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Indians of Latin America: an exhibition of materials in the Lilly Library : a machine-readable transcription

Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)

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Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington). Indians of Latin America : an exhibition of materials in the Lilly Library / by Rebecca Campbell Gibson and Roger E. Beckman. Bloomington, IN: Lilly Library, [1976]. 55 p. : ill., facsims. ; 28 cm.

Lilly Library call number: Z1209 .I394 I4 1976

Indians of Latin America:

An Exhibition of Materials in the Lilly Library


Rebecca Campbell Gibson


Roger E. Beckman
The Lilly Library Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana

This Exhibit Is Dedicated To The Memory Of Bernardo Mendel.



Columbus' discovery of America was a simultaneous discovery of the Indian. For almost five hundred years, the white man has studied, described, and changed the American Indian. The purpose of this exhibit is to show some aspects of the results of this discovery in Latin America. The exhibit is arranged in five subject areas: Indian languages, descriptions of Indians, theories of the origins of the Indians, the Las Casas controversy, and the Catholic Church and the Indians. In addition, there is a group of Inca portraits.

From the first, the Europeans were interested in the indigenous languages of this New World—and none more so than the missionaries. As a consequence, many of the first books published in Latin America were grammars, vocabularies, doctrines, and catechisms in native languages to aid the missionaries in the conversion of the Indians. The Lilly Library has a number of works in a variety of languages, with its strength being Nahuatl. An excellent description of the Nahuatl works in the Lilly has been written by John Frederick Schwaller in "A Catalogue of Pre-1840 Nahuatl Works Held by the Lilly Library", The Indiana University Bookman, November, 1973.

The works describing the Indians are primarily early ones; none were written later than the eighteenth century, although some were published after that time. These descriptions served to form the European conception of the American Indian. Though some of the works are objective, or even admiring, in nature, too many furthered the stereotype of the Indian as a savage barbarian.

As early as the sixteenth century, the discovery of America engendered a huge amount of speculation in Europe about the origins of the Indians. Theories were many and varied. The Indians were one of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, from the sunken continent of Atlantis, were Phoenicians, Tatars, Iberians, Chinese, etc. It was in this early period that the theory of the previous existence of a land bridge between northwestern America and Asia was first set forth. An impressive source for the history and bibliography of this topic is Lee Eldridge Huddleston's Origins of the American Indians; European Concepts, 1492-1729.

The career of Bartolomé de las Casas is well known. A Dominican priest, missionary, bishop of Chiapas, he dedicated his life to the protection of the Indians. But his work had wider ramifications than that. His polemics were translated into many languages, and his vivid descriptions of Spanish cruelty served as a basis for the leyenda negra. In the exhibit a sampling of his work, in Spanish and other languages, is presented.

The Catholic Church has been a major influence on the Indian population of Latin America. In many instances, the clergy was as corrupt and oppressive as the Spanish encomenderos; but the Church was more often instrumental in protecting and assimilating the native groups, although this concern often unfortunately led to the destruction of Indian cultures. In particular, it was the regular clergy who lived with the Indians, described them, protected them, and kept statistics about them. This exhibit attempts to show all these aspects.

This exhibit does not pretend to be exhaustive; its purpose is to be illustrative, and we hope that it has fulfilled that purpose. We especially would like to thank Emma C. Simonson for her moral support and technical assistance.

Rebecca Campbell Gibson

Roger E. Beckman

Indian Languages


CODEX VINDOBONENSIS MEXICANUS I. Graz, Akademische Druck u. Verlags Anstalt, 1963.

History and description of the manuscript [by] Otto Adelhofer.

Lilly Library call number: F1219 .V6

A colored facsimile of the codex in Vienna, which is of Mixtec origin. The original document was on deerskin with fifty-two leaves. It is principally mythological and magical in character but also contains historical data.


CODEX NUTTALL; facsimiles of an ancient Mexican codex belonging to Lord Zouche of Harynworth, England, with an introduction by Zelia Nuttall. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 1902.

Lilly Library call number: F1219 .C66

Also called the Codex Zouche, this too is of Mixtec origin. Originally done on deerskin in forty-eight pages, it is primarily historical and genealogical in nature. It was studied extensively by the archaeologist Zelia Nuttall.


DOMINICANS. Doctrina Christiana en lẽgua española y mexicana: hecha por los religiosos de la orden de sctõ Domingo. Agora nueuamente corregida y enmẽndada . . . Colophon: [ ... fue impssa ẽ esta muy leal ciudad d'Mexico ẽ casa d' Juã Pablos . . . Acabose de imprimir a xii dias del mes de hebrero. Año d' M. d. 1. años.]

Lilly Library call number: PM4068.1 .D67 D63 1550 vault

Doctrina christiana en lẽgua española y mexicana ...

The principal Mexican Indian group at the time of the Spanish conquest was the Nahuas, better known as the Aztecs. The earliest Mexican incunable containing Nahuatl held by the Lilly Library is this Doctrina. As was common, this work was written to aid missionaries in teaching the Catholic religion to the Indians.


COFRADÍA DEL SANTISIMO SACRAMENTO. Mexico, 1570, October 30-1730.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

These manuscripts are the records of an Indian cofradía, a religious mutual aid society, written in both Spanish and Nahuatl. The constitution of the cofradía and a listing of members and dues paid are among the documents.


VENEGAS DE SAAVEDRA, FRANCISCO JAVIER, marqués de la Reunión de Nueva España. Ayamo moyolpachihuitia in Totlatocatzin Rey D. Fernando VII . . . [Mexico, 1810].

Lilly Library call number: AC88 .M6 M8 1810

A broadside, this document announces the abolition of the payment of tribute to the King of Spain by the Indians of Mexico. This move was in reaction to the Hidalgo revolt in 1810 that gathered wide popular support among the Indians. The announcement was printed in Nahuatl to reach the largest number of Indians possible.


ALDAMA Y GUEVARA, JOSÉ AGUSTÍN. Alabado en lengua mexicana. Mexico, Impr. de la Bibliotheca Mexicana, 1755.

Lilly Library call number: PM4063 .A35

A religious hymn in Nahuatl that honors the Virgin of Guadalupe, this is bound with Aldama's Arte de la lengua Mexicana, a Nahuatl grammar published in 1754. Aldama's grammar is a synthesis of several earlier grammars.


MOLINA, ALONSO DE. Arte de la lengua mexicana y castellana, compuesta por el muy Reuerendo Padre Fray Alonso de Molina de la Orden de Señor Sant Francisco. Mexico, Pedro Ocharte, 1571.

Lilly Library call number: PM4063 .M7 A7 1571 vault

This is the first printed grammar of Nahuatl. Alonso de Molina, a Franciscan, learned Nahuatl as a child and was important in spreading its use by missionaries of his day. He wrote several other works in Nahuatl, including a Vocabulario, a Confesionario breve, and a Confesionario mayor.


CHIMALPOPOCATL GALICIA, FAUSTINO. [Chronology of the Nahuas until 1519]. 1856, April 23.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

A history of the Nahuas until the coming of the Spaniards, this manuscript includes pictograms denoting the years of the chronology. Faustino Chimalpopocatl Galicia was an historian as well as a Nahuatl scholar.


FERNÁNDEZ NODAL, JOSÉ. Diccionario Castellano-Aymará. N.d.

Lilly Library: Fernández Nodal mss. Writings.

