Lilly Library Manuscript Collections

LATIN AMERICAN MSS.--PERU

The Latin American mss. Peru, 1535-1929, consist of over 6500 documents which trace the historical, economic and social development of what is presently known as Peru, with lesser coverage of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Ecuador. The greatest concentration of manuscripts concerns the area's struggle for independence, though the preceding colonial era is also well represented. The collection contains corresponcence, royal and viceregal edicts, official government reports, military papers, notarial acts, legal cases, maps, pictorial works, and poetry.

More than 800 notarial acts dating from 1535 to the 17th century that are in the collection have been filed and calendared separately. The majority of the acts are from the registers of nataries of Lima and Arequipa, with a smaller group of documents issued by the notary Juan de Grajeda travelling with the 1539-1540 expedition of Pedro de Candia. The acts cover a wide variety of commercial and legal documents, a number of which illustrate the position of blacks, Indians, and women in colonial Peru. See in Vertical File, Latin American mss. Peru. Actas Notariales, for calendar of these items.

Numerous legal cases, found either in their entirety or in part, reflect many different aspects of the society that may be of interest for the researcher. Among the legal documents of the 16th century is a bound criminal case concerning the murder of Francisco Pizarro which gives evidence signed by various witnesses of the movements of Baltasar Mendez at the time of the murder. There is also a dispute involving the inheritance of estates, a modification of a judicial sentence signed by Antonio de Mendoza, viceroy of New Spain and Peru, and several lengthy disputes between Indian caciques involved in litigation over land titles and inherited positions. Some of these Indian cases present genealogies going back to the pre-conquest as well as more contemporary matters such as the distinction made between mestizos and pure-blooded Indians.

Concern for the treatment of Indians is reflected in many documents. An edict signed by the viceroy Francisco de Toledo on Feb. 2, 1571, concerns the amount of tribute to be given priests by the Indians and a letter from the viceroy Fernando de Torres y Portugal, conde de Villar don Pardo, to Diego Garcia de Paredes y Ulloa in 1589 discusses the epidemic of smallpox and measles, with measures to be taken to prevent the disastrous resluts already experienced elsewhere in the New World among the indigenous population.

Various cities are documented by materials of the early colonial period, particularly Huancavelica with its silver and mercury mines, among the largest in the world for the latter. The city's charter, several viceregal edicts concerning the appointment of officials, the treatment of Indian labor, and various aspects of mine administration are found in the collection. Other cities with lesser representation during the 16th and 17th centuries include Cuzco, Arequipa and Castrovirreina. A register of elected officials for Cuzco with documents from 1590 to 1658 curiously also contains information on tree-planting activities in the area.

A chronicle written by Pero Lopez narrates the general events of the Spanish conquest and details the history of the warfare getween Gonzalo Pizarro and Diego de Almagro. The manuscript is from the collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps, who apparently obtained it at the sale of manuscripts belonging to Edward King, viscount Kingsborough in 1842. The work has been published as Rutas de Caragena de Indias a Buenos Aires y sublevaciones de Pizarro, Castilla y Hernandez Giron, 1540-1570, transcribed and annotated by Juan Friede, preface by Marcel Bataillon. Madrid, 1970. (Lilly E141 .L798 1970)

Another work of interest from the 16th century is a bound volume entitled Rebelion i tirania De Lope de Aguirre Vizcayo, dated Aug. 17, 1594. Probably copied by Bartolome Nino Velasquez from documents in the Archivo General de las Indias, this volume has information on the historic rebellion of this Spanish captain. It also contains Felipe II's response to Archduke Charles concerning troubles in the Low Countries; Felipe II's instructions to Enrique de Guzman, conde de Olivares, about the congratulation of Charles IX of France upon his marriage with Isabel, daughter of the emperor Maximilian; a copy of the antenuptial contract between Charles IX and his queen; and a report of the auto-da-fe conducted in Granada in 1593 by the Spanish Inquisistion.

A record of the discoveries and settlements of the Spaniards in the New World, along with the Canary Islands and the Moluccas is found in a manuscript beginning El orbe todo tiene Trecientos y sesenta y cinco Grados de longitud ..., probably written about 1550. There are sections about various geographical areas of the Americas, with Peru receiving the greatest attention. The document also attributes the first discovery of the Indies to a Spaniard who died at Columbus' home, leaving with him a report of the first discoveries.

Church matters during the colonial period are reflected in the correspondence between members of the various religious orders and by the many Inquisition documents of proceedings involving prisoners and their estates, salaries of Inquisition officials and instructions sent from Spain to Peru by the inquisitors-general Antonio de Sotomayor and Francesco Giudece.

Information about the lives of religious figures is also present in the collection. There is a manuscript copy of the life and miracles of Saint Rosa of Lima with documents dating from 1617 to 1630, initiating the process leading to her canonization in 1670, and a document about Saint Francisco de Solano dated Dec. 22, 1629. The virtues of the mystic Catalina de Iturgoyen Amasa y Lisperguer, condesa de la Vega del Ren, are outlined by her religious confessor.

