentences within a few days.


Selenium and its Application to the Photophone and Telephotography. By Shelford Bidwell. London, 1881.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.33

Bidwell was the pioneer of telephotography, and this is his earliest work on the subject. It includes an illustration of an image actually transmitted over telegraphic wires and concludes "the instrument is in its earliest stage of infancy. It is at present hardly a single month old ... it may in time turn out to be a useful member of society."


Light-Line Phonography. The Phonetic Handwriting. One Slope! One Position!! One Thickness!!! Blended Consonants. Connective Vowels. Cube Motion. By John Robert Gregg. Liverpool, 1888.

Lilly Library call number: Z56 .G819 L72

Gregg states in the Preface to this little volume that "A great and increasing demand for a simple and rapid and perfectly legible phonetic handwriting for general use has led to [this] invention which is the outcome of years devoted to stenographic study and research." He was all of nineteen at this time!

He published his booklet with £10 borrowed from a brother and had 500 copies printed, priced one shilling. Only nine are recorded extant and Gregg recounts that in 1937 he bought one at £20 "and got a bargain."


L'Etude Experimentale de l'Intelligence. By Alfred Binet. Paris, 1903.

Lilly Library call number: BF431 .B612 E8

Binet was the founder of the system of mental tests ("I.Q.") in psychology which have been so extensively used in America. He carried out all his tests on his two daughters. He set them simple problems and recorded from their answers the mental steps they used in arriving at them and the thoughts which passed through their minds.

In the following year (1904) he was made a member of a government commission on the instruction of backward children. These tests, revised in 1908, proved immensely successful and were translated and used in England, America, and Italy.


On the Conversion of Electric Oscillations into Continuous Currents by means of a Vacuum Valve. By J.A. Fleming. London, 1905.

Lilly Library call number: QC701 .F598

Sir John Ambrose Fleming worked in the 1890's as a consultant in London with the Edison Electric Light Company and made careful studies of the Edison effect in carbon filament lamps. He later became closely associated with Marconi.

In this paper he gave experimental proof to what had been theory: that the known rectifying property of a theromionic, operating at power frequencies, was still operative at wireless frequencies. This is a root principle in the operation of radio sets. Here is the earliest account of the Fleming "valve."


Distant Electric Vision. By A.A. Campbell Swinton. London, 1908.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.128

In only four short paragraphs, Campbell Swinton outlined the essential principle of the modern system of television. Rejecting as inadequate the mechanical system then recommended by Shelford Bidwell, he suggested "the employment of two Kathode rays (one at the transmitting and one at the receiving stations) synchronously deflected by the varying fields of two electromagnets ... so far as the receiving apparatus is concerned, the moving Kathode beam has only to be arranged to impinge on a sufficiently sensitive fluorescent screen, and given suitable variations in its intensity to obtain the desired result."


The Radio Times. The Official Organ of the B.B.C. Vol I, no. 1. September 28,1923. London, 1923.

Lilly Library call number: TK6540 .B86

Announcing that: "On Monday next, October 1," simultaneous broadcasting would begin from London, "whereby it becomes possible to broadcast at one or more stations a performance given at any other station in the country. By such a process it could be easily arranged for London alone to provide all the wireless entertainment of Great Britain, but such a scheme would meet with early disaster.

"These islands of ours contain various well-defined areas in which the majority of the people have distinct tastes in music and other forms of entertainment. It was in recognition of this fact that certain provincial stations were opened, and for the maintenance of programmes catering for local tastes they will continue to be employed."



An Inquiry concerning the Source of the Heat which is excited by Friction. By Benjamin Thompson, Count of Rumford. London, 1798.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.57

One of the most extraordinary feats of this very extraordinary man was the description of his experiment in determining the equivalence of heat and motion.

Born in Woburn, Massachusetts, in 1753, he joined the British forces in the Revolutionary War and was made a colonel of the King's American Dragoons though, oddly enough, Rufus King, the American ambassador at London, later offered him the superintendency of the Military Academy. In 1784 he accepted an invitation to the Bavarian Court from the Elector, where he became Minister for War. His duties included visits to the Royal Arsenal at Munich, and it was while superintending the boring of cannon there that he was struck by the heat generated in the material of the gun during the boring process.

A thorough investigation of the phenomenon convinced him that the current theory of heat as an "igneous fluid," called caloric, could not be reconciled with the facts. He was driven to the conclusion that "heat as a mode of motion" was the only satisfactory hypothesis that would cover the facts. Although rejected at the time as "old fashioned," Rumford's discovery was a basic feature of the first law of thermodynamics as propounded by Helmholtz in 1847.

He was also the author of a fascinating essay describing the drip coffee pot: Of the Excellent Qualities of Coffee, and the Art of Making It in the Highest Perfection (1812).


On the Modifications of Clouds, and on the Principles of their Production, Suspension, and Destruction. By Luke Howard. London, 1802.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.40

Howard attended a Friends' school in his youth where, he complained later in a work called Corn and Quakers, he learned too much Latin grammar and too little of anything else.

This essay gave Howard, a self-taught scientist, his scientific fame. It applies the method of Linnaeus to the varying forms of clouds. He here defines their three chief modifications, which he named Cirrus, Cumulus, and Stratus, and four intermediate or compound modifications, the best known being the Nimbus, or rain cloud.

Goethe honored him with a poem, "Howard's Ehrengedachtniss" and a description in verse of his chief cloud forms.


A Case of a Periodical Affection of the Eyes and Chest. By John Bostock. London, 1819.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.9

John Bostock, in his writings, says the DNB, "arouses expectation and disappoints it, uses superficial knowledge as if it were profound learning, is never concise and rarely clear; seldom full, but often prolix." Still, he has earned his place in history by giving the first complete description of his own disease—hay fever—though it was not until 1856 that the cause of the affliction and its present name were given by Blackley. Bostock died of cholera.


Philosophy in Sport made Science in Earnest. ByJohn A. Paris. London, 1827.

Lilly Library call number: Q163 .P232 P56

In the third volume of this popular treatise on applied science the author describes—and illustrates—a device called the "Thaumatrope." It is probably the "first instrument to put the persistence of vision theory into practise."

The device consists of a cardboard circle on one side of which is drawn a cage, and on the other, a rat. Two strings are attached to the axial points of the circle and when these are twirled between thumbs and fingers the card swiftly revolves on its axis and the rat appears in the cage. This step, however simple and primitive, is undoubtedly one of the first on the road which led to cinematography.

The book was exceeding popular, and the author died while correcting proof for the eighth edition in 1856. A famed physician, he was reputed not to rise very early and to see only a moderate number of patients in a day.


Spermatozoa observed within the Mammiferous Ovum. By Philip Barry. London, 1842.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.14

Barry was the first to observe the spermatozoön within the ovum. This he did in the ovum of a rabbit, a fact which he promptly reported to the Royal Society in the above communication, which occupies less than a third of a page in the Transactions. Although his observation was challenged, it was afterwards corroborated by others, but it was not until 1875 that Hertwig's demonstration conclusively settled the fertilization of the ovum by the spermatozoon.