José Fernández, Nodal, a nineteenth-century Peruvian scholar, had many interests, among them Indian languages. This is an incomplete draft of a Spanish-Aymara dictionary. Aymara is the second most important Indian language in Peru today.


FERNÁNDEZ NODAL, JOSÉ. Diccionario Castellano-Quechua. N.d.

Lilly Library: Fernández Nodal mss. Writings.

This work is a draft of a Spanish-Quechua dictionary. Quechua, the language of the Incas, was the lingua franca of the Inca Empire and was also used as such by the Spaniards. There are several million Quechua speakers in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and northwestern Argentina today.


BERTONIO, LUDOVICO. Arte de la lengva aymara, con vna silva de phrases de la misma lengua y su declaracion en romance ... . Impresso en la Cōpania de Iesus de Iuli, en la Prouincia de Chucuyto, por Francisco del Canto, 1612.

Lilly Library call number: PM5573 .B5 vault

Ludovico Bertonio, a Jesuit missionary of the early sixteenth century, wrote this grammar of the Aymara language. Bertonio also left a valuable first-hand account of Aymara customs and society.


Arte y vocabulario en la lengua general del Perv llamada Quichua, y en la lengua Española ... . Los Reyes [Lima], Francisco del Canto, 1614.

Lilly Library call number: PM6302 .A78 vault

This Quechua grammar was also published earlier in 1586 and 1603. The authorship of the work has been variously attributed to Ludovico Bertonio, Francisco del Canto, Domingo de Santo Tomás, Alfonso Barcena, Diego González Holguín, and Diego de Torres Rubio.


DOMINGO DE SANTO TOMÁS. [Grammatica, o arte de la lengua general de los indios de los Reynos del Peru. Nueuamenta compuesta, por el Maestro fray Domingo de S. Thomas ... . Valladolid, F. Fernandez de Cordoua, 1560.]

Lilly Library call number: PM6303 .D6 1560

Domingo de Santo Tomás, a Dominican, was the first bishop of Charcas. He wrote this work, which is the first printed grammar of the Quechua language, to aid in missionary work. This volume also contains his Lexicon, O vocabulario de la lengua general del Perv, printed in 1560.


Doctrina christiana y catecismo para instrvccion de los indios ... con vn confessionario, y otras cosas ... par avctoridad del Concilia Prouincial ... el año de 1583 ... . Ciudad de los Reyes [Lima], A. Ricardo, 1584.

Lilly Library call number: PM6308.1 .D63 vault

This doctrine and catechism was the first book printed in Peru. It is significant that this, the first book, was a religious work printed in two indigenous languages. The text is in Spanish, Aymara, and Quechua; and its authorship has been attributed to the Jesuit José de Acosta.


BUSCHMANN, JOHANN KARL EDUARD. Grammatik der sonorischen sprachen: vorzüiglich der Tarahumara, Tepeguanna, Cora und Cahita; als IXter abschnitt der spuren der aztekischen sprache ausgearbeitet von J. C. E. Buschmann … . Berlin, Akademie der wissenschaften, 1864-1869.

Lilly Library call number: PM4283 .B9

This work is a grammar of several Mexican Indian languages. Buschmann was a German linguistics scholar who was particularly interested in Mexico and the Aztecs.


TELLECHEA, MIGUEL. Compendio gramatical para la inteligencia del idioma tarahumar; oraciones, doctrina cristiana, pláticas, y otras cosas necesarias para la recta administracion de los santos sacramentos en el mismo idióma. Dispuesto. Por el P. Fr. Miguel Tellechea ... . Mexico, Impr. de la Federacion en palacio, 1826.

Lilly Library call number: PM4291 .T27

Miguel Tellechea was a missionary to the Tarahumara Indians of the northern part of Mexico. His work is not only a grammar of the Tarahumara language, but also a collection of sermons, talks, and a catechism in that language, designed for use in the conversion of the Indians.


RINALDINI, BENITO. Arte de la lengua Tepeguana, con vocabulario, confessionario, y catechismo. Por el P. Benito Rinaldini ... . Mexico, Viuda de Joseph Bernard de Hogal, 1743.

Lilly Library call number: PM4365 .R588

Written by the Jesuit missionary Benito Rinaldini, this is a grammar, vocabulary, and catechism in the Tepehuano language. The Tepehuanos are a relatively isolated group of Mexican Indians living in southern Chihuahua, Durango, and part of Nayarit.


MIRANDA, FRANCISCO DE. Catecismo breve en lengua otomi, dispvesto por el p. Francisco de Miranda de la Campañia de Jesvs. Mexico, En la Bibliotheca Mexicana, 1759.

Lilly Library call number: PM4149 .M67

This is the first edition of this short catechism, written almost entirely in Otomí by the Jesuit Francisco de Miranda. The Otomís are a large Indian group in the central part of Mexico.


ZAMBRANO BONILLA, JOSÉ. [Arte de la lengua totonaca, conforme á el arte de Antonio Nebrija, compuesto por D. Joseph Zambrano Bonilla ... ] Puebla, Impr. de la viuda de M. de Ortega, 1752.

Lilly Library call number: PM4426 .Z24

A Totonac grammar written by José Zambrano Bonilla, this also includes Oraciones, y doctrina de la cierra baja de Naolingo … . by Francisco Dominguez. The Totonacs were an important pre-hispanic Mexican Indian group living north of Puebla and in the northern part of Veracruz.


SÁNCHEZ, JOSÉ MARÍA . [Gramatica de la lengua Zuque (sic) formada por el presbitero Br. D. Jose M. Sanchez para que sirva de texto en el Colegio Tridentino de la diocesis de Chiapas.] [N.p.], 1877.

Lilly Library call number: PM4556 .S21

José María Sánchez, a priest in Chiapas, was interested in Indian languages, particularly Zoque and Tzotzil. He also wrote a work on Zapoteca. Bound with this grammar of Zoque is his La lengua tzotzil en Chiapas, published in 1895.


LEVANTO, LEONARDO. Cathecismo de la doctrina christiana, en lengua zapoteca ... . Impreso con las licencias necesarias en la Puebla por la viuda de Miguel de Ortega: y por su original en la oficina Palafoxiana de dicha ciudad, año de 1776.

Lilly Library call number: PM4549 .L65

Leonardo Levanto was an eighteenth-century missionary who came from Spain with his brother Dionisio, with whom he took the Dominican habit in Oaxaca. The Zapotecs are a major Indian group in the Oaxaca region. One of the most famous Zapotecs in Mexican history was Benito Juárez, president of Mexico.


BERNAL, JOSÉ. Catecismo de doctrina christiana en Guarani y castellano, para el uso de los curos doctrineros de indios de las naciones guaranies de las provincias del Paraguay ... . [Buenos Aires, Real Impr. de los Niños Expósitos, 1800.]

Lilly Library call number: PM7178.1 .B5

José Bernal was one of the Franciscan missionaries sent to Paraguay to replace the Jesuits who were expelled in 1767. He wrote this catechism to be used by the missionaries to the Guaraní Indians.


RUÍZ DE MONTOYA, ANTONIO. Arte de la lengua guarani ... con los escolios anotaciones y apendices del P. Paulo Restivo ... sacados de los papeles del P. Simon Bandini ... . Pueblo de S. Maria La Mayor [Paraguay] 1724.