Two of the major concerns in the 18th century shown by the collection were the political situation and the treatment of the Indians. There are two variant copies of Vitorino Montero's Estado Politico del Reino del Peru ..., written about 1744. One of the copies is annotated. Another work relevant to the political situation is Jorge Juan y Santacilia's and Antonio de Ulloa's Discurso y Reflexiones politicas sobre el Estado presente de los Reinos del Peru .... This copy, dated 1749 and marked for the "uso privado de la secretaria del despacho de Indias," was not intended for publication but fell into the hands of the British who published it in 1826 as part of Noticias secretas de America ..., London, 1826 (Lilly F3411 .J85). The two authors were accompanying a scientific expedition from Paris and there are present also several documents with regard to their travelling expenses.

Orders concerning the treatment of Indians are in the collection, including one sent to Huancavelica to enforce a Real Cedula of 1766 about the admission of Indians into religious orders, schools and public officers. There are also two Cedulas dated Feb. 25, 1758, regarding the mistreatment of Indians with copies of correspondence sent by various Indians having particular greivances against government officials.

The insurrection of Tupac-Amaru, 1780-1781, is discussed in military papers, reports and correspondence. Among the items are a letter by Diego Cristobal Tupac-Amaru of Aug. 19, 1781, a petition and a receipt signed by him, and a receipt signed by Mariano Tupac-Amaru.

Other items of interest for this period include a description of an earthquake in Arequipa dated 1784; several documents about Miguel Jeronimo Romani y Carrillo, bishop of Cuzco; a letter by the Sicilian explorer Alessandro Malaspina; and a copy of Introduccion a la historia de la provincia de Cochabamba by Thaddaus Haenke, the Bohemian naturalist who accompanied Malaspina, found in an 18th century volume of miscellaneous papers. Jose Eusebio de Llano y Zapata, author of Memorias historico-physicas, critico-apologeticas, de la America Meridional, mentions in a letter to Pedro Jose Bravo de Lagunas y Castilla his progress in writing this work and his ideas for two schools for Lima, one dedicated specifically to the study of mineralogy. Enclosed in the same letter is a manuscript title page and the table of contents for the first volume.

The 19th century, during which the colonial era ended and the struggles for independence throughout Latin America began, is represented by the correspondence of the last viceroy of Peru, Jose Fernando Abascal y Sousa, and Jose de la Serna e Hinojosa. The events in Buenos Aires after the British attack and British and American contraband are expressed preoccupations. The histories of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Ecuador are also documented in varying degrees during this period. The royalist military reaction to the revolutionary forces from Buenos Aires and the revolts in La Paz, Bolivia, and Cuzco is found in the correspondence of Abascal y Sousa, Jose Manuel de Goyeneche y Barreda, Manuel Quimper Benitez del Pino, Domingo Tristan y Moscoso, Jose Canterac, Joaquin de la Pezuela, and others.

All the military documents from the period 1800-1830, with certain exceptions noted below, have been placed within a single file. These 790 items consist of materials pertaining to both the royalist and liberating forces operating in the viceroyalty of Peru. Manuscripts not included in this section are correspondence, decrees and certain legal cases. These are indexed separately and interfiled chronologically with the rest of the collection. For more information, see Vertical File, Latin American mss. Peru. Military Documents.

The campaign of Jose de San Martin and his Liberating Army of the Andes is represented in great detail from the crossing of the Andes into Chile to the occupation of Lima in 1821. There are more than 200 documents either signed by or attributed to San Martin, many of them dealing with changes of administration during the occupation of Lima. In addition to the extensive military reports and correspondence from both sides, a sense of the quotidian effects of these events may be gathered from the civilian reactions contained in the correspondence of the period.

Events such as the independence of Guayaquil, the reoccupaiton of Lima by the royalists, the fall of Jose de la Riva Aguero, and Simon Bolivar's arrival in Peru are well documented. The battle of Ayacucho is represented by a copy of the terms of capitulation bearing the signatures of both Sucre and Canterac (of which there are apparently only four such copies in existence), a pictorial map, narrative poetry, correspondence from Antonio Jose de Sucre to Bolivar, a letter by Canterac, and proclamations by Rudecindo Alvarado and Pio Tristan.

The collection is unique in its holdings of Sucre's correspondence. There are over 150 documents, 140 of which are originals with his signature. There are eleven Bol¡var items in the collection, nine of them signed, most of which grant promotions or recognition to various participantss in the war for independence.

With independence secured, the problem of the legal status of the Spaniards still in the country arose and is documented by both naturalization papers and shipping contracts for the transporation of soldiers back to Spain. Education also became a concern, as reflected in Bolivar's adoption of the Lancaster system and Andres de Santa Cruz's decree about public education.

Materials for the ensuing decades include documents such as the decree by Felipe Santiago de Salaverry about sedition and treason, a ratification of the agreement with Agustin Gamarra, and a decree signed by Luis Jose Orbegoso declaring any ship serving Salaverry as piratical. There is also a letter by Jose Antonio Paez to Bartolome Palacios with respect to Junin and Bolivar a collection of papers concerning Chile's loan to Peru in 1823, and proceedings to obtain benefits for the relatives of Juan Antonio Alvarez de Arenales and Jose Olaya.