Sur les phénomènes d'orientation des corps tournants entraî nés par un axe fixe à la surface de la Terre. Nouveaux signes sensibles du mouvement diurne. Par M. Léon Foucault. Paris, 1852.

Lilly Library call number: No call number

Foucault demonstrated the earth's rotary motion by means of a simple pendulum swung in the dome of the Pantheon, Paris, in 1851.

This paper ends with the sentence: "Comme tous ces phénomènes dependent du mouvement de la Terre et en sont des manifestations variées, je propose de nommer gyroscope l'instrument unique qui m'a servi a les constater."


Liquid Diffusion Applied to Analysis. By Thomas Graham. London, 1861.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.31

Graham was noted for the originality of his work and the simplicity of his methods. He is best remembered for his discovery of the law of diffusion of gases. The simple glass tube plugged at one end with plaster of Paris, which he introduced in these researches, is still universally employed and is known as "Graham's tube."


The Geographical Distribution of Animals, with a study of the relations of living and extinct faunas as elucidating the past changes of the earth's surface. By Alfred Russel Wallace. London, 1876.

Lilly Library call number: QL101 .W188 G34

Wallace came upon the idea of natural selection as the solution of the method of evolution during a fit of fever and thought it out in the course of a few hours, sending his views to Darwin. This resulted in their famous paper in 1858 in which the modern theory of evolution was first given to the world. He later came to reject the whole of the Lamarckian element in Darwin's views and became one of the apostles of the neo-Darwinism movement, largely on emotional grounds. He was a convinced phrenologist, anti-vaccinationist and spiritualist. A vegetarian "in principle," he found that a meat diet agreed best with him.

His most solid work is listed above, supporting a single system of zoo-geographical regions for the distribution of all groups of animals. He expressed the hope that it might bear "a similar relation to the eleventh and twelfth chapters of the Origin of the Species as Mr. Darwin's Animals and Plants under Domestication bears to the first"—a hope which has been fully justified.


Mendel's Principles of Heredity. A Defence. By W. Bateson. Cambridge, 1903.

Lilly Library call number: QH431 .B329 M53

The Mendelian laws of the transmission of heredity characteristics are the basis of the modern science of genetics. Appearing in an obscure Swiss journal in 1865, the theory was lost to the world of science until the beginning of the 20th century. Its impact on the rapidly developing discipline was immediately apparent.

This is the first English translation, by the man who, against considerable opposition, fought for its principles.


Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt. By Albert Einstein. Berlin, 1905.

Lilly Library call number: QC174.1 .E35 U22

Einstein's Nobel Prize-winning paper

Einstein here suggested that the photo-electric effect was explicable only on the lines of the quantum theory of Max Planck. The classical theory that light is emitted in the form of continuous waves must be abandoned. Instead, Einstein suggested that the light is emitted only in small particles or bullets. It is the size of the bullet which determines the number of electrons it will eject. Thus change in the wave length (size of the bullet) produces a corresponding change in the number of electrons. In other words, he extended Planck's theory to the phenomena of light.

He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for this paper (not for relativity): "Independently of such value as may be ultimately attached to his theories of relativity and gravity, if these are confirmed, for his services to the theory of physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photo-electric effect."


First Photographs of the Canals of Mars. Flagstaff Observatory, Arizona. By Professor Percival Lowell. London, 1906.

Lilly Library call number: QB641 .L91 F5

In 1877 twenty-two-year-old Percival Lowell's enthusiasm for the mystery of Mars was sparked by the Italian astronomer Schiaparelli's announcement of markings on Mars which he called Canali and, when Schiaparelli's eyesight failed, the young man determined to carry on his work. He eventually constructed an observatory at Flagstaff, Arizona, on a mesa "far from the smoke of men." He was convinced that there was intelligent life on Mars "over a geography not unakin to the Earth's" and that "a mesh of lines and dots like a lady's veil" were actually constructed canals.

Lowell did much solid work on the structure of Saturn's rings and the problem of a trans-Neptunian planet. The discovery of Planet X in January 1930 was the direct result of his mathematical prediction.



The Philosophy of Manufacturers: Or, an Exposition of the Scientific, Moral and Commercial Economy of the Factory System of Great Britain. By Andrew Ure. London, 1835.

Lilly Library call number: HD2356 .G7 U68

The author is best remembered for establishing in Glasgow, about 1810, a course of popular scientific lectures for workingmen, the first of its kind and widely copied in France. The present work deals with the conditions of factory workers and describes the first wool-carding machine.


Prize Essay on the Evils which are produced by Late Hours of Business and on the Benefits which would attend their abridgement. By Thomas Davies. London, 1843.

Lilly Library call number: HD5168.5 .L8 D257

Dealing exclusively with clerks in drapers' shops, it points out that "the best shops in the best neighborhoods open at seven o'clock in the morning and close from eight o'clock to nine in the winter, and from nine to ten in the summer." Generally one-half hour was allowed for meals and employees were never allowed to sit down or read.


Over-Population and its Remedy; or, an inquiry into the extent and causes of the distress prevailing among the labouring classes of the British Islands, and into the means of remedying It. By William Thomas Thornton. London, 1846.

Lilly Library call number: HB871 .T514 O96

This deals largely with a project for the colonization of Irish wastes by Irish peasants. Thornton attached little value to emigration but strongly advocated the subdivision of the land and deprecated state interferences. He looked to the nationalization of the land as his ultimate ideal while warning that the period of gestation must not be violently shortened. His views were influential in passing the Irish Land Act of 1870. He was a friend of John Stuart Mill and one of the ablest adherents of his school of political economy, though differing widely from him on other matters, and their friendship was based largely on a mutual love of argument.


Observations on the System of Promotion without Purchase in the British Army, with suggestions for Improvement in it. Dedicated to the Representatives of His Country by a Sufferer Under the Present Arrangement. Calcutta, (1868).

Lilly Library call number: UB415 .G78 O14

The anonymous author of this bitter pamphlet is not against the purchase system of commissions but rather the uncertainty of any advancement in rank without purchase. He concludes that "at this moment, with nearly fourteen years' service, my prospects of Regimental promotion are utterly hopeless." He notes, however, that there will never be a shortage of officers, "because the supply is not likely to fall below the demand: British gentlemen can always be depended upon! Thus does commercial England trade upon the noblest feeling of her sons!"


National Insurance: a Cheap, Practical, and Popular Means of Abolishing Poor Rates. By the Rev. William Lewery Blackley. London, 1878.

Lilly Library call number: HD7091 .B628

The author, divine, accomplished linguist, and social reformer carefully elaborated a scheme for the cure of pauperism by statutory enforcement of thrift which had far-reaching results in this famous article, in the November, 1878 issue of The Nineteenth Century. His plan, admitted to be ingenious, was rejected by the government on administrative and actuarial grounds. However the national insurance scheme which received parliamentary sanction in 1911 bears traces of Blackley's persistent agitation.


Condition and Occupations of the People of The Tower Hamlets, 1886-1887. By Charles Booth. London, 1887.

Lilly Library call number: HV4088 .L8 B725

The beginning of Booth's attempts to show "the numerical relation which poverty, misery, and depravity bear to regular earnings and comparative comfort, and to describe the general conditions under which each class live." His work was partly based, as here, at the suggestion of Joseph Chamberlain, on the records of School Board visitors.