Lilly Library call number: PM7173 .R9 Mendel vault

The achievements of the Jesuits in the field of linguistics have been most impressive. One of the greatest of these was Antonio Ruíz de Montoya. Born in Lima in 1585, Ruíz de Montoya spent thirty years in the missions in Paraguay. Among the many works he left are a Guaraní grammar and dictionary.


RUÍZ DE MONTOYA, ANTONIO . Tesoro de la lengua gvarani, compvesto por el padre Antonio Ruíz ... . En Madrid, por I. Sanchez, 1639.

Lilly Library call number: PM7176 .R9 1639


Vocabulario en lengua castellana, y guatemalteca, que se llama: cak chiquel chi. [1578?]

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Guatemala.

Vocabulario en lengua castellana, y guatemalteca, ...

An apparently unpublished vocabulary of the Spanish and Cakchikel languages, this comprehensive listing has the text in two columns: Spanish words written in black ink and the Cakchikel in red ink. Cakchikel is the language of the dominant Indian tribe in present-day Guatemala.


MALDONADO, FRANCISCO. [Explicatio Fidei Cakchiquel], 1615.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Guatemala.

This manuscript, which also appears to be unpublished, is written principally in Cakchikel. It is actually three separate works: the Explicatio Fidei, the Pasion y muerte de xpto. señor nro., and the Inpedimentos del matrimonio para los indios. Maldonado was a Franciscan missionary in Guatemala and Mexico.


FEBRÉS, ANDRÉS Arte de la lengua general del Reyno de Chile, con un dialogo chileno hispano muy curioso a que se añade la doctrina christiana, esto es Rezo, Catecismo, coplas, confesionario y platicas, lo mas en lengua chilena y castellana, y por fin un vocabulario hispano-chileno y un Calpino chileno-hispano mas copioso .... Lima, Calle de la Encarnacion, 1765.

Lilly Library call number: PM5461 .F289

Andrés Febrés, a Jesuit, wrote this grammar of the Araucanian language. The Araucanians, one of the principal Indian groups in Chile, were a very warlike people who fiercely resisted the Spanish advance.


VALDIVIA, LUIS DE . Doctrina cristiana y catecismo, con un Confesionario, Arte y Vocabulario breves en lengua allentiac; por el padre Luis de Valdivia . . . Reimpreso todo á plana y renglón, con una reseña de la vida y obras del autor por José Toribio Medina. Sevilla, Impr. de E. Rasco, 1894.

Lilly Library call number: PM5386 .V14 1894

The reprints of the Doctrina cristiana, Confesionario, Arte y gramatica, and Vocabulario include facsimiles of the original title pages, dated 1607. The Allentiac, also known as Huarpe, were located in western Argentina and became extinct in the early eighteenth century when they were sent to Chile as laborers.


YANGUES, MANUEL DEL. Principios, y reglas de la lengva evmmanagota, general en varias naciones, qve habitan en la provincia de Cvmmana en las Indias Occidentals. Compvestos por el R. P. Predicador Fr. Manuel de Yangues ... . En Bvrgos: Por Iuan de Viar. Año de 1683.

Lilly Library call number: PM5876 .Y23

Julius Platzmann edited this grammar of the Cumanagota language which was printed in facsimile form as Volume II of Algunas obras raras sobre la lengua cumanagota, published in Leipzig in 1888. The Cumanagota lived in an area between the Orinoco River and the northern coast of Venezuela and had well-organized armies which included female warriors.


CARDÚS, JOSÉ. La doctrina cristiana explicada en guarayo y en castellano para el uso de los neófitos de las misiones del Colegio de Propaganda Fide de San José de Tarata, por el P. fray José Cardús, M. O. Cochabamba, Imprenta del siglo, 1883.

Lilly Library call number: PM6096 .C268

José Cardús, a Franciscan, wrote this Christian doctrine in Spanish and Guarayo. Any independent, warlike Indians from the forests of eastern Bolivia were usually called the Guarayo, though they might be more properly termed the Chapacura.


BRETON, RAYMOND. Petit catechisme ov sommaire des trois premieres parties de la doctrine Chrestienne. Traduit du François en la langue des Caraibes insulaires, par le R. P. Raymond Breton ... . Avxerre, G. Bovqvet, 1664.

Lilly Library call number: PM5759 .B7

The Insular Caribs who inhabited the Lesser Antilles were a warlike people, much more so than their neighbors, the Arawaks. This catechism is in French and Carib, with the two languages in parallel columns.


Diccionario portuguez, e brasiliano, obra necessaria aos ministras do altar ... Primeira parte. Lisboa, Na Officina patriarcal, 1795.

Lilly Library call number: PM7176 .D54

Published from an anonymous manuscript, this Portuguese-Tupí dictionary received extensive use. Tupí-Guaraní is a very widespread linguistic family of South America, with the bulk of its speakers in eastern Brazil.

Early Descriptions


SIMON, PEDRO. Primera parte de las noticias historiales de las conquistas de tierra firme en las Indias Occidentales. Compvesto por el Padre Fray Pedro Simon ... . [Cuenca, Por Domingo de la Iglesia, 1627.]

Lilly Library call number: E123 .S596

This is the first edition of this valuable narrative of the Spanish conquest of the northern part of South America. A Spaniard of French origin, Simon went to Bogotá in 1603. The second and third parts of his work were not published until 1882.


SIMON, PEDRO. Noticias historiales de las conquistas de Tierra firme en el nuevo reyno de Granada, Yndias occidentales ... (segunda y tercera partes). 1624-1625.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Colombia.

Contained in seven volumes, these are eighteenth- and nineteenth-century copies of the second and third parts of Simon's narrative. The original manuscript is in the Biblioteca Nacional of Bogotá.


ARRATE Y ACOSTA, JOSÉ MARTÍN FÉLIX. Llave del Nuevo Mundo Antemural de las Yndias occidentales. La Havana Descripta noticias de su Fundacion, aumento, y estado. 1756.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Cuba.

Arrate y Acosta relied heavily on earlier published works for much of his information. This manuscript was published in 1831 in the Sociedad económica des amigos del páis in Cuba.


ACUÑA, CRISTÓBAL DE. Nueuo Descubrimiento del gran Rio de las Amazonas. 1639.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Brazil.

Cristóbal de Acuña, a Jesuit, was ordered to go with the Portuguese general Pedro Texeira on his trip down the Amazon River and to make a report of his observations. Acuña described the characteristics and customs of the various Indian groups in this area in some detail. His report was first published in 1641.


THEVET, ANDRÉ Les singvlaritez de la France Antarctiqve, avtrement nommée Amerique ... . Anvers, De l' Imprimerie de Christophle Plantin, 1558.

Lilly Library call number: E141 .T4 vault

A French Franciscan, Thevet was particularly interested in history and cosmography. This account of his journey to Brazil—here referred to as France Antarctique—has detailed information about the Indians and natural history of that country. Thevet is also reputed to have been responsible for the introduction of tobacco into France.


AGUADO, PEDRO DE. Historia de Venezuela y Nuevo Reyno de Granada. [1581?]

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Venezuela.

Pedro Aguado was a sixteenth century Spanish Franciscan who became the provincial of his order in Nueva Granada. This manuscript is an eighteenth-century copy of his history of Venezuela and Nueva Granada, in two volumes.