The 1860's were critical years in Peru as well as elsewhere. There are three letters from William Henry Seward for this period, one of which gives a view of the Reconstruction in the United States. The conflict between Peru and Spain over the Chincha Islands is represented by correspondence between Juan Dartnell, Ramon Valle Riestra, Cipriano Coronel Zegarra, Jose Antonio Barrenechea, Pedro Jose Calderon and the Spanish admiral Luis Hernandez Pinzon y Alvarez. One particularly interesting document is a nine- page confidential letter signed by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Manuel Montt, members of the Congreso Americano in Lima, and sent to the president of Peru, regarding the hostilities.

Cuban history, as well as relations between the U.S., Peru and Chile concerning recognition of the revolutionary government on the Caribbean island, is illustrated by correspondence between Manual Freyre, Jose Antonio Barrenechea and Eduardo Villena and a copy of a letter by Jose Morales Lemus, the Cuban representative in Washington, about the strengthening of Cuban naval forces with the purchase of the Peruvian monitors "Manco Capac" and "Atahualpa."

The remainder of thee 19th century material includes correspondence from several American diplomats, an autograph document by Juan Antonio Pezet with autobiographical information and his last wishes, correspondence from various secretaries of state and other officials in Washington, and a letter from Ricardo Palma to Federico Alfonso Pezet.

The 20th century documents consist primarily of correspondence to Federico Alfonso Pezet from U.S. secretaries of state and presidents William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.