Old Age Pensions and The Aged Poor. A Proposal by Charles Booth. By Charles Booth. London, 1899.

Lilly Library call number: HD7106 .G8 B72

Booth devoted a great deal of energy to this subject. The passing of the Old Age Pensions Act in 1908 was largely due to his part in converting public opinion. His main criticism of the act was that pensions were not granted to all, but only to those whose income fell below a certain level. Booth, unlike Blackley, advocated pensions by endowment, rather than insurance.



Abstract of the Answers and Returns made pursuant to an Act, passed in the Forty-first Year of His Majesty King George III. Intituled, "An Act for taking an Account of the Population of Great Britain, and the Increase or Diminution thereof." Enumeration, Part I. England and Wales. London, 1801.

Lilly Library call number: HA1121 1801

Up to the beginning of the 19th century the taking of a census was violently opposed as, among other things, "subversive of the last remains of English liberty." Actually the main objection was fear of disclosing to enemies the weakness of England in fighting-materiel.

The influence of the publication of the works of Malthus revealed the necessity of having the means of judging the relations between an increasing population and the means of subsistence. There was recorded the number of houses, the population of each family, by sex and occupation, under three heads, (a) agriculture, (b) trade, manufacture, or industry, (c) other than these. The results, which were not satisfactory, were published without comment.

Modern census-taking began in the United States in 1790, as provided in the Constitution.


First Annual Report of the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages in England. Compiled by William Farr. London, 1839.

Lilly Library call number: HB995 .E58 1839

William Farr, writing very little which was not in official format, compiled these annual reports for forty years, with a flair Francis Galton, whom he greatly influenced, described as "what might be called the poetical side of statistics." His vital statistics helped to provide the scientific basis for the English sanitory movement which became the "great idea of the age" in the 1840's. As a sanitorian his most spectacular achievement was pinpointing, by examination of his statistics, the sources of the 1866 cholera epidemic as the water of a particular London water company.


First Report of the Commissions appointed to Inquire as to the Best Means of Establishing an Efficient Constabulary Force in the Counties of England and Wales. London, 1839.

Lilly Library call number: HV8202 .A2 1839

The extremely inefficient Police system is here carefully scrutinized. A paid constabulary force was violently opposed by many as the instruments of a new despotism, under centralized authority, riding roughshod over the peaceful citizens. However, the incidence of crime was so high that the recommendations of this report were passed and the transition made from parish constable to organized police.


The Report and Despatches of The Earl of Durham, Her Majesty's High Commissioner and Governor-General of British North America. By The Earl of Durham . London, 1839.

Lilly Library call number: F1032 .D961

John George Lambton, first Earl of Durham, was of undoubted talents, with great ambition, overwhelming vanity, and bad health. In 1838 he was appointed high commissioner "for the adjustment of certain important questions depending in the Provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, respecting the form and future government of the said provinces." The French Canadians in Quebec had revolted in 1838. (So, what's new?)

His brief stormy Canadian career (he died in 1840) resulted in this famous report which bears his name—the first formulation of what is now called "Dominion Status," the earliest example of the kind within the British Empire‍ ”possibly the earliest in history. It was largely the work of his secretary, Charles Buller.


An Essay on a Congress of Nations, for the Adjustment of International Disputes without Resort to Arms. By William Ladd. Boston, 1840.

Lilly Library call number: JX1948 .P961

Ladd has been called the St. Francis of the peace movement, giving up worldly goods as well as life itself to an idea. Ladd's plans, unlike Jeremy Bentham's, were systematic, concrete, and practical. He prophesied more clearly than any person of the 19th century the 20th century's attempts toward peaceful organization.


Manifest der kommunistischen Partei. ByKarl Marx andFriedrich Engels. London, 1848.

Lilly Library call number: HX276 .M3 1848 vault

"Workers of the World, Unite!"

"Admitted by every serious student of society to be one of the outstanding political documents of all time"—to quote the late Harold Laski—this brilliant exposé of the more practical recommendations of Marxism advocates ten immediate reforms at least half of which are neither Marxist nor revolutionary and are orthodox modern political practices. It concludes with the now-famous exhortation that the workers (the proletariat) have "nothing to lose but their chains. They have the whole world to win. Workers of the World, Unite!"

It was commissioned by the second congress of the Communist League, a largely German body of revolutionary exiles, which met in London in 1847, which explains its publication there, in German.

This copy is the first issue as required by Burt Andreas's bibliography, the 1A printing with all characteristics listed in Tables 1a and 1c but unrecorded in his census.


Reformatory Schools for the Children of the Perishing and Dangerous Classes, and for Juvenile Offenders. By Mary Carptenter. London, 1851.

Lilly Library call number: HV9069 .C296 R33

The author, a famed philanthropist, devoted herself in England and later in India to the education of the poor.

In this work she treats of "those who have not yet fallen into actual crime, but who are almost certain from their ignorance, destitution, and the circumstances in which they are growing up, to do so, if a helping hand be not extended to raise them; —these form the perishing classes." She did not believe the disciplinary treatment of juvenile delinquents should be partly punitive, and considered that certain theological ideas fostered such treatment. This point of view caused trouble when she opened her schools. She lived, however, to see many of her suggestions carried into law.


Crime: Its Amount, Causes and Remedies. By Frederic Hill, Late Inspector of Prisons. By Frederic Hill . London, 1853.

Lilly Library call number: HV8395 .H645 C93

The author takes a cheerful view of this subject, claiming that "the quantity of crime in this country is steadily decreasing and taking a milder form." He continues: "In Great Britain the large majority of the offences now committed consist of thefts, unaccompanied with violence, and petty breaches of the peace arising from drunkedness."

Of more serious crimes he adds, "It is consolatory to reflect, with reference to the operation of British institutions and British civilization, that a considerable portion of the murders in this country are committed by Irish and by foreigners."


Die indirecte Steuer und die Lage der arbeitenden Klassen. Von Ferdinand Lassalle. Zürich, 1863.

Lilly Library call number: JC578 .L346 1863

This is Lassalle's defense speech in the lawsuit brought against him by the Supreme Court of Justice at Berlin for allegedly having incited the poor classes to hatred and contempt for the wealthy. What he attempted to do was to start producers' associations with state capital. His importance lay in arousing and organizing the German workers and in his demonstration of the importance of political action.


Prize Essay on Kleptomania, with a view to determine whether Kleptomaniacs should be held Disqualified for Employments of Trust and Authority under the Crown. London, 1869.

Lilly Library call number: RC574 .A417 P8

A curious book, this was privately printed. The author asserts that "The crimes of Kleptomania belong to the competence of medicine rather than of law and the proper tribunal to decide their acts, is a jury of physicians."

The Essay was directed at some apparently well-known Minister of State as it concludes: "Only in a country of hereditary legislators could it be needful to inquire whether a kleptomaniac is fit for public offices of trust and authority yet as statistics attest, our hereditary legislators are particularly subject to mental derangement."


A Critical Essay on the International Trade Union Congress, Held in London, November, 1888. By Adolphe Smith (Interpreter to the Congress). London, 1889.