GAGE, THOMAS. A new survey of the West-India's: or, The English American his travail by sea and land ... By the true and painful endevours of Thomas Gage ... . London, Printed by E. Cotes, and sold by J. Sweeting, 1655.

Lilly Library call number: F1211 .G13 1665

Thomas Gage was an English Dominican who travelled in Mexico and Central America. He later left America and returned to Europe, where he renounced the Catholic faith. The above work is a description of his travels and the Indians he encountered. A grammar of the Pokonchi language is included.


VARGAS MACHUCA, BERNARDO DE. Milicia y descripcion de las Indias, por el Capitan Don Bernardo de Vargas Machuca ... . Madrid, Pedro Madrigal, 1599.

Lilly Library call number: E141 .V29 Mendel Room

This work was written by Bernardo de Vargas Machuca, a career military man from Spain who spent over twenty years in the Indies. He was particularly concerned with the military techniques of the Indians.


CUBERO SEBASTIAN, PEDRO. Descripcion general del mvndo y notables svcessos qve han svcedido en el. Con la armonia de svs tiempos, ritos, ceremonias, costvmbres, y trages de sus naciones, y varones ilustres que en èl ha avido. Escrita por el doctor don Pedro Cvbero Sebastian ... . Valencia, V. Cabrera, 1697.

Lilly Library call number: G114 .C96 D44

A missionary and world traveler, Pedro Cubero Sebastián was interested in comparing the customs and ceremonies of various societies. Therefore, only a minor part of this work is actually devoted to a description of America.


WAFER, LIONEL. A new voyage and description of the isthmus of America. Giving an account of the author's abode there ... By Lionel Wafer. The second edition. London, Printed for James Knapton, 1704.

Lilly Library call number: F1564 .W12 1704

While crossing the Isthmus, Lionel Wafer, an English surgeon and adventurer, was injured and had to spend several months living with the Darien Indians. He wrote of his experiences in this detailed account of the Isthmus and its people.


ALCALÁ GALIANO, DIONISIO. Diario de la Navegacion de la Fragata del Rei Santa Maria de la Cabeza del mando del Capitan de Navio Don Antonio de Cordova al Reconocimiento del Estrecho de Magallanes ... . 1785, September 1-1786, June 11.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Chile.

An eighteenth-century account of a voyage to the Strait of Magellan, this narrative includes descriptions of the natives encountered during the trip.


EDEN, RICHARD. The decades of the newe worlde or West India ... Wrytten in the Latine tounge by Peter Martyr of Angleria, and translated into Englysshe by Richarde Eden. Londoni, In aedibus Guilhelmi Powell, 1555.

Lilly Library call number: E141 .E22 vault

A collection of early travel narratives from many sources, this work was first compiled by Pietro Martire d'Anghiera and written in Latin. It was then edited and translated into English by the scholar Richard Eden.


BURGOA, FRANCISCO DE. Geografica description de la parte septentrional del polo artico de la America, y nveva iglesia de las Indias Occidentales, y sitio astronomico de esta Provincia de Predicadores de Anteqvera Valle de Oaxaca ... . Mexico, Impr. de Iuan Ruyz, 1674.

Lilly Library call number: BX3512 .O12 B95

This work is a continuation of Burgoa's Palestra historial de virtvdes, y exemplares apostolicos published in 1670. Both works concern the history of the Dominican missionaries in Oaxaca, Mexico.


ALVARADO TEZOZOMOC, FERNANDO. Cronica Mexicana escrita por D. Fernando de Alvarado Tezozomoc ... . [1598]

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

This manuscript is a copy made in 1732. Originally written in Nahuatl, it is a history of the Aztec people by the grandson of the emperor Moctezuma, Fernando Alvarado Tezozomoc. Born shortly after the Conquest, Alvarado Tezozomoc had access to documents belonging to his family and used them as a basis for his history.


GÓMARA, FRANCISCO LÓPEZ DE. La historia general delas Indias, con todos los descubrimientos, y cosas notables que han acaescido enellas, dende que se ganaron hasta agora, escrita por Francisco Lopez de Gomara, clerigo ... . En Anvers. Por Iuan Bellero, ala enseña del Halcon. Año M. D. LIIII.

Lilly Library call number: E141 .G52 1554

Gómara, a Spanish historian, wrote this after interviewing many of the eyewitnesses of the Conquest of Mexico. His high praise for Hernán Cortés, to the exclusion of his lieutenants, created a violent reaction to the book and led to its prohibition in Spain in 1553 until after 1727.


GARCILASO DE LA VEGA, EL INCA. Histoire des Yncas, rois du Perou ... Traduite de l'espagnole de l'Ynca Garcillasso de la Vega, par J. Baudoin ... . Amsterdam, Chez G. Kuyper, 1704.

Lilly Library call number: F3442 .G23 1704

One of the best known historians of the Incas was Garcilaso de la Vega, a mestizo who lived with his Inca relatives and was educated with the sons of the other conquistadores. Garcilaso left Peru at the age of twenty, never to return, and wrote his history several decades later. While he frequently tends to romanticize or distort the facts, nevertheless his work is a classic and has gone through several editions in various languages.


HAKLUYT, RICHARD. The principall navigations, voiages and discoveries of the English nation, made by sea or ouer land ... . London, Printed by George Bishop and Ralph Newberie, 1589.

Lilly Library call number: G240 .H14 1589 vault

This edition of Hakluyt's collection of narratives of voyages and travels is the nucleus of his more famous work published about ten years later. Hakluyt collected many other manuscripts of narratives which he never published, and which later came into the hands of Samuel Purchas.


LÓPEZ, PERO. [Relazion heha De las tierras hislas tierra firme del piru que su magestad tiene conquistadas y pobladas despanoles hasta el ano de mill y quinientos y setenta]. [1572?]

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Peru.

Pero López was a fairly obscure Spanish captain who participated in military actions in Santa Marta, Popoyán, Peru, and Charcas. He first went to Peru as part of an army formed by Sebastián Belalcázar in 1546 to aid the Peruvian viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela. The first half of the work is primarily descriptive, while the second half deals with the mid-sixteenth-century civil wars in Peru.


LÓPEZ, PERO. Rutas de Cartagena de Indias a Buenos Aires y sublevaciones de Pizarro, Castilla y Hernández Girón, 1540-1570. Madrid, 1970.

Lilly Library call number: E141 .L798 1970

The López manuscript was found by Juan Friede in the Peruvian collection at the Lilly Library. He transcribed it and edited it in this publication of 1970.


PURCHAS, SAMUEL. Pvrchas his Pilgrimage. Or, Relations of the world and the religions observed in all ages and places discouered, from the creation vnto this present ... By Samuel Pvrchas ... . London, Printed by W. Stansby for H. Fetherstone, 1613.

Lilly Library call number: G159 .P973

Purchas claimed to have consulted over seven hundred authors for this world comparison of religions. The work has lengthy descriptions of the Aztec and Inca religions, as well as other American Indian groups. Purchas is perhaps better known for his Hakluytus Posthumus, published in 1625, in which he includes, in an abridged form, some of Hakluyt's unpublished narratives.


LERY, JEAN DE. Histoire d'vn voyage fait en la terre dv Bresil, avtrement dite Amerique ... . [La Rochelle], Pour Antoine Chuppin, 1578.