Correspondents in the collection include Javier Francisco Abadia; Jose Fernando de Abascal y Sousa; Petronila Abeleira; Roy Curtiss; Jose de Acosta; Alejandro Acquaroni; Alvey Augustus Adee; P. Vazquez de Velasco; Bartolome Aguero; Domingo de Aguero; Francisco Ignacio Aguinan, J. V. Aguirresolarte; Ramon de Albarracin y Palia; Pedro Jose Calderon; Ignacio de Alcazar; Juan Salvador Alcazar; Pedro Alcocer; Francisco Aldao; Jose Aldao; Jose Felix Aldao; Antonio Aliaga; Diego Aliaga; Diego Felipe de Aliaga; Faustino Aliaga; Juan Jose de Aliaga; Jose Maria de Alos y de Mora, marques de Alos; Clemente de Althaus; Rudecindo Alvarado; Antonio Maria Alvarez; Custodio Alvarez; Francisco Alvarez; Juan Manuel Alvarez; Mariano Alejo Alvarez; Juan Alvarez Guerra; Juan Bautista de Alzaga; Manuel de Amat y Junient; Jose Angulo; Valentin de Angulo; Vicente Angulo; Manuel de Antecona; Manuel Maria Martinez de Aparicio; Miguel Aponte; Francisco de Arana; Juan de Dios Arana; Manuel Tomas de Arana; Pedro Pablo Abarca y Bolea Aranda, conde de; Miguel de Aranibar; Jose Antonio de Areche; Florentin Arenales; Juan Antonio Alvarez de Arenales; Antonio Arenas; Jose Gregorio Argomedo; Angel Arguelles; Buenaventura Arias; Jose Remigio de Arias; Manuel de Arias; Ramon Arias; Joaquin de Arrese; Antonio de Arriaga; Julian de Arriaga; Pablo Jose de Arriaga; Pedro Ramon de Arriagada; Miguel Arteaga; Jose Maria Artola; Tomas Asencio; Justo Astete; Pablo de Astete; Cayetano Avalle; Jose Felix Avalos; Antonio Avella; Juan Jose de Avella Fuertes; Juan Jacinto de Ayala; Jose Ponceano de Ayarza; Mariano Aylas; Juan Antonio Azaldegui; Antonio Azpiroz; Robert Bacon; Manuel Antonio Baez; Jose Manuel de Ballesta; Jose Ballivian; Juan de Dios Balmes; Valentin Bao; Tomas Barandalla; Jose Antonio de la Barcena; Andres Barragan; M. Barrena; Jose Antonio Barrenechea; Luis de la Barrera y Hernandez; B. Barrere; Gregorio Barron; Pedro Antonio Barron; Manuel M. Basagoitia; Narciso Basagoitia; Juan Basombrio; Thomas Francis Bayard; Manuel Bayon; Antonio Maria Bazo; Lorenzo Bazo; Bartolome Bedoya; Manuel Bedoya; Jose Gabriel Bejar; Mariano Antonio Bejarano; Robert Bell; Jose Betran; Diego Jose Benavente; Jorge de Benavente; Pedro de Benavente; Anacleto Benavides; Mariano Benavides; Martin de Beramendi; Juan de Berindoaga y Palmares, conde de San Donas; Francisco Bermudez; Pedro Bermudez; Pedro Jose Bernuy; Manuel Placido Berriozabal, marques de Casa Jara y conde de Vallehermoso; Juan de Bezares; Millicent (Todd) Bingham; James Gillespie Blaine; Diego Blanco; Tomas Blanco Cabrera; Manuel Blanco Encalada; William Bogman; Simon Bolivar; Jose Miguel Bonastre; Jose de Boqui; Francisco Borgono; Pedro Antonio Borgono; Manuel de Borja Rodriquez; Roman Bornas; Jose Boterin; Hipolito Bouchard; Federico de Brandsen; Sevellon Alden Brown; Alejo Bruix; William Jennings Bryan; James Bryce, viscount of Bryce; Juan Buendia; Severino Bueno; Francisco Bullon; Manuel de Bulnes y Quevedo; Andres Caballero; Francisco Caballero; Jose Francisco Cabero; Jose Matias Cabero; Jose Cabero y Salazar; Ignacio Cabero y Tagle; Domingo Cabrera; Miguel Cabrera; Jose Melchor Caceres; Jose Antonio Cacho; Manuel Ramon Caguana; Pedro Jose Calderon; Francisco Calero; Rafael Calvo; Eleodoro Camacho; Juan de Dios Camborda; Miguel del Camino; Jose Manuel Campana; L.F. Campillo; Jose Manuel Campos; Mateo de Campos; Ignacio Cancino; Jose F. Canevaro; Jose Canterac; Jose Caparroz; Jose Carlier; Jose Ramon Carmona; Jose Felix Caro y Lora; Jose Carratala; Enrique Carreno; Marcelino Carreno; Gaspar Carrillo de Albornoz y Vega, marques de Valdelirios y de Feria; Tomas Guillermo de Carter; Jose Maria de Carvajal; Melchor Carvajal; Isidoro de Carvajal y Lancaster; Emiliano Carvallo; Jose Mar¡a Casariego; Domingo de las Casas y Jauregui; Juan Miguel de Castaneda y Amuzquibar; Jose de Armendariz, marques de Castelfuerte; Ramon Castilla; Pedro Rafael Castillo; Manuel Jose de Castro; Mariano Castro y Taboada; Jose Guillermo Cayro; Pascual Cayro; Manuel Ceballos; Anselmo Centeno; Ambrosio Cerdan de Landa Simon Pontero; Blas Cerdena; Pedro Antonio Cernadas y Bermudez de Castro; Manuel Cespedes; Fulgencio Cevallos; Rafael Cevallos; Agustin Guillermo Charun; Francisco Chaves; Jose Chavez; Francisco Chavez Quevedo; Jose Domingo Choquehuanca; Manuel Choquehuanca; Mariano Chuecas; Eusebio Cisneros; Henry Cobbett; Bainbridge Colby; Silvestre Collar; Pedro Colque; Martin