Lilly Library call number: HD6475 .I61 S643

The first, and also the last, international congress held strictly on trade-union lines was attended by Italian, French, Belgium, Dutch, Danish, and English delegates. A suggestion that revolution —violent, physical-force revolution—alone could solve their problems was narrowly defeated, though supported by the English trade unionists, 32 to 9. It was decided, instead, to "promote the constitution in each county of a Labour Party, admitting within its ranks middle-class workers, seeking, by legal means, to acquire political power so as to initiate socialistic legislature," and acting, therefore, against both Conservative and Revolutionary Anarchism.


Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. By Houston Stewart Chamberlain. Vienna, 1899.

Lilly Library call number: CB83 .C443 G88

Chamberlain, born of a prominent English military-naval family was prevented from following a similar career by ill-health. He settled at Bayreuth and married Wagner's only daughter, Eva, and became a German citizen in 1916.

His Foundations of the 19th Century was seized upon by the Nazis as their Bible, a simple glorification of everything German, and an excuse for everything the "master-race" did.

This interpretation of a remarkable book, a broad survey of the entire field of European culture and government, twists its meaning. For Chamberlain, his 'Germanen' comprise the Greeks, Romans, Slavs, Teutons, Celts, and other western groups of Aryans. Though generally anti-Semitic he dismissed as "perfectly ridiculous and revolting" the idea of making the Jews "the general scapegoat for all the vices of our time."

Though writing in German (he also did notable books on Wagner, Kant, and Goethe), he admitted English to be "a marvellous medium of human intercourse" while still maintaining that German would eventually become the universal idiom.


Iskra (The Spark). Nos. 1-112. Stuttgart-Munich-Geneva., December 1900-8 October 1905..

Lilly Library call number: HX8 .I82 1-112 vault

Zarya (Dawn). Nos. 1-4. Geneva, April 1901-August 1902.

Lilly Library call number: HX8 .I82 1-112 vault

At the beginning of 1900 Lenin left Siberia to live in exile abroad. He had already conceived the plan of a newspaper (Iskra) and a theoretical magazine (Zarya) around which the Russian Social Democratic Party was to be built up.

Iskra was vitally important in the political development of the Bolshevik Revolution, though Lenin resigned from it after the 51st number, at the time of the Bolshevik-Menshevik split. When Iskra passed under Menshevik control, Zarya ceased to appear.

Both papers were printed on extra-thin paper to facilitate smuggling into Russia—pasted into the linings of trunks, dumped in waterproof wrappings into the Black Sea, etc.


Ein Schritt vorwarts, zwei Schritt ruckwärts. ByN. Lenin. Zheneva, 1904.

Lenin's classic and considered exposition of the Second Congress held in London in August, 1903. It was convened and organized through the agency of Iskra, and Lenin always considered that "Bolshevism, as a current of political thought and as political party, dates back to the year 1903." A fundamental split between Lenin and Trotsky, over party membership, developed.


Réflexions sur la violence. By Georges Sorel. Paris, 1908.

Lilly Library call number: HD6477 .S5

The chief work of the leading "syndicalist" thinker. Succeeding the defunct anarchist movement, the syndicalists accepted the Marxian theory of the class struggle and the need for social revolution. However, they insisted that the state must be destroyed (not merely captured) and that this could best be done through the general strike engineered through trade unions. Then each industry should be managed by the workers organized in syndicates.


Auszug aus dem Programm der national-sozialistischen Deutschen Arbeiterpartei. Munich, 24 February, 1920.

Lilly Library call number: DD253.25 .H675 A9

The beginning of the Nazi programme

This broadside is the origin of the gang of no-gooders which eventually took over the German nation and indelibly changed history. According to Konrad Heiden, "Die Programm-Versammlung (of February 24, 1920) was drafted by Hitler [card-carrying member no. 7], Dietrich Eckhart, and Gottfried Feder and made public by Hitler at a mass meeting held in the Munich Hofbraühaus."



The Trial of a Cause—to Repeal a Patent Granted to Mr. Richard Arkwright, for an Invention of certain Instruments and Machines for preparing Silk, Cotton, Flax and Wool for Spinning. London, 1785.

Lilly Library call number: TS1480 .A722 1785

Sir Richard Arkwright was one of the earliest and principal contrivers of machinery on a large scale as a substitute for hand labor in textile manufacturers. His principal invention was the spinning-jenny.

The present volume records the complicated story of this momentous invention—developed in such secrecy that neighbors thought some sort of witchcraft was involved. Two old women averred they heard strange noises of a humming nature from Arkwright's home, "as if the devil were tuning his bagpipes and Arkwright were dancing a reel."

We can date the factory system from the construction of Arkwright's mills— with ensuing bloody riots—though he did assist David Dale in planning the New Lanark mills and was associated with the socialistic experiments of Robert Owen.


Specification of the Patent granted to Mr. William Nicholson for a Machine or Instrument for printing on Paper, Linen, Cotton, Woollen, and other Articles. London, 1790.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.83

This was done by means of "blocks, formes, types, and originals, which were to be firmly imposed upon a cylindrical surface in the same manner as common letter is imposed on a flat stone." The scheme was not then put into practical operation but it nevertheless eventually produced a revolution in printing, the rotary press.


A Boat of a peculiar construction, named a Life-Boat. By Henry Greathead. London, 1802.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.85

Greathead was first apprenticed to a boat-builder and subsequently went to sea as a ship's carpenter and eventually became a boat-builder on his own. The foundering of a ship near his home, with all crew lost within sight of spectators, sparked a competition for effective lifeboats.

Greathead's winning effort was 30 feet long, by 10 feet in width and 3 feet, 4 inches deep, lined inside and out with cork. It succeeded so admirably the government awarded him £1200 in consideration of the value of his invention.


L'Art de Conserver, pendant plusieurs années, toutes les substances animales et végétales. By François Appert. Paris, 1810.

Lilly Library call number: TX397 .C12

Lilly Library call number: TX .A62

Appert, a confectioner and manufacturer of cordials, perfected in 1804 his system of food-canning, which embodies all the essential features of the modern method, including heating the food and hermetically sealing the cans.

This empirical observation implies a knowledge of the principle of pasteurization though Pasteur, many years later, worked deliberately to discover a means of destroying microbes.


A Practical Treatise on Gas-Light—best calculated for Illuminating Streets, Houses and Manufactories with Carburetted Hydrogen, or Coal-Gas. By Frederick Accum. London, 1815.

Lilly Library call number: TH7910 .A173 P89

It is said that the introduction of gas-light into London was largely due to this German-born chemist and the recommendations made in the above work. A versatile man, he was associated at one time with Ackermann, the famed art publisher.

He also wrote on Brewing, The Art of Making Wine, Wholesome Bread, and Adulterations of Food and Culinary Poisons—all this a hundred and fifty years ago.

He was, also, librarian of the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street, but charges of embezzlement were brought against him and he was dismissed. Brought to trial, he was acquitted but left England and returned to Germany.


Letter to Sir Humphry Davy, Bart. P.R.S., on the Application of Machinery to Calculate and Print Mathematical Tables (with other papers). By Charles Babbage, F.R.S . Edinburgh, 1834.