Lilly Library call number: F2511 .L5

Lery was a sixteenth-century French Protestant who went to Brazil to settle in the colony of Villegagnon at the mouth of the Rio Janeiro. This account of his trip includes information about the Indians of Brazil and about the natural history of that area.


MOTOLINIA, TORIBIO. Historia de los indios de la Nueva España, escrita a mediados del siglo XVI por el r. p. fr. Toribio de Benavente o Motolinía ... . Barcelona, Herederos de J. Gili, 1914.

Lilly Library call number: F1219 .M91

Motolinia was one of the first twelve Franciscans sent to Mexico as missionaries to the Indians. He is also known as Toribio de Benavente or Toribio de Paredes, but took the name Motolinia after his arrival in Mexico because it signifies poor or humble in Nahua.


[PATTERSON, THOMAS HARMAN?] [Drawings]. [1838?]

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Peru.

These drawings of Andean Indians are taken from an album containing the signature of the naval officer Thomas Harman Patterson. The volume has two autograph entries, one at Callao on August 25, 1838 and the other at Valparaiso on September 13, 1838. It is assumed that Patterson either made the drawings himself at that time or, as is more likely, acquired them then. The album also contains drawings of non-Indian Peruvians.


[ROCHEFORT, CHARLES DE]. Histoire naturelle et morale des Iles Antilles de l'Amerique. Enrichie de plusieurs belles figures des raretez les plus considerables qui y sont d'ecrites. Avec un vocabulaire Caraibe. Roterdam, Arnould Leers, 1658.

Lilly Library call number: F2001 .R65

The largest part of this work is a natural history of the Antilles, but the second Livre has an extensive physical and social description of the Carib Indians. A Carib vocabulary is also included.


OVALLE, ALONSO ORTÍZ DE. Historica relacion del reyno de Chile, y de las missiones y ministerios que exercita en el la Campañia de Iesvs ... . Roma, Francisco Cauallo, 1646.

Lilly Library call number: F3091 .O97

Ovalle was a seventeenth-century Jesuit born in Chile. This work is the first general history of Chile and includes a general description of the Indians of that area and a detailed account of their conquest and pacification.


XEREZ, FRANCISCO DE. Libro primo de la conqvista del Perv & prouincia del Cuzo de la Indie occidentali. [Vinegia, S. Da Sabio, 1535].

Lilly Library call number: F3442 .X6

The secretary and friend of Francisco Pizarro, Francisco de Xerez was one of the group to divide Atahuallpa's ransom. After breaking a leg at Cajamarca, he left Peru in July of 1533, carrying the first full official report of the Pizarro expedition, written by himself.


OVIEDO Y VALDÉS, GONZALO FERNANDES DE. Da la natural hystoria de las Indias ... . [Toledo, Remō de Petras, 1526].

Lilly Library call number: E141 .O8 vault

A Spanish historian, Oviedo y Valdés was well-acquainted with the Indies. He went there in 1514 to oversee the smelting of gold and in 1526 was the governor of Cartagena de las Indias. He also knew many of the conquistadores personally.


DÍAZ DE GUZMÁN, RUI. Historia argentina del descubrimiento, población y conquista de las Provincias del Río de la Plata. 1612.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Argentina.

Díaz de Guzm´n was first a soldier and then an historian. He was a participant in much of the history about which he wrote. This manuscript was published in 1900 as the first volume of Pedro de Angelis’ Colección de obras y documentos relativos a la historia antigua y moderna de las Provincias del Río de la Plata.


ENCISO, MARTÍN FERNÁNDEZ DE. Suma de geographia q̄ trata de todas las partidas c̄ prouincias del mundo: en especial delas Indias ... . [Sevilla, J. Cromberger, 1530].

Lilly Library call number: E141 .E5 vault

Enciso was a sixteenth-century Spanish sailor. After having become rich in Santo Domingo, he helped colonize Darién and founded the city of Santa Maria la Antigua in 1510. After a controversy with Vasco Núñez de Balboa, he was sent to Spain as a prisoner in 1513. This work was first published in Seville in 1519.


AA, PIETER VAN DER. La galerie agreable du monde, où l'on voit en un grand nombre de cartes tres-exactes et de belles tailles-douces, les principaux empires, roïaumes, republiques, provinces, villes, bourgs et forteresses ... . Le tout mis en ordre & executé à Leide, par Pierre vander Aa, [1729?].

Lilly Library call number: G114 .A1 vault

One hundred copies of this immense work in sixty-six volumes were printed. Contained in it are over 3,000 maps, charts, views, and plans. Tomes 63-66 concern America.


BRY, THEODOR DE, and family. [Grands voyages]. Frankfurt, 1590-1634.

Lilly Library call number: E141 .P915 pts 1-6 Mendel vault

One of the most famous collections of voyages, this is an important source of early narratives of the Americas. The volumes are illustrated with maps and views of native customs and history.

Theories of Origin


ACOSTA, JOSÉ DE. Historia natvral y moral de las Indias, en qve se tratan las cosas notables del cielo, y elementos, metales, plantas, y animates dellas: y los ritos, y ceremonias, leyes, y gouierno, y guerras de las Indios. Compuesta por el padre Joseph de Acosta. Seuilla, Impr. en casa de I. de Leon, 1590.

Lilly Library call number: E141 .A26 1590

Acosta was a Jesuit missionary who spent seventeen years in the Indies, mostly in Peru. He was the first writer to face objectively the problems involved in tracing the origins of the American Indians by insisting on the greater reliability of experience over philosophy.


COBO, BERNABÉ. Historia del Nuevo mundo, por el P. Bernabé Cobo ... . Sevilla, Imp. de E. Rasco, 1890-95.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C65

Cobo was also a Jesuit who wrote this manuscript in 1635, although it wasn't published until the nineteenth century. He argued a common origin for all the Indians, based on cultural and physical similarities among the various groups.


SOLÓRZANO PEREIRA, JUAN DE. Politico indiana, compuesta por el Doct. D. Juan de Solorzano Pereyra ... . Madrid, Por Matheo Sacristan, 1736-39.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .S68 1736

An extensive study in the Acostan tradition, Solórzano concluded that the Indians came to America by a northern land route. This judgment was made on the basis of the geography and the fauna of the New World.


TORQUEMADA, JUAN DE. Primera [-tercera] parte de los veinte i vn libros rituales i monarchia indiana ... Compuesto por f. Juan de Torquemada ... . Madrid, N. Rodriquez Franco, 1723.

Lilly Library call number: F1219 .T68 v.1, v.2, v.3

Another writer in the Acostan tradition, Torquemada accepted the impossibility of ever discovering the origins of the Indians. However, he did reject the theory that they were one of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel and did agree to the probability of a northern land route to America.


CALANCHA, ANTONIO DE LA. Coronica moralizada del Orden de San Avgvstin en el Perv ... Compvesta par el mvy reverendo padre maestro fray Antonio de la Calancha ... . Barcelona, P. Lacavalleria, 1639-53.

Lilly Library call number: BX2914 .P4 C14 v.1

Calancha also concluded that the Indians came to America by a northern land route. He further decided that the Indians were the descendants of the Tatars.


DURÁN, DIEGO. Historia de las Indias de Nueva-España y islas de Tierra Firme, por el padre Fray Diego Durán ... . México, Impr. De J. M. Andrade y F. Escalante, 1867-80.