de Concha y Jara; Jose Maria Corbacho; Jose Maria Cordoba; Andres Cornejo; Pedro Jose Cornejo; Cipriano Coronel Zegarra; Cirilo Correa; Isidro Cortazar; Mateo de Cossio; Braulio Costa; Santiago Jose Costas; Alonso Criado de Castilla; Teodoro de Croix; Francisco de la Cruz; Luis de la Cruz; Jose de la Cuadra; Mariano Cucalon; Baltasar de la Cueva, conde de Castellar; Jose Ramon de la Cueva Ortiz; Jose Maria de la Cuevas; Roy Curtiss; Joaquin Dabouza; Juan Dartnell; Toribio Davalos; Justo P. Davila; John Davis; John Chandler Bancroft Davis; Norman Hezekiah Davis; William Rufus Day; Roman Antonio Deheza; Paul Delan; Ignacio Delgado; Juan Delgado; Miguel Delgado; Ruperto Delgado; Timoteo Delgado; Diego Diaz y Buenano; Francisca Diez Canseco de Castilla; Tomas Drinot; Thomas Cochrane, 10th earl of Dundonald; Vicente Dupuy; Francisco Duro; Francisco Javier de Echague; Miguel Jose de Echarris; Francisco de Echave y Assu; Jose Ramon de Echenique; Jose Rufino Echenique; Joaquin Echeverria; Pablo Echeverria; Jose Maria Egana; Mariano de Egana; Pablo Manuel de Egana; Jose Maria Egusquiza; Federico Elguera; Domingo Elias; Angel Elizalde; Jose de Elizalde; Jose Matias de Elizalde; Jose Francisco de Enales y Mollinedo; Fermin Lino Enriquez; Francisco de Erezcano; Jose domingo de Errasquin y Mendizabal; Jose Antonio de Errea; Manuel Escobar; Gregorio Escobedo; Juan de Escobedo; Ramon Escobedo; Geronimo de Escobedo Altamirano; Francisco Escudero; Jose Escudero de Sicilia; Juan Esmond; Baldomero Fernandez, duque de la Espartero; Pedro de Espejo; Mariano Espiell; Melcho Espinal; Jose Domingo Espinar; Domingo Espinosa; Francisco Espinosa; Juan Espinosa; Miguel de Espinosa; Pedro Bernardo de Esquivel; Manuel Esteban; Felipe Santiago Estenos; Francisco Antonio Esteves; Mariano Estevez; Ramon Estomba; William Maxwell Evarts; Edward Everett; Juan de Ezeta; Victor Fajardo; Dionisio Farfan; Benigno Febres; Jose Feijoo; Bonifacio Fernandez; Santiago Fernandez; Santiago Cesario Fernandez; Pedro Fernandez Calienes; Maria Martina Fernandez Cornejo; Miguel Tadeo Fernandez de Cordova; Francisco Javier Fernandez de Paredes, 4. marques de Salinas; Jose Fernandez Prada; Jose Crisanto Ferreyros; Manuel Bartolome Ferreyros; Miguel Feyjoo de Sosa; Miguel A. Figueredo; Esteban Figueroa; Justo Figuerola; Hamilton Fish; Henry Prather Fletcher; Jose Maria Flores; Silvestre Flores; Robert Forster; John Watson Foster; M. Freeman; Jose Freire; Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen; Manuel Freyre; Manuel de la Fuente; Matias de la Fuente; Jose Maria de la Fuente y Carrillo de Albornoz, marques de San Miguel de Hijar; Juan Jose de la Fuente y Loaysa; Jose Gabana; Anselmo Gago; Gabrino Gainza; Jose Maria Galdiano y Mendoza; Jose Mariano Galegos; Antonio Galvez; Pedro Dionisio Galvez; Jose Galvez Egusquiza; Agustin Gamarra; Jose Cleto Gamboa; Tadeo Joaquin de Garate; Francisco Garces; Antonio Garcia; Cristobal Garcia; Manuel Garcia; Manuel Jose Garcia; Mariano Garcia; Miguel Garcia; Teodoro Garcia; Andres Garcia Camba; Jose Garcia de Leon y Pizarro; Benito Garcia del Barrio; Carlos Garcia del Postigo; Juan Garcia del Rio; Julian Garcia Gallegos; Juan Jose Garcia Mancebo; Rafael Garcia Mancebo; Manuel Garcia y Espinosa; Aurelio Garcia y Garcia; Jose Maria Garcia y Socoli; Vicente Garin; Victoriano Garrido; Eugenio Garzon; Jose Gavanar; Joaquin German; Vicente Gil de Toboada; Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos; Franceso Giudice; George Washington Goethals; Manuel de Goiburu; Melchor de Goizueta; James Goldie; Andres Gomero; Angel Francisco Gomez; Manuel Antonio de Gomez; Tomas Gomez; Ramon Gomez de Bedoya; Jose Gomez Mantilla; Clemente Gonzalez; Jose Gonzalez; Jose Gonzalez; Juan Antonio Gonzalez; Pedro Jose Gonzalez; Tomas Gonzalez; Vicente Gonzalez; Ciriaco Gonzalez Carvajal; Baltasar Gonzalez de Galvez; Jose Manuel Gonzalez de la Fuente, conde del Villar de Fuente y de Fuente Gonzalez; Jose Gonzalez de Navarra y Montoya; Tirso Gonzalez de Santalla; Leon Gonzalez de Velasco; Alonso Gonzalez del Valle y Apesteguia, marques de Campo Ameno; Manuel Gonzalez Torres de Navarra; Joaquin Gonzalez Vigil; Alejandro Gonzalez Villalobos; Faustino Gordillo; Juan Antonio Gordillo; Antonio de Goyburu; Jose Manuel de Goyeneche y Barreda; Jose Sebastian de Goyeneche y Barreda; Pedro Mariano de Goyeneche y Barreda; Marcelo Granados; Manuel de la Guarda; Juan Climaco