Lilly Library call number: QA75 .L32

Charles Babbage's interest in automatic calculating machines came from his notice of the importance of the number of errors introduced into astronomical and other tables through human inaccuracies. He began work in 1822 on the construction of a mechanical calculating machine and achieved a very high degree of success. He was well on his way to the realization of an idea which might have marked an epoch in the history of computation equally memorable with that of the introduction of logarithms.

The more he worked refining his machine the more expensive construction became, and Parliament finally cut off all funds. Eventually the byproducts, improvements in machinery and tools, more than repaid what the machine would have cost. (So, what's new?) The most complete contemporary account on the subject is this elaborate article by Dr. Lardner in the Edinburgh Review for July, 1834.

A disappointed man, Babbage, in his later years, came before the public chiefly as the implacable foe of organ-grinders.


The Origin and Progress of the Caoutchouc; or, India-Rubber Manufacture in England. By Thomas Hancock. London, 1857.

Lilly Library call number: TS1890 .H235 P4

The personal narrative of the inventor of india-rubber, with an abstract of his patents. The number of conveniences attributable to Hancock is extraordinary—mackintoshes, sponge bags, footballs, thigh boots, suspenders, tobacco pouches, life belts, elastic bands, ink erasers, hose piping, bathing caps, air cushions, washers, tires, a collapsible boat, all described here.


On the Manufacture of Cast Steel and Its Application to Constructive Purposes. By Mr. Henry Bessemer, of London. Birmingham, 1861.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.120

Sir Henry Bessemer, after his revolutionary patents of 1855, established his own steel works at Sheffield, England, in 1859. Bessemer steel was introduced into the United States and developed here between 1867-70.

It is often forgotten that the range of Bessemer's inventions was wide enough to cover plumbago pencils, a type-composing machine, railway accessories, guns and projectiles, bronze powder and gold paint, and improvements in the technique of sugar refining.


The Weather Book: a Manual of Practical Meteorology. By Rear Admiral Fitzroy. London, 1863.

Lilly Library call number: QC861 .F56 W36

At the beginning of his career Robert Fitzroy was in command of the Beagle when it sailed from Portsmouth on December 27, 1831, with Charles Darwin on board as naturalist. At the end of it he was a famed meteorologist. He invented the "Fitzroy barometer" and instituted, as described here, the first weather forecasts, a system of storm warnings which gradually grew into daily forecasts.


Researches on Explosives. Fired Gunpowder. By Captain Nobel and F.A. Abel. London, 1875.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.121

Born into an engineering family, Nobel devoted himself at an early age to the study of explosives, especially nitroglycerin, and found that combined with an absorbent, inert substance like kieselguhr it became safer and more convenient to handle, and this mixture he patented in 1867 as dynamite. He went on to discover more powerful explosives, notably ballistite and, later, cordite. Amassing an immense fortune and conscious of the destructive powers of his discoveries he founded the Nobel Prizes—that for Peace among them.


United States Circuit Court. James Joseph Hicks against F. G. Otto and Others: against James Whitall and Others; against Henry Weinhagen. Reports of the Clinical Thermometer Trials in America. Washington, 1882-1884.

Lilly Library call number: T223 .T9 H63

In about 1865 Aitken invented the clinical thermometer. Its use was limited, however, by the fact that the volume of mercury was so thin that it was difficult and expensive to manufacture and extremely difficult to read. In 1879 Peroni invented a method of making clinical thermometers with a magnifying front which made it easy to read the temperatures recorded. Sales immediately increased by nearly one-thousand percent.

The cases reported in this volume are actions brought by Hicks on behalf of Peroni against infringers of his American patents. They afford a comprehensive account of the methods of manufacture and success of the invention.


Description of the Automatic Machine-Gun. By Hiram S. Maxim. London, 1885.

Lilly Library call number: UF620 .M4 M4

In his youth in America, Maxim was a jack-of-all trades, working as a carriage-maker, wood-turner, bartender, and pugilist. He had a number of inventions to his credit before, in London, he turned his attention to gunnery and designed an automatic weapon. This was not the first rapid-fire gun (ten shots a second), but it surpassed all others in consisting of a single barrel and having completely automatic action. It was adopted by the British Army in 1889 and the Royal Navy in 1892.

Turning his attention to flying, Maxim produced a steam-driven plane which, in 1894, actually got off the ground. He called himself a "chronic inventor" and patented, among other things, a smokeless powder, a merry-go-round, and a mousetrap (though it was not for this that the world remembers him).

Sports and Pastimes


The Doctrine of Chances: Or, a Method of Calculating the Probability of Events in Play. By A. DeMoivre. London, 1718.

Lilly Library call number: QA273 .M715 1718

De Moivre here formulated the theory of recurring series, completed the theory of partial fractions, and laid down the rule for the probability of a compound event. The book is dedicated to Newton, a great friend, though he once said that, given the chance, he would rather have been Moliere, whose works he knew by heart.

Born in France, his foreign origin barred him from a professorial position in England, though his eminence was such that he was appointed by the Royal Academy in 1712 to arbitrate on the claims of Newton and Leibnitz to the invention of the differential calculus.


The Noble Game of Billiards wherein are exhibited Extraordinary and surprising Strokes which have excited the admiration of most of the Sovereigns of Europe. By Monsieur Mingaud. London, 1830.

Lilly Library call number: GV893 .M665 N74

John Thurston, the publisher, was a manufacturer of "Portable and other Billiard Tables," including an eight-sided "Chinese" example. The origin of the game is uncertain though it is generally asserted that a French artist, Henrique Devigne, who lived in the reign of Charles IX, gave form and rules to the pastime. It has also been stated that Catkire More (Conn Cetchathack), king of Ireland in the second century, left behind him "fifty billiard balls of brass, with the pools and cues of the same substance."


The Golfer's Manual; Being an Historical and Descriptive Account of the National Game of Scotland; with an Appendix. By Allan Robertson (a Keen Hand). Edinburgh, 1857.

Lilly Library call number: GV965 .F235 G62

The "Keen Hand," Allan Robertson, was the foremost professional of his day. His most famous performance was a record-shattering 79 at St. Andrews in 1858 at a time when, it was recorded in 1890, "the course was very much more difficult than at present, beset with heartbreaking whins and thick bents."

In 1847 he won a 360-hole match being played for £400 after being five down at the fourth hole of the last round with betting odds twenty to one against him.

Robertson introduced irons and cleeks for approach shots which had been previously played with baffy spoons. This is the first golf manual.


Velocipedes, Bicycles and Tricycles: How to Make and How to Use Them. With a Sketch of their History, Invention and Progress. By "Velox". London, 1869.

Lilly Library call number: TL400 .V44


Bicycling: Its Rise and Development, a Text-Book for Riders. London, 1874.

Lilly Library call number: GV1041 .B58

The Velocipedes deals largely with wooden-wheel machines soon to be supplemented by newer iron ones with rubber tires. A fad ensued, the first Amateur Bicycling Championship being held in 1871. Bicycling includes a "Tourist's Guide" of routes to be followed in England and on the Continent. For a number of years England was the leading manufacturer of bicycles (or bysicles) or "boneshakers" for export to France, where the industry was checked by the Franco-Prussian war.