Two volumes and atlas of facsimiles

Lilly Library call number: F1219 .D95

Durán felt that the true facts concerning the origins of the Indians would never be known, apart from a divine revelation. Therefore, all discussion of the subject could only be a matter of speculation. He speculated that the Indians descended from the Jews since their ceremonies, traditions, and customs were similar.


MANASSEH, BEN JOSEPH BEN ISRAEL. The hope of Israel: ... . London, 1651.

Lilly Library call number: DS 131 .M2673 1651

Manasseh, a Portuguese rabbi, was the first Jew to write about the Jewish origins of the Indians. He was one of the most popular authors on this subject, and his work went through many editions in several languages.


LAET, JOANNES DE. Ioannis de Laet Antuerpiani notae ad dissertationem Hvgonis Grotti de origine gentium americanarum ... . Parisiis, Gvilielmi Pelé, 1643.

Lilly Library call number: E61 .L15 1643

Laet printed Hugo Grotius’ pamphlet, De Origine Gentium, in an annotated form, questioning each of Grotius’ points in turn. Grotius believed that the Indians north of the Isthmus of Panama, excepting the Yucatán, were descended from the Norwegians; the Yucatecan Indians descended from the Ethiopians; and the Peruvians from the Chinese. A rather extensive controversy developed between Laet and Grotius over this subject.


HORN, GEORG. De originibvs americanis libri qvator. Hagae Comitis, sumptibus Adriani Vlacq, 1652.

Lilly Library call number: E61 .H8 1652

Horn was also involved in the Grotius-Laet dispute. Horn, much younger than either of the two principals, wrote this work much earlier; but it was not published until 1652. Horn was encouraged to write this by Laet, but Laet died years before its publication.


POMA DE AYALA, FELIPE HUAMÁN. Nueva corónica y buen gobierno (cordex péruvien illustré). Paris, Institut d'ethnologie, 1936.

Lilly Library call number: F3444 .P7

Poma de Ayala's work is frequently used by those who claim that all civilizations began in America, although he did not directly say this himself. This volume is a facsimile copy of the original manuscript, complete with illustrations.


ROCHA, DIEGO ANDRÉS. Tratado vnico, y singular del origen de los indios occidentales del Piru, Mexico, Santa Fé, y Chile. Por el Doctor Don Diego Andres Rocha … . Lima, Manuel de los Olivos, por Ioseph de Contreras, 1681.

Lilly Library call number: E61 .R67 vault

In this rare first edition, Rocha argued that the Indians were descended primarily from the ancient Iberians, and secondarily from the Israelites and Tatars.


GALVÃO, ANTONIO. The discoveries of the world from their first originall vnto the year of our Lord 1555 ... written in the Portugal tongue by Antonie Galvano ... corrected, quoted and now published in English by Richard Hakluyt ... . Londoni, Imprensis G. Bishop, 1601.

Lilly Library call number: G80 .G1752

This is the first English edition of the 1555 work by the Portuguese Antonio Galvão. Galvão postulated a Chinese origin for the Indians.


GARCIA, GREGORIO DE. Origen de los Indios de el Nvevo mvndo, e Indias Occidentales. Aueriguado con discurso de opiniones por el padre presentado fray Gregorio Garcia ... . Valencia, En casa de P. P. Mey, 1607.

Lilly Library call number: E61 .G12

Garcia's volume is essentially a discussion and summary of the various origin theories current at the time. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the work is the inclusion of the Indians' own theories of their origin. These theories are contained in Libro V of the work.


BREREWOOD, EDWARD. Enquiries tovching the diversity of languages, and religions through the chiefe parts of the world. London, Printed for J. Bill, 1614.

Lilly Library call number: P101 .B7 1614

Although a professor of astronomy at Gresham College, Brerewood's avocation was the study of languages. Linguistic comparison was one factor in his conclusion that the Indians were descendants of the Tatars, and also that the Tatars were not one of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.


ZARATE, AGUSTIN DE. Historia del desvbrimiento y conqvista de las provincias del Peru ... . Sevilla, A. Escriuano, 1577.

Lilly Library call number: F3442 .Z63 1577

A very popular book, this work went through several translations in the first thirty years after its publication. Zarate decided that the Peruvians had customs similar to the Atlanteans, as described by Plato. Therefore, he concluded that Atlanteans migrated to America before Atlantis sank.

Las Casas Controversy

The most famous defender of the Indians, Bartolomé de las Casas, had a long and far-reaching impact on European thought. He carried on his struggle to protect the lives and rights of the Indians from about 1515 until his death in 1566. He wrote and debated upon the subject extensively and was largely responsible for the enactment of the New Laws in 1542 which abolished the enslavement of the Indians. Unfortunately, these laws were bitterly contested by the Spaniards in America and were repealed. However, he was undeterred and returned to Spain to carry on the fight. In 1550 he met his best-known opponent, Juan Ginés de Sepulveda, in public debate over Sepulveda's work Apologia pro libra de iustis belli causis.

While Las Casas was largely unsuccessful in changing Spanish policies permanently or radically, the effect of his work has been felt even in recent years. He urged the importation of African slaves to the Americas as a substitute for Indian slave labor, although he regretted this recommendation in his later life. He also contributed much to the anti-Spanish feelings in Europe, as can be seen from the many translation of his writings describing the Spanish oppression and atrocities towards the Indians. This exhibit contains only a few volumes representative of Las Casas' work and influence.


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. Carta de amonestaciõ del obp̃o de Chiapa don fray Bartolome de las Casas a los muy m. Señores presidete y oydores de la real audiencia q̄ residen en la ciudad de Grãs-a-dios, tocante a la libertad y jurisdiçion ecclīca y execucion d̄lla y la libertad y remedios d̄las injusticias y agravios de los yndios de su obpado. Año de MDXLV. Londres, C. Whittingham, Chiswick press, por H. Stevens, 1854.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C719


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. Aqui se cõtienẽ treynta proposiciones muy juridicas: en las quales sumaria y succintamentese tocã muchas cosas per teneciẽtes al de recho q la yglesia y los principes Christianos tienen ... Año 1552. [Seville, S. Trugillo, 1552].

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C28


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. Narratio Regionum Indicarvm Per Hispanos qvosdam deuastatarum verissima: priùs quidem per Episcopum Bartholomaeum Casaum, natione Hispanum Hispanicè conscripta, & Anno 1551. Hispali, Hispanicè, Anno verò hoc 1598. Latinè excusa, Francofvti, Sumptibus Theodri de Bry, & Ionnais Saurii typis. Anno M. D. XCVIII.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C286 1598


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. Colección de las obras del venerable obispo de Chiapa, don Bartolomé de las Casas ... Da todo á luz el doctor don Juan Antonio Llorente ... . Paris, En casa de Rosa, 1822. Two volumes.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C2 C67


SEPULVEDA, JUAN GINÉS DE. Apologia Ioannis Genesii Sepvlvedae pro libra de ivstis belli cavsis ad amplissimum, & doctissimum praesulem. D. Antonivm Ramirvm Episcopum Segouiensem. [Romae, Valerium Doricum & Ludouicum fratres Brixienses, 1550].

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .S47 vault


SPAIN. Laws, statutes, etc. Leyes y ordenanças nueuamẽte hechas por su magestad, pa la gouernacion de las Indias y buen tratamiento y conseruacion de los Indios: que se han de guardar en el consejo y audiẽcias reales q̄ en ellas residen: y por todos los otros gouernadores, juezes y personas particulares dellas. [Alcala de Henares, Joan de Brocar, 1543].