Guerci; Pablo Guerra; Fulgencio Guerrero; Jose Guerrero; Tomas Guido; Gregorio Guillen; Manuel Guirior y Portal Huarte y Endozain, marques de Guirior; Martin Jorge Guise; Melchor Gutierrez; Antonio Gutierrez de la Fuente; Mariano Gutierrez de Quintanilla; Antonio Leocadio Guzman; Jose Maria Guzman; Lorenzo Guzman; Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy; John Milton Hay; Juan de Henestrosa; Jose Santos de la Hera, conde de Balmaceda; Bartolome Maria de las Heras; Isidro de las Heras; Gabriel Herboso y Astoraica, conde de San Miguel de Carma; Tomas de Heres; Luis Hernandez Pinzon y Alvarez; Juan Manuel Hernicas; Juan de Herranz; Bartolome Herrera; Manuel de Herrera; Ramon Herrera; David Jayne Hill; Greforio Hoyos de Miranda Garcia de Llano, marques de Valde Hoyos; Alejandro Huavique; Charles Evans Hughes; Francis Mairs Huntington-Wilson; Felipe Hurtado; Manuel Hurtado; Andres Hurtado de Mendoza, 2. marqurs de Canete; Mariano Ibanez; Juan Illingworth; Jose Joaquin Inclan; Fernando de Indacoechea; Facundo Infante; Simon Inostroza; Pedro de Irazeburu; Antonio Jose de Irisarri; Tomas Isidoro; Agustin de Jauregui y Aldecoa; Juan Jimenez; Pedro Tomas Jimenez; Rafael Jimenez; Vicente Jimenez; Jose Jimenez y Victoria; Servando Jordan; Frank Billings Kellogg; Philander Chase Knox; Miguel Antonio de la Lama; Jose de Lamar y Cortazar; Joaquin Lamo y Zuniga, conde de Castaneda y de los Lamos; Tomas Landa; Bernardo Landa y Viscarra; Franklin Knight Lane; Robert Lansing; Clemente Latano; Juan Jacinto Lara; Manuel de Lardizabal; Miguel de Lardizabal y Uribe; Juan Antonio de Larrauri; Jose de Larrea; Juan Jose Larrea; Jose de Larrea y Loredo; Juan Gregorio de Las Heras; Benito Laso; Manuel Lastra; Juan Lavalle; Juan Bautista de Lavalle y Sagasti; Juan Lavayen; Valentin Ledesma; Antonio Leefdael; Juan Gregorio Lemos; Santiago Lemus; Francisco de Leon; Gervacio Leon; Matias Leon; Vicente Leon; Juan Jose de Leuro; Pedro Nolasco Lezama; Joaquin Lira; Juan Agustin Lira; Miguel Lizarraga; Jose Maria Lizarazburu; Jose Agustin de Lizaur y C.; Jorge de Llano; Manuel de Llano y Najera; Jose Eusebio de Llano y Zapata; Antonio Loli de Sosa; Hilario Lopez; Fernando Lopez Aldana; Jose Antonio Lopez Bellido; Cayetano Lopez de Velasco; Ramon Lopez Lavalle; Juan Loriga; Manuel Loro; Joaquin de Lostra; Juan Miguel Lostra; Ciriaco Lovera; Juan Jose Loyola; Hilarion Lozano; Juan Esteban Lozano de Torres; Gregorio Luna; Mariano Luna; Jose Ignacio Luque; Toribio de Luzuriaga; Manuel Lynch; Nicolas Lynch; William Gibbs McAdoo; Andrew MacFarlane; A. Mackenzie; Miguel Francisco Mais; Alessandro Malaspina; Mariano Maldonado; Hilario Mallorca; Jose Antonio Manso de Velasco, conde de Superunda; Jose Mansueto Mansilla; Juan Manuel del Mar; Sir Clements Robert Markham; Rafael Maroto; Joaquin Martin; Pedro Martin; Antonio Martinez; Enrique Martinez; Jose Calixto Martinez Camacho; Nicolas Marzan; Benito de la Mata Linares; Antonio Matas; Jose Maria de Maurtua; Fernando Mayta; Jose Medina; Justo Medrano; R. Meiklejohn; Andres Mejia; Francisco Melo; Pablo de Mena; Manuel Jose Menaut; Manuel de Mendiburu; Palomino de Mendieta; Miguel de Mendinueta; Domingo Mendizabal; Francisco de Paula Mendizabal; Jose Maria de Mendizabal; Jose Ildefonso Mendizabal e Imaz; Bernabe Mendoza; Jose de Mendoza; Pascual Mendoza; Alonso Messia; Carlos Meyner; William Miller; Dionisio Miralla; Luis Miranda; Manuel Miranda; Vincente Miranda; Francisco Placido Mogrobejo; Joaquin de Molina; Jose Marcelino de Molina; Pedro Antonio de Molina; Juan Antonio Monet Blasco del Barrio; Jose Monis Chiguan; Bernardo Monteagudo; Manuel Montejo; Gaspar Montenegro; Jose Montenegro y Ubalde; Juan Antonio Montenegro y Ubalde; Antonia Montero; Toribio de Montes; Jose Maria de Montoya; Manuel Francisco Antonio Julian Montt; Juan Bautista de Monzon; Juan Bassett Moore; Casimiro Morales; Ramon Morales; Jose Morales Lemus; Jose de Morales y Ugalde; Tomas Jose de Morales y Ugalde; Trinidad Moran; Juan Morana; Domingo Moreno; Francisco Javier Moreno; Jose Ignacio Moreno; Mariano Moreno; Pedro Celestino Moreyra; Juan Nepomuceno Morla; Juan Tomas Moscoso; Jose Gabriel Moscoso y Peralta; Tomas Moyano; Pedro E. Muniz; Alejandro Munoz; Manuel Munoz; Jacinto Munoz Calero; Juan Nepomuceno Munoz y Plaza; Francisco Narvaez; Casto Jose Navajas; Jose Francisco Navarrete; Diego Antonio Navarro Marin de Villodres; Mariano Necochea; Pedro Nestares; Francisco