The Book of Racquets. A practical guide to the game and its history, and to the different courts in which it is played. By J.R. Atkins. London, [1872].

Lilly Library call number: GV1003.5 .A87 B72

The first book of its kind, avowedly done to promote Racquets until "it is as widely known and as generally practiced as Cricket—now so deservedly popular at all our seats of learning." Though popular in India, it was first played in England about this time.


The Art of Swimming, by Captain Webb, the Channel Swimmer. (Edited by A. G. Payne). London, [1875].

Lilly Library call number: GV837 .W367

Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the Channel, on his second attempt, on August 24, 1875, from Dover to Calais, nearly forty miles, on a zig-zag course, in twenty-two hours, without having touched artificial support of any kind. His only sustenance, which he received from the accompanying lugger, while treading water, were doses of cod-liver oil, beef tea, brandy, coffee and strong old ale. He used the breast stroke almost exclusively.

Twenty-seven at this time, he exhausted himself in the next few years with financially unrewarding exhibitions. In an attempt to recoup he tried, in 1883, to swim the rapids and whirlpool at the foot of Niagara Falls, spurred on by railway companies bearing excursionists. He nearly made it.


The Laws of Ping-Pong. Compiled by the Ping-Pong Association. London, [1902].

Lilly Library call number: GV1005 .P653 O32

When first introduced, ping-pong was played with rubber or cork balls, but its real popularity began about the turn of the century when celluloid balls were introduced. For a few years it was an enormously popular fad in the west. It remains so in China to this day.


Auction Bridge. By W. Dalton. London, 1908.

Lilly Library call number: GV1282 .D152 A89

The author, who introduced auction bridge in England in 1908 (it was first played at the Bath Club) admits that "whether or not the new game is an improvement upon the old one, is, at present, a matter of opinion, which must be left for the future to decide."


Walter Camp's New Way to Keep Fit. Walter Camp. New York, [1922].

Lilly Library call number: GV501 .C186

Issued as a booklet to accompany a set of Gramophone records. Camp was an instructor of gymnastics to the American Navy during the war. He prepared a scheme of short, simple exercises which were very effective in keeping the men fit. After the war he capitalized on the idea and the phrase, "The Daily Dozen," spread throughout the English-speaking world. They epitomize the twelve simple exercises, in four groups of three each, in which he claimed that all the daily exercise necessary to keep fit could be obtained. All could be completed in six or seven minutes.

He later became a famed football coach at Yale and originator of the "All-American" football selections.


Contract Bridge Blue Book. By Ely Culbertson. New York, 1930.

Lilly Library call number: GV1282.3 .C967 C76

Culbertson, with his wife, to whom this book is dedicated, originated the Approach and Forcing System of Auction and Contract. Bond uses a hand which Culbertson devised to spoof his own method in his bridge battle with Dax in Moonraker.



On Aerial Navigation. By George Cayley. London, 1809.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.42

The modern aeroplane concept was invented by Cayley, who also built and had flown the first gliders of history—both models and full-sized machines. All modern flying derives from this remarkable man.

He felt perfectly certain that "we shall soon be able to transport ourselves and families and their goods and chatties, more securely by air than by water, and with a velocity of from 20 to 100 miles per hour."


A Practical Essay on the Scientific Repair and Preservation of Public Roads. By John Loudon McAdam. London, 1819.

Lilly Library call number: TE243 .M113 P89

In McAdam's time roads throughout Great Britain, but especially in Scotland, were generally very bad, "being at once loose, rough, and perishable, expensive, tedious, and dangerous to travel on, and very costly to repair." At his own expense and in the face of much prejudice he arrived at the conclusion that roads should be constructed of thin layers of hard stone broken into angular fragments of a nearly cubical shape, and as nearly as possible of the same size; no piece was to weigh more than six ounces.

By 1823, with greatly improving mail service, the success of the "macadamisation" of highways was generally (though not universally) recognized, and as early as 1825 Jeremy Bentham, in his Rationale of Reward, states that the method "justified the perpetuation of McAdam's name in popular speech."


Coloured Views on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, with Plates of the Coaches, Machines ... with Descriptive Particulars, serving as a Guide to Travellers on the Railway. By Thomas T. Bury. London, 1831-33.

Lilly Library call number: TF64 .L78 B9

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened September 15, 1830, and was the first to use locomotive power wholly as a form of traction. The 31-mile journey took an hour and a half and cost 5/. It was a great success and spurred construction of railroads in England and abroad. The locomotive engine was designed by George Stephenson, who won a £500 prize. The artist, Thomas Bury, was a noted architect.


A Treatise on Roads.—By the Plans, Specifications, and Contracts made use of by Thomas Telford, Esq. By Sir Henry Parnell. London, 1833.

Lilly Library call number: 3-8391

There was a great deal of speculative mania in the 1820's over building of roads, bridges, canals, etc., and the coming competition of railroads. Thomas Telford, son of a shepherd, was a self-taught engineer of remarkable talents and a central figure in all this construction. His international reputation was such that he was conferred the Swedish order of knighthood, a distinction never bestowed on him at home.

Sir Henry Parnell was interested in bettering roads, especially in Ireland. This book, which includes a useful historical survey, is anti-McAdam's theory of elastic roads.


Our Seaman. An Appeal. By Samuel Plimsoll. London, 1873.

Lilly Library call number: HD8039 .S42 G76

Plimsoll's reforms against "coffinships," unsea-worthy and overloaded vessels, often heavily insured, in which unscrupulous owners risked the lives of their crews, had rough going. His bill in Parliament was dropped by Disraeli in 1875, at which time Plimsoll denounced the members as "villians" and shook his fist in the Speaker's face.

Popular support eventually forced a standard minimum for loading—still known as "Plimsoll's line." The book is dedicated "To the Lady, Gracious and Kind, who, seeing a labourer working in the rain, sent him her rug to wrap around his shoulders."

He also visited America in the plea for a less bitter tone towards England in historical textbooks then used in our schools.


The Applications of Electricity to the Protection of Life on Railways. By William Henry Preece. London, [1876].

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.123

Sir William Preece's scientific achievements>were widely varied, including telegraphy, telephony, and radio-telegraphic communication. His work now is of historic interest only, but his lasting influence was in the encouragement he gave Marconi and Bell. Long associated with the Post Office he prized his introduction of safety methods in railroads including the Preece block system of communication between different parts of a train, as described above.


Electric Railways. By William Edward Ayrton. London, 1882.

Lilly Library call number: Q1 no.126

Ayrton, with Perry, was the inventor of the surface contact system for electric railways, which was perfected in 1881. In the above their experiments and the working of the first practical system are described in detail.

The Siemens electric tram shown at the Berlin Exhibition of 1879 and again at Sydenham in 1881 was little more than an extravagant toy. Although it pulled a carriage holding twenty people, its insulation was so primitive that the leakage of current was alarming. Ayrton overcame this difficulty successfully. He also outlined the method of automatic signalling used on electric railways and recommended that underground railways change over to electric traction.


A New System of Heavy Goods Transport on Common Roads. By Bramah Joseph Diplock. London, 1902.