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .S73 L68 1543


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. An account of the first voyages and discoveries made by the Spaniards in America. Containing the most exact relation hitherto publish’d, of their unparallel’d cruelties on the Indians, in the destruction of above forty millions of people ... . London, Printed by J. Darby for D. Brown, J. Harris and Andr. Bell, 1699.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C18 1699


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. Istoria ò breuissima relatione della distrvittione dell’ Indie Occidentali di monsig. reverendiss. don Bartolomeo dalle Case, ò Casaus, Siuigliano, Vescouo di Chiapa città regale nell'Indie. Conforme al svo vero originale Spagnuolo, già stampato in Siuiglia. Con la traduttione in italiano di Francesco Bersabita. [pseud.]. Dedicata all'amicitia. In Venetia, Presso Marco Ginammi. M. DCXXVI.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C285 1626


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. Newe Welt. Warhafftige Anzeigung Der Hispanier grewlichen abschewlichen vnd vnmenschlichen Tyranney ... . Im Jahr 1597.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C284 1597


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. A relation of the first voyages and discoveries made by the Spaniards in America. With an account of their unparallel’d cruelties on the Indians, in the destruction of above forty millions of people ... . London, Printed for D. Brown and A. Bell, 1699.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C2 1699


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. Conqvista dell’Indie occidentali di monsignor fra Bartolomeo dalle Case, ò Casaus, Siuigliano, vescouc di Chiapa. Tr. in italiano per opera di Marco Ginammi ... . Venetia, Presso M. Ginammi, 1645.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C285 1643 Mendel Room


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. Le Miroir de la Tyrannie Espagnole Perpetree aux Indes Occidentales ... . Amsterdam, Ghedruckt by Ian Evertss Cloppenburg, 1620.

Lilly Library call number: DH187 .C64


CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS. Popery truly display’d in its bloody colours: or, A faithful narrative of the horrid and unexampled massacres, butcheries, and all manner of cruelties, that Hell and malice could invent, committed by the popish Spanish party on the inhabitants of West-India ... . London, Printed for R. Hewson, 1689.

Lilly Library call number: F1411 .C19

Catholic Church


ARIAS, MANUEL BENITO. Plan de la Peninsula del Pueblo y Doctrinas de Yunguyo y Copacabana en el Partido de Chucuytu, obispado de la Paz ... . [1810?].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Bolivia.

A map in colors, this gives a simple plan of the town of Yunguyo in the bishopric of La Paz. The map and its notes show how the Catholic Church made arrangements to accommodate the Indians living in remote areas. This map was presented to the bishop of La Paz, Remigio de la Santa y Ortega.


Descripcion de la Provincia, y Misiones de Mainas en lo Temporal, y Espiritual. [18th century?].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Peru.

This history and description of the province and missions of Maynas, located in the present-day departamento of Loreto in Peru, is attributed to Francisco Requena. He was governor of Maynas in the late eighteenth century.


SÁNCHEZ LABRADOR, JOSÉ. Paraguay Catholico ... . 1772. Two volumes.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Paraguay.

Sánchez Labrador was a Spanish Jesuit who worked in the reducciones, or missions, of the Guaraní Indians. His principal work was a history of the Río de la Plata area, much of which has been lost. These two manuscript volumes include maps and vital statistics on the Indians and appear to differ considerably from the printed work El Paraguay católico, published in 1910.


Mapa en que se manifiestan los territorios del Arzobispado de Lima, y de los Sufraganeos Guamanga, y Truxillo, y parte del Cuzco, y Quito, y en ellos se hallan las Misiones ... . [18th century].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Peru.

Mapa en que se manifiestan los territorios del Arzobispado de Lima, ...

This map, in colors, was probably made by Franciscan missionaries in Peru. The notes on the map include information about the founding and history of several of the missions located on the map.


GONZALEZ, IGNACIO JOSÉ. Missiones vivas de la Compañia de Jesus del Paraguay. [18th century].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Paraguay.

This description of the Jesuit missions of the Guaraní Indians in Paraguay was written by Ignacio José Gonzalez in the eighteenth century. Apparently this manuscript has never been published.


ARMONA, MATÍAS DE, et al. Copia de varios Memoriales, y Decretos hechos y despedidos en el año de 1770. Pertenesientes ã las Missiones de California. [1770?].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

A copy of decrees and memorials relating to the California missions, this document is incomplete. It reflects the changes made necessary after the expulsion of the Jesuits. Armona was governor of California at that time.


LARRONDA, JUAN BAPTISTA. Noticia De la Geografia, Fisica, Mineralogia Metalurgia y Govierno Politico y Economico de esta Mission de San Francisco Xavier de Baborigame. 1778, June 30.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

A detailed report, this manuscript concerns the mission of San Francisco Javier de Baborigame in Durango, Mexico. In the fourteen pages of this document, Larronda discusses the geography and natural resources around the mission and its political and economic aspects.


LARRONDA, JUAN BAPTISTA. Informe, y noticia de esta Mission de Baborigame Sobre el numero de Pueblos y Familias, que la componen. 1779, July 24.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

This informe, shorter than the previous noticia, is concerned exclusively with the demographic aspects of the mission. Larronda gives statistics on the population by sex, age and marital status, as well as the number of baptisms, marriages, and deaths in the mission area.


GONZALEZ AGÜEROS, PEDRO. Mapa que comprehende ... las situaciones del Colegio de Propaganda Fide de San Ildefonso de Chillan, de la Regular Observancia de N. P. S. Francisco, en el Reyno de Chile, y Obispado de la Concepcion ... y es toda la Provincia y Archipielago de Chiloe ... . 1787.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Chile.

This large map in colors locates Franciscan missions in Chile. The map is very detailed and shows the locations of volcanoes, Indian tribes, and the islands of the archipelago of Chiloe.


HADRIANUS VI, pope. Bulla Pro conuersione Indorum Summarium. 1552, May 10.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

Though his pontificate was brief, Hadrianus VI was known as a reformer. Earlier, he had been tutor to the future Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, Charles V, and had also been an inquisitor-general in Spain. This copy concerns the regulation and administration of missionary activities in Mexico.


ZÁRATE, ANDRÉS DE. Ynforme ... de la Probinzia de Quito, En el Reino del Peru, y de sus Misiones deel Rio Napo, y deel Marañon. 1739, August 29.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Peru.

A report of his visit to the missions along the rivers Marañon and Napo, this manuscript of the Jesuit Andrés de Zárate was published in Madrid in 1904. Zárate gives complete geographical, economic, and political information about the area. He also describes various Indian tribes and gives a history of the missionary work among them.


VALLE, JUAN DEL [Investigation of the synod in Popayán]. 1558, December 17.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Colombia.

This manuscript is a series of fourteen doubts, or questions concerning the Indians of America and the bishop Juan del Valle's replies to these doubts. In this document, Valle denounces all Spaniards, from the King to the encomendero, for their roles in the oppression of the Indians and charges the Church with the responsibility for their welfare.


CARLOS II, king of Spain. V. M. dá la forma que han de observar el obispo de Guadalaxara y los Prelados Regulares en las misiones de nuevas combersiones. 1688, September 24.

Lilly Library: Latin-American mss. Mexico II.