Nieto; Vicente Nieto; Ignacio Ninavilca; Luis Nocheto; Jose Martin Noriega y Chaves; Ignacio Novoa; Jose Maria Novoa; Cayetano Jose de Ocampo; Gabriel Ocampo; Manuel de Odriozola; Ambrosio O'Higgins, marques de Osorno; Juan Antonio de Olaechea; Antonio Olaguer y Feliu Heredia Lopez y Donec; Cipriano de Olaguibel; Pedro Antonio de Olaneta; Jose Valentin de Olavarria; Felix de Olazabal; Jose Joaquin de Olmedo y Maruri; Juan Olmos; Luis Jose Orbegoso; Jose Ordonez; Juan Bautista Ordonez de Villaquiran; Diego O'Reilly; Martin Orellana; Mariano Origuela; Jose Calixto de Orihuela y Valderrama; Jose Ormaza; Rafael Orozco; Baltasar Orrantia; Carlos Maria de Ortega; Joaquin Ortega; Valentin de Ortega; Vicente Ortega; Carlos Ortiz; Ignacio Nicolas Ortiz de Zevallos y de Ernazo; Mariano Osorio; Ponciano Jose Osorio; Agustin Otermin; Francisco de Paula Otero; Miguel Otero; Agustin Francisco de Otondo; Martin de Oviedo; Andres Pacheco; Toribio Pacheco; Jose Antonio Paez; J. Gabriel Palacio; Vicente de Palafox, marques de Ariza y Estepa; Juan de Palafox y Mendoza; Ricardo Palma; Tomas Ignacio Palomeque; Marcos Palomino; Pedro Jose Palomino; Jose Maria de Pando; Manuel Pantoja y Moreno; Antonio Maria Pardo; Juan Pardo de Zela y Vidal; Felipe Pardo y Aliaga; Jose Pardo y Aliaga; Manuel Pardo y Rivadeneira; Juan Ignacio Pareja; Diego Paroissien; Manuel Pasqua Cossio; Santiago Pastrana; Julian Pancefote, baron of Pauncefote; Juan Paz del Castillo; Jose Gregorio Paz Soldan; Manuel de Paz Soldan; Ramon Manuel de Pazos; Richard Pearson; Carlos Pedemonte; Pedro Pedemonte; Herbert Henry Davis Peirce; Agustin Penarrieta; Cipriano Penaloza; Antonio Luis Pereira; Juan Manuel Pereyra; Miguel Pereyra y Pacheco; Gabriel Perez; Jose Alejo Perez; Jose Gabriel Perez; Juan Perez; Juan Luis Perez; Julian Perez; Vicente Perez; Jose Maria Perez de Urdininea; Joaquin Perez de Uriondo; Jose Mariano Perez del Portillo; Jose Perez y Armendariz; John Joseph Pershing; Federico Pezet; Federico Alfonso Pezet; Juan Antonio Pezet; Joaquin de la Penzuela y Sanchez Munoz de Velasco; Julian Picho; Manuel Piedra; Jose Maria del Pielago; Fermin Pierola; Andres Pineda; Francisco Antonio Pinto; Juan Pedro Piozel; Andres Pizarro; Antonio Placencia; Francisco Pobes; Isidro Ponce de Leon; Belisario Porras; Felipe Portocarrero; Francisco Placido Portocarrero; Jose Lino Portocarrero; Mariano Portocarrero; Andres Poveda; Jose del Pozo; Leoncio Prado; Sir Henry Prescott; Jose Prieto; Jose Maria Prieto; Francisco de Paula Pruna y Aguilar; Guillermo Prunier; Pedro de la Puente; Mateo Garcia Pumacahua; Francisco Puyol; Silvestre de la Quadra; Manuel Queipo; Gregorio Quijada; Manuel Quimper Benitez del Pino; Juan Manuel Quint Fernandez, marques de San Felipe; Diego Quint Fernandez Davila; Antonio de Quintanilla; Jose Maria Quiroga; A. Quiros; Cayetano Quiros; Gabriel Bernardo de Quiros; Ignacio Quispe Ninvilca; Manuel Ramirez; Mateo Ramirez; Melchor Ramirez; Manuel Ramirez de Arellano; Cristobal Ramirez de Caragena; Juan Ramirez de Orozco; Blas Ramos; Sebastian Ramos; Antonio Ranz Romanillos; Pedro Raulet; Simon Ravago; Francisco Jose de Recabarren; Francisco Retz; Felipe Revoredo; Andres de los Reyes; Juan Francisco de Reyes; Agustin Reyna; Juan de Ribadeneira; Juan Antonio Ribeiro; Lazaro de Ribera y Espinosa de los Monteros; Juan Francisco Ribero; Marian Ricafort Palacin y Abarca; Lorenzo Ricci; Gaspar Rico de Angulo; Casimiro de los Rios; J. de los Rios Mardones; Jacinto del Risco; Jose de la Riva Aguero; Jose Rivadeneira y Tejada; Juan Jose Rivas; Jose Maria Rivera; Francisco de Rivero; Mariano de Rivero; Mariano Eduardo de Rivero y Ustariz; Juan Francisco Robinson; Juan Roca; Pedro Jose Roca; Jose Ramon Rodil y Gayoso, marques de Rodil; Crespin Rodriguez; Jose Antonio Rodriguez; Valentin Rodriguez; Vicente Rodriguez; Jose Antonio Rodriguez Aldea; Manuel Rodriguez de la Rosa; Nicolas Rodriguez Pena; Jose Santiago Rodriguez Zorilla; Jose Andres de Rojas; Manuel Patricio Rojas; Paulino Rojas; Pedro de Rojas y Briones; Pedro Antonio Rolando; Francisco Roldan; Jose Tiburcio Roldan; Jose Maria Romero; Manuel Agustin Romero; Pablo Romero; Theodore Roosevelt; Elihu Root; Juan Benito Ros; Baltazar de la Rosa; Felix de la Rosa; Francisco Rosas; Jose Ignacio Rozo; Joaquin Rubin de Celis; Trinidad Rubin de Celis; Francisco Ruiz; Lorenzo Ruiz; Pedro Ruiz; Francisco Antonio Ruiz Cano y Saenz Galiano; Jose Ruiz