Lilly Library call number: TJ700 .D596 N5

The beginning of caterpillar traction as outlined in this book by the inventor of the "Pedrail" is a clumsy application of the idea to the ordinary traction engine. The wheels of the engine are replaced by fearsome contraptions consisting of a number of feet. Diplock confessedly modelled his device on the foot of the horse— and his device may be said to have "walked" over obstacles, whereas the modern caterpillar crawls over them.

It certainly worked, surmounted obstacles consisting of twelve-inch baulks of wood placed in its path, as well as progressing through deep slime which was impassable by wheeled traction engines. The inventor foresaw its application to the haulage of heavy artillery, worked out practically the principles of independent axle-springing as a means of reducing unsprung weight, and a method of communicating the drive to all four wheels of a vehicle.

Part III: James Bond-007

Ian Fleming began writing his first novel, Casino Royale, at his winter home, Goldeneye, Jamaica, the third Tuesday of January 1952. According to his biographer, John Pearson, he settled himself before his "twenty-year-old Imperial portable, and a ream of best quality folio typing paper he had bought at a shop on Madison Avenue ten days earlier. He had no notes, had made no preparations. He simply began to type, and for the next seven weeks he kept steadily at it. Every morning between nine and twelve. There were no distractions. At five he returned to his desk to read through what he had written." On March 18 it was finished, Bond triumphant, the vicious Le Chiffre and "the bitch" Vesper Lynd, dead. Fleming had written 62,000 words at 2,000 words a day.

He was to follow this format the rest of his life. All his novels were written at Goldeneye during January-March, all typed on folio paper (44 lines to the full page, double spaced). It is interesting to note that in the typescripts the paper often slipped in the machine at the last line which slopes down to the right. As a journalist Fleming was used to composing on the typewriter, hence no "manuscripts" exist.

The earlier novels are very heavily corrected in the author's hand, the later less so. Fleming carefully preserved most of them, bound in quarter morocco of varying colors.

His own copies of his books, many annotated, were bound in full morocco, also of varying colors, and were not uniformly first editions. All of his novels were first published in England by Jonathan Cape and are distinguished by their uniformly colorful dust jackets, a feature Fleming carefully supervised. Exhibited are first editions in dust wrappers, plus the re-bound "Author's copies."


Ian Fleming. Casino Royale. London, 1953.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 C33 1954b

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 C33

Ian Fleming. Casino Royale.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Inscription in Casino Royale

The author's copy has a note on the fly-leaf: "This was written in January and February, 1952, accepted by Cape in the Spring and published a year later.

"It was written to take my mind off other matters* at Goldeneye, Jamaica.

"The characters are not based on people but some of the incidents are factual. The bomb trick was used by the Russians in an attempt on von Papen during the war in Ankara. I. Fleming."

The asterisk refers to an inscription on another fly-leaf, which is inked out but, deciphered, reads "Other matters. .. Marriage, a chilling description; but revealing of the author's capacity for affection, love and human relations. I F June 12th, 1963."

This note was written exactly one year and two months before his death. It is not known when, or why, he attempted to obliterate it.

The typescript exhibited, 238 pages, heavily corrected, is not the original version submitted to Cape (with reluctance, the author has stated), but revised for the printer.


Ian Fleming. Live and Let Die. London, 1954.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 L78 1954a

Ian Fleming. Live and Let Die.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

The author's copy has a note on the fly-leaves: "Michael Arlen told me to write my second book before I had seen the reviews of the first and this was written in January and February 1953 at Goldeneye, Jamaica.

"All the settings are based on personal experience and I spent a whole night in Harlem with a detective from the 10th Precinct verifying my geography, etc.

"The underwater chapters are based on Cabritta Island, Port Marcie, Jamaica, where Bloody Morgan careened his ships and which is still supposed to contain his treasure.

"The facts about fishing are based on my own experiences and on the findings of the U.S. Navy Department.

"St. Petersburg is just like I say it is. Ian Fleming."

The original typescript, 134 pages, much corrected, has two inserted leaves written on stationery of RMS Queen Elizabeth. One amusing paragraph (in Chapter XII, "The Everglades") is deleted for some reason in the printed text:

"Solitaire told him the legend of the moss, how a Spanish conquistador had been chasing a beautiful black girl when she dived into a river. He made to dive in after her, but his beard caught in the branches of a tree and she was saved. The Spaniard had to cut his beard off to free himself and it went growing by itself and finally spread all over the state of Florida."

The final paragraph, a typical Bondism, is also deleted. The printed text ends with Solitaire's query: "What about my back?" The typescript continues "with this Bond grinned (smiled) down at her. He leant forward and slipped his hand inside her pyjamas. She pressed it with both hands between her firm breasts. 'It must get well quickly. You never know when you may need it!' "


Ian Fleming. Moonraker. London, 1955.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 M81 1955 copy 2

Ian Fleming. Moonraker.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

The author's copy is inscribed: "This was written in January and February 1954 and published a year later.

"It is based on a film script I have had in my mind for many years, plus living at St. Margaret's Bay and constant motoring up and down the Dover Road.

"Blades contains elements of White's, Boodles and the Portland Club.

"Vallance is Sir Roger Howe, deputy commissioner at Scotland Yard. My favorite restaurant is Scotts. I. Fleming."

The original typescript is 138 pages. This is one of the most heavily revised and rewritten of the Bond novels. One of the inserted leaves is written on stationery headed "Congress of the United States House of Representatives, Washington, D.C." Fleming must have enjoyed writing this. He changed the ending several times.

In the first, Bond gets the girl, Gala Brand, and "the Queen's immediate award of the George Cross." M. wants them out of the country, "Five thousand expenses between you."

In a revision M. recalls that "the Prime Minister had forgotten that we don't go in for those sort of things around here. So he asked me to thank you for him. Said some nice things about the Service. Very kind of him." So there is no George Cross for Bond, but the expenses are raised to "five thousand pounds for each of you," and eventually to "unlimited expenses for both of you. Any currency you like." And in one cancelled version Gala is going to marry "Peter Bruce. He's in the Air Force," but winds up with a "Detective Inspector Vivian."


Ian Fleming. Diamonds are Forever. London, 1956.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 D54 1956 copy 2

Ian Fleming. Diamonds are Forever.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

The author's copy is inscribed: "This was written in January and February 1955 at Goldeneye. It is dedicated to Ivar Bryce, Ernest Cuneo (Careo the cab-driver) and Billy Woodward, who was shot by his wife on Long Island—a famous case— while the proofs were being corrected. He vetted the racing sequences. He owned Nashua, a famous 2 year old. Felix Leiter is based on no one. Bond enjoys Tiffany on the floor of the cabin because one cannot make love on a pillow mattress. I lost $500 at Las Vegas. Ian Fleming."

The original typescript, 183 pages, is moderately worked over, there being more additions than deletions. For once Fleming has deleted his final autograph paragraph: "And as Bond climbed stiffly to the ground and walked slowly towards the fire his tired mind went back to the Cabin in the Queen Mary and to Tiffany Case."