An order from the King to the bishop of Guadalajara, Juan de Santiago León Garabito, this document concerns the administration of the missions in Coahuila and Nayarit. These missions were run by the Franciscans.


CASTELLO DE VIDE, BERNARDINO DE. Aspecto material e politico das missões dos frades regulares da provincia da piedade nas regiões do Marahaõ, Graõ-Pará e Rio Amazonas ... . 1709

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Brazil.

The first seven leaves of this short manuscript by a Portuguese Franciscan discuss the missions of the province of Piedade. The last four are a separate work. Included is a small map of the area around the mouth of the Amazon River.


CARLOS III, king of Spain. [Al Provincial de los Carmelitas Descalzos de la Nueva España, encargandole destine sugetos de su Provincia para que se empleen en la conversion, y reduccion de los Indios Gentiles … ]. 1770, April 8

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

After the expulsion of the Jesuits, California was divided, for missionary work, between the Franciscans and the Dominicans. In this document, the King is entrusting the conversion of the Indians of Sinaloa and Sonora to the Discalced Carmelites.


RAMIREZ DEL AGUILA, PEDRO DE. Noticias Politicas de Indias. Y Relacion Descriptiba de la Ciudad de la Plata Metropoli de las Provincias de los Charcas y neubo Reyno de Toledo en las Occidentales del gran Imperio del Piru. 1639, January 1.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Bolivia.

Intended to be part of the uncompleted ecclesiastical history of Spain's American possessions by Tomás Tomayo de Vargas, this manuscript volume is essentially a history of the La Plata region. It describes in detail the people, mines and minerals, civil and ecclesiastical government, and the condition and administration of the Indians.


SANTIAGO, PEDRO DE [Mapa marcar la nacion chiriguana]. [17th century].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Bolivia.

This detailed map in ink by the Discalced Augustinian Pedro de Santiago gives longitude and latitude, locations of cities, mines, missions, mountains, and the course of rivers of the area occupied by the Chiriguano Indians. The Chiriguanos are a branch of the Guaraní Indians.


[Census reports for California missions]. 1813, December 31.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

[Census reports for California missions], 1813.

These five padrones, or census reports, are from various Franciscan missions in California. They list the Indian and Spanish populations by age, marital status, and sex. The Spaniards are labelled “Gente de Razon.”


MARÍN, DOMINGO. Estado de las Missiones de Chile. [18th century].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Chile.

Apparently unpublished, this manuscript describes the missions in Chile. It was probably written in the first half of the eighteenth century.


RIVERO, JUAN. Historia de las misiones de los llanos de Casanare y los Rios Orinoco y Meta. 1728.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Colombia

Juan Rivero was a Spanish writer and Jesuit who spent many years in America. This history of the missions of the plains of Casanare in Colombia was published in 1883.


El Gran Parana Nvevamente Delineado Segun Sv Mayor extension Sobre Las Noticias Qve Dieron Vnos Portvgveses Del Brasil. [18th century?].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Brazil.

A large map in colors, this locates the course of rivers, towns, mountain ranges, and Indian tribes. Notes on the map itself provide other details.


URIARTE Y BAQUEDANO, MANUEL JOAQUÍN. [Letter to Juan Fernando de Uriarte Ramirez de Baquedano]. 1754, July 6.

Lilly Library: Uriarte mss.

Manuel Joaquín Uriarte y Baquedano was a Jesuit missionary in the Amazon. In this letter to his brother, written from Omaguas, he tells of the missionaries taking the Indians “from the mountains, where they live like wild beasts.”


URIARTE Y BAQUEDANO, MANUEL JOAQUÍN. [Letter to José Agustín Uriarte y Baquedano]. 1758, August 15.

Lilly Library: Uriarte mss.

This lengthy letter by the missionary Uriarte to another of his brothers clearly portrays the activities and difficulties of the missionaries in the Amazon. He describes the Indians he has encountered and his own ill-health during his travels.


URIARTE Y BAQUEDANO, MANUEL JOAQUÍN. [Letter to José Agustín Uriarte y Baquedano]. 1765, June 4.

Lilly Library: Uriarte mss.

This letter also contains a great deal of information about the Indian populations of the Amazon—groups that he had personally visited. He describes the Indians and their customs and relates anecdotes of his life and work among them.


JUAN Y SANTACILIA, JORGE and ANTONIO DE ULLOA. Discurso y Reflexiones Politicas Sobre el Estado presente de los Reinos del Peru ... . [1749].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Peru.

This was a secret report to the king of Spain candidly discussing the administration of the viceroyalty of Peru. The abuses of the clergy, particularly as regards their Indian charges, are clearly set forth. Although not intended for publication, it was published in London in 1826 with the title Noticias secretas de America. This manuscript copy is one of six known.


Ynformación manda rescivir par el Illmo. Obispo Zum´rraga como Protector de los Yndios, Sobre los malos tratamiento que resciven de los Españoles ... . 1531, January 2.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Mexico.

Juan de Zumárraga, first archbishop of Mexico, was also appointed the Protector of the Indians. In this document are reported the abuses of the Indians by the Spaniards in the ten years after the Conquest.


ARTIGAS, GABRIEL DE. [Letter to Felipe V, king of Spain]. 1714, December 2.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Guatemala.

Artigas, the newly elected Provincial of the Augustinians in the Province of San Vincente de Chiapas y Guatemala, made a report to the King on the pacification of the Tzeltal Indians after a recent uprising. Four missionaries were killed in that uprising, and Artigas also gave details of that event.


[Report concerning a missionary expedition undertaken by Melchor de Jesús López and Antonio Margil de Jesús] [1696].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Nicaragua.

This document describes an expedition in Nicaragua that began in October of 1692. There is information concerning missionaries and Indian tribes in that area. Margil de Jesús was a great Franciscan missionary who travelled extensively in Mexico and Central America.


CABALLERO, LUCAS. Notisia i brebe relasion de los Manasicas. 1706, July 17.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Bolivia.

The Manasicas are a branch of the Bolivian Chiquitos. This manuscript describes their political organization, customs, and religion. Caballero has included a Satyra against their native gods in the belief that the best way to attack false religion is through ridicule. This manuscript was published in 1933 by Manuel Serrano y Sanz.


REBUELTA VELARDE, JOAQUÍN. Plan Topografico del Partido de Chulumani, y curso de sus Rios, hasta las Misiones de Mosetenes, en la Provincia de la Paz ... . 1810.

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Bolivia.

This colored map shows the location of cities, Christian towns, towns of converted Indians, missions, and groups of “infieles” and “bárbaros.”

Inca Portraits


[Inca Portraits]. [1760].

Lilly Library: Latin American mss. Peru.

Inca portrait, c. 1760.

This is a group of sixteen original portraits done about 1760. They presumably are based on a series of life-size paintings which were in Cuzco in the early part of the eighteenth century. Fourteen portraits are of Incas; one is of Maina-Ocllo Huacco (wife of Manco Capac); and one is of Francisco Pizarro.


Lilly Library Publication XXV

Beginning with Discovery, exhibit catalogues and other publications from The Lilly Library are numbered consecutively. A list of the unnumbered publications (most are out of print) and of the numbered series follows:

Designed and edited by the Indiana University Office of Publications. One thousand five-hundred copies of this catalogue have been printed. The text is set in 10-point Baskerville; the stock is 80-pound Andorra Text with 65-pound Kromekote Cover.

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