Mujica; Jose Ruiz Sobrino; Justo Sahuaraura; Bartolome Maria Rodriguez de Salamanca; Felipe Santiago de Salaverry; Jose Gregorio Salazar; Manuel Salazar y Baquijano; Francisco Salazar y Carrillo; Juan Jose de Salazar y Carrillo; Juan Pedro Saldias; Manuel Gonzalez Salmon; Bartolome Salom; Juan Jose Samano y Urribarrie de Rebollar y Mazorra; Jose Antonio de San Alberto; Jose de San Martin; Jose Sanchez; Juan Francisco Sanchez; Jose Faustino Sanchez Carrion; Jose Maria Sanchez Chaves; Francisco Sanchez Quinones; Arturo Sandes; Alonso de Sandoval; Andres Santa Cruz; Bernardo Santa Cruz; Eulogio de Santa Cruz; Juan Pablo Santa Cruz; Jose Santa Cruz y Villavicencio; Juan Santana; Juan de Santiago y Barros; Manuel de Santiago y Rotalde; Jaime Santisteban; Martin Santos de la Lana; Jose Santos Figueroa; Antonio Sanz; Francisco de Paula Sanz; Domingo Faustino Sarmiento; Juan Jose de Sarratea; Juan Seguin; Miguel Jeronimo Seminario y Jaime; Vicente de Seneca; Jose Senna; Antonio Seoane; Miguel Seoane; Jose de la Serna e Hinojosa; William Henry Seward; John Sherman; Pablo de Sierra; Miguel Silva; Santiago Simons; Raimundo Smidts y Gesalano; G.J. de Sola; Pedro Alejandrine del Solar; Manuel Jose Soler; Miguel Cayetano Soler; Jose Maria Solis; Luis de Soria Santa Cruz y Navarro, marques de Casa Munoz; Joaquin de Soroa; Ildefonso Sosa; Antonio de Sotomayor; Carlos Soublette; Sir Cecil Arthur Spring Rice; Charles Stewart; Ricardo Straus; Antonio Suarez; Isidoro Suarez; Manuel Isidoro Suaaez; Antonio Jose de Sucre; William Howard Taft; Felix Tagle Borbolla; Pedro Tagle y Bracho; Jose Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, marques de Torre Tagle; Francisco de Taramona; G. Tateno; Pedro Fernando Taviera; Gregorio Tejeda; Tado Telez; Pablo Teron y Prieto; Francisco Javier Terrazas; Matias Terrazas; Bruno Terreros; James Thorne; Basilio Antonio Tinoco; Francisco Javier Toro; Manuel Toro; Jorge Maria de la Torre; Jose de la Torre; Jose Maria Torre; Fernando de Torres y Portugal, conde de Villar don Pardo; Josefa Tristan; Pio Tristan; Domingo Tristan y Moscoso; Isidoro Trujillo; Joseph Patrick Tumulty; Diego Cristobal Tupac-Amaru; Antonio Tur; Jose Manuel Ubalde; Alfonso Ugarte; Juan Jose de Ugarte; Edwin F. Uhl; Jose Hipolito Unanue; Pedro Miguel de Urbina; Jose Urbiola; Luis Urdaneta; Jose Francisco Ureta; Manuel Toribio Ureta; Manuel Urries de Castilla, conde de Ruiz de Castilla; Antonio Vacaro; Jeronimo Valdes, vizconde de Torata y conde de Villarin; Manuel Valdes; Dionisio Valdivieso; Juan Valdivieso; Francisco Valdivieso y Prada; Miguel de Valencia; M.I. Valerde; Jose Maria Vallarino; Jose del Valle; Manuel de Valle; D. Valle Riestra; Francisco Maria de Valle Riestra; Ramon Valle Riestra; Manuel Maria del Valle y Postigo; Manuel Vallejos; Manuel Valverde y Ampuero; Francisco Javier Vargas; Patricio Vasquez; Jose Matias Vazquez de Velasco; Mariano Vela Patino y Cruzat; Manuel Velarde; Jose Miguel de Velasco; J. Saturnino Velasquez Flores; Vicente Velazquez; Juan Bautista de Vera; Clemente Verdequer; Jose Manuel Vertiz; Jose Maria Vezga; Agustin de Vial Santelices; Anselmo Vicenio; Francisco de Vidal; Manuel Vidal; Mariano Vidal; Manuel Lorenzo de Vidaurre y Encalada; Jose Videla Castillo; Benjamin Viel; Jose Joaquin Vigil; Antonio Vigil Manrique de Lara; Manuel Antonio de Villalta; Manuel Villar; Isidoro Villar y Diaz; Manuel Villaran y Loli; Blas de Villasenor; Eduardo Villena; Muzio Vitelleschi; Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco; Juan Evangelista Vivas; Rafael Gavino Vivas; Tomas Vivas; Jose Pascual Vivero y Salavarria; Francisco Vives; Juan Vives y Echeverria; Dionisio de Vizcarra; Daniel Webster; Edith (Bolling) Galt Wilson; Woodrow Wilson; Richard Yates; Jorge Young; Pedro de Zalduegui; Fernando Zambrano; M. Zamudio; Baltasar Zapater; Nicolas Zarate; Francisco de Zarate Manrique de Lara, marques de Montemira; Pedro Jose de Zarate y Navia, conde del Valle de Oselle y marques de Montemira; Jose Maria Zatarain; Jose Vicente de Zavala; Juan Jose de Zavala; Pedro Jose de Zavala Bravo del Rivero, marques de San Lorenzo de Valle Umbroso; Tadeo Martin de Zavala Vazquez de Velasco, marques de San Lorenzo de Valle Umbroso; Francisco Antonio de Zela y Arizaga; Juan Pedro de Zelayeta; Jose Ignacio Zenteno; Manuel Antonio Zuloaga; and Juan de Dios de Zuniga.

Collection size: 6,716 items

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