Ian Fleming. From Russia With Love. London, 1957.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 F93 1957a

Ian Fleming. From Russia With Love.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

A page of From Russia with Love

The author's copy is inscribed: "This was written in January and February '56 at Goldeneye. The Russian background comes mostly from a Soviet refugee spy called Tokaev—alias Tokati—an excellent man. I was in Istanbul for the Sunday Times. Darko is purely fictional but a favorite character. The gipsy's will stage a fight between girls for a small sum. The Orient Express is a dull, dirty train. I took great trouble over this book and the jacket, painted by Edward Chopping. Ian Fleming."

The original typescript, 228 pages, much corrected, is evidence of the care the author took with this favorite work. The struggle between Bond and Rosa Kleeb in the final chapter has been heavily revised and she does not, in this original version, deliver her final, dramatic, nearly fatal, poisoned kick. Instead, Bond has his evening with Tatiane.

Despite the disclaimer, Darko was unquestionably the shipowner, Nazim Kalkavan, of Istanbul, with whom Fleming was well acquainted.


Ian Fleming. Dr. No. London, 1958.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 D63 1958 copies 1 & 2

Ian Fleming. Dr. No.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Two first editions in variant bindings: one blind stamped on the front cover to represent the jacket design, the other plain.

The original typescript is 206 pages, heavily corrected. It was Fleming's habit not to title his chapters, adding these in autograph after the story was finished. In this case Chapter One is titled "The Quick, Neat Job" which eventually becomes "Hear You Loud and Clear." The final line, "Do what I tell you" is added in autograph. It becomes "Do as you're told" in the printed version.


Ian Fleming. Goldfinger. London, 1959.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 G61 1959 copy 1 (first edition)

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 G61 1959 copy 2 (first edition, author's copy)

Ian Fleming. Goldfinger.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Setting up the golf match with Goldfinger

The original typescript, 270 pages, is the longest of the novels. Moderately corrected. It is of interest to note that apparently the famous golf match with Goldfinger was an afterthought, as the remarks about golf exchanged by them when they first meet are handwritten by Fleming as an insert, though fully developed later.


Ian Fleming. For Your Eyes Only. Five Secret Occasions in the Life of James Bond. London, 1960.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 F69 (first edition)

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 F69 1960b (author's copy)

Ian Fleming. For Your Eyes Only.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Original typescripts of "From a View to a Kill," 23 pages. "For Your Eyes Only," here titled "Death Leaves an Echo," 34 pages. "Quantum of Solace," 21 pages. "Russia," 31 pages. "The Hildebrand Rarity," 31 pages. All are moderately corrected.


Ian Fleming. The Spy Who Loved Me. London, 1962.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 S77 1962a (uncorrected proof)

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 S77 1962b copy 1 (first edition)

Ian Fleming. The Spy Who Loved Me.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Uncorrected page proof and first edition. Manuscript of 113 pages, moderately corrected. The original title given Chapter One, "Dusk that Evening" is scratched out and "Scaredy Cat" substituted. As is often the case in Fleming's endings, the last line, "This Was a Man!" is deleted. "And everything, every smallest detail, would be written on my heart forever," is added in ink.


Ian Fleming. On Her Majesty's Secret Service. London, 1963.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 O58 1963c (limited edition)

Ian Fleming. On Her Majesty's Secret Service.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Limited edition of 250 copies signed by the author—the only one so done. With the first edition. The manuscript, 196 pages, was originally entitled "The Belles of Hell" and Chapter One was headed "Secret Panorama." This is crossed out and "Seascape with Figures" substituted. Though not as heavily corrected as others, considerable rewriting, on another type of paper, and single spaced, is inserted at several spots.


Ian Fleming. You Only Live Twice. London, 1964.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 Y67

Ian Fleming. You Only Live Twice.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Original typescript, 170 pages. This is the least corrected of the novels. The care he took with it, however, is shown by the following "Author's note" prefixing the manuscript:

"I have visited Japan twice and, on the second occasion, as a conscientious biographer, I followed, as closely as prudence would allow, in the footsteps of James Bond. I was accompanied by the two expert investigators to whom this book is dedicated—one, the Far Eastern Representative of The Sunday Times, and the other the Editor-in-Chief of that distinguished annual This is Japan' published by the Asahi Shimbun. But, without these two friends at hand, and in my endeavour to do justice to the extremely foreign excitements and circumstances which James Bond will certainly have experienced, during the actual writing of this book I had very occasional recourse to four recent works of reference on Japan, all of which, for a closer understanding of the background to James Bond's perilous undertaking, I heartily recommend. They were:

Meeting with Japan by Fosco Maraini, Hutchinson 50/- Hekura: The Diving Girls' Island by Fosco Maraini, Hamish Hamilton 25/- The Heart of Japan by Alexander Campbell, Longmans 21 /- The Horned Islands by James Kirkup, Collins 35/-"


Ian Fleming. The Diamond Smugglers. With an Introduction by 'John Blaize' formerly of the International Diamond Security Organization. London, 1957.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 D53 copy 3 (first edition, author's copy)

Ian Fleming. The Diamond Smugglers.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Author's note to The Diamond Smugglers

The author's copy is annotated on the fly-leaf: "This was written in two weeks in Tangiers, April 1957. The name of the IDSO spy is John Collard. Sir Percy Sillitoe sold the story to the Sunday Times and I had to write it from Collard's mss. It was a good story until all the possible libel was cut out. There was nearly an injunction against me and the Sunday Times by De Beers to prevent publication of the ST serial. Rightly, they didn't like their secrets being sold by an employee. Lord Kensley and Collard shared the profits of this—a third each which was a pity as I sold the film rights to Rank for £12,500. It is adequate journalism but a poor book and necessarily rather 'contrived' though the facts are true. Ian Fleming."


Ian Fleming. State of Excitement. Impressions of Kuwait. (Unpublished).

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Carbon typescript, 145 large quarto pages. Full red morocco by Sangorski and Sutcliffe. This has the following prefactory note, signed by Fleming:

"This is the only bound copy of a short book I wrote on Kuwait in December 1960.

"It was a condition of my obtaining facilities to visit Kuwait and write the book that the text should have the approval of the Kuwait Oil Company, whose guest I was.

"The Oil Company expressed approval of the book but felt it their duty to submit the typescript to members of the Kuwait Government for their approval.

The Sheikhs concerned found unpalatable certain mild comments and criticisms and particularly the passages referring to the adventurous past of the country which now wishes to be 'civilised' in every respect and forget its romantic origins.

"Accordingly the book was stillborn.

"The copyright is the property of the Kuwait Oil Company and may not be set up in print or quoted from without the written approval of the Company."


Ian Fleming. Thrilling Cities. London, 1963.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 T52 1963a (proof copy)

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 T52 1963b copy 2 (author's copy)

Ian Fleming. Thrilling Cities.

Lilly Library: Fleming mss.

Quarto, illustrated. Also proof copy, corrected.

Typescript copy, 311 pages, quarto. Corrected and used for printer's copy.


Ian Fleming. The Man with the Golden Gun. London, 1965.

Lilly Library call number: PR6056 .L4 T52 1963b copy 2 (author's copy)

Two copies, one with green mottled wrappers, the other white. No priority established.

Ian Fleming's last novel, posthumous. The manuscript was not obtained, perhaps it was not preserved and bound as the others.

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