IUCAT Library Help Topics
Advanced Search
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Overview
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Advanced search is a keyword search which allows words to be searched anywhere within records, within specified indexed fields, within designated MARC tags, or in any combination of these.

The following words are stop words and will be ignored in a keyword search:

a, an, as, at, be, but, by, do, for, if, in, is, it, of, on, the, to

The Advanced search screen consists of a series of drop-down menus for the search fields, text boxes to enter your search words, and drop-down menus for Boolean operators.

The fields that may be searched from the drop-down menu are: Keywords Anywhere, Author, Title, Periodical Title, Series, Subject and Medical Subject.

The Boolean operator drop-down menu works between two boxes, not within a box. To operate the drop-down menus: click on the arrow on the right side of the box, highlight and click on your selection.

The Advanced search allows you to place limits on your search through a series of drop-down menus. Searches may be limited by: library, shelving location, collection, publication year, format and language. You may also sort your search results.

In an Advanced search you may use:

   Operators: Boolean and Positional : (and, or, not, adj, same)

   Truncation : ($ for multiple characters and ? for single characters)

   Nesting : (when using more than one operator in the same search)

   Field/MARC Tag Searching

The result of an Advanced search is a list of titles. The number of matches will appear in bold text underneath the navigation options. Use the Previous and Next navigation options to move through the list.

Titles appear in a "last in, first out" (LIFO) order. This means that the item added to the database last will appear first on the list. The search results may be sorted by author, title, or publication year. Scroll to the bottom of the results screen and select the preferred sort option.

If a search produces no matches or related headings, a browse list closest to the first term will be displayed.

Constructing Searches
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There is no limit on the number of characters you may type into a search box. Review Entering Words in a Search Box for more information on how to enter search words.

Select a search field option from the drop-down menu on the left side of the screen.

Example : author

Enter the search word(s) in the first search box.

Example : Mark Twain

If you wish to combine the search word(s) with additional word(s) from another field, select a Boolean operator from the drop-down menu on the right side of the screen.

Example : and

Select a search field option from the second search field option.

Example : title

Enter the search word(s) in the second search box.

Example : huckleberry finn

If desired, repeat numbers 3-5.

If you do not want to limit or sort your search results, click the Search button. Pressing the Enter key on your keyboard will not start the search.

Limiting the Advanced Search
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At the bottom of the Advanced search page you may limit your search to any one or more of the following conditions:

   Library

   Shelving Location

   Collection

   Publication Year

   Format

   Language

You may do a search on one or a combination of search limits without entering a search term. This would allow you to find all the visual materials (format limit) in the IU Southeast Library (library limit), for example.

After applying the limits, click the Search button. Pressing the Enter key on your keyboard will not start the search.

Library

Limiting your search to a specific library is optional. The options are to select ALL to search all libraries or to select one library. It is not possible to select more than one library from the menu.

When limiting a search to a specific library, the word(s) entered will be searched only in that library's collection.

A default library will be pre-selected for you. If you do not change this limit, the word(s) you entered in the search box will be searched only in the default library catalog.

The list of libraries is arranged in alphabetical order by location of the library. All of the libraries located in Bloomington are listed in alphabetical order, followed by Columbus, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, etc. There are two exceptions, Northwest and Southeast listed as Northwest and Southeast, not Gary and New Albany.

To select a specific library:

    Click on the arrow on the right side of the box.
    Scroll through the list using the bar on the right side of the drop-down menu.
    Highlight and click on the library that you wish to search.
    The drop-down menu disappears and the selected library will appear in the box.

Shelving Location

There are hundreds of shelving locations in the drop-down menu. ANY is the default shelving location. If you do not limit the search to a shelving location, the system will search all shelving locations.

The shelving locations are arranged in an alphabetical list.

Approximately 100 shelving locations on the list are shared shelving locations. For example, many libraries have A-V, Atlases, Children's and Reference shelving locations.

The remaining shelving locations are unique to a specific library.

Example : South Bend Circulation Desk CD's

To find shelving locations for the Undergraduate Library it is necessary to scroll to Main Library - Undergraduate Library.

Collection

Limits the search to special collections such as the Philanthropic Library in Indianapolis

Publication Year

Searches may be limited to a single year or a range of years.

Format

There are eight formats that you may use to limit your search. ANY is the default and will search all of the formats.

    Books (includes monographs in paper and other formats, such as microfilm)
    Computer/Electronic/Online
    Journals/Magazines/Newspapers (includes all serials)
    Manuscripts
    Maps
    Musical Scores
    Sound Recordings
    Video/Slides, Etc. (includes all visual materials)

Language

Limits the search to a specific language. The first two entries in the list are ANY (no limit) and English. Following these are two separate lists of languages: the 10 languages most heavily represented in the IU Libraries collections, and an alphabetical list of the rest of the languages represented in the IU Libraries.

Operators
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Operators tell the computer the relationship between the search terms you enter in one box or between the each search box on the Advanced Search screen.

Entering operators into a single search term box

One or more search terms may be typed in a single search term box. Include an operator between each search term. If no operators are included, the system assigns the default operator SAME.

Terms may be "nested" (enclosed in parentheses) to combine like terms. When you add parentheses to a search you tell the computer in which order keywords should be searched. Without parentheses, the computer will search the most specific operator first. The sequence from most to least specific is: adj, near, with, same, and, not, xor, or.

Example : (television or TV) and advertising not (children or youth or teen$)

Boolean Operators

And

All terms entered in the box must be present in the records chosen. Narrows your search.

Example : children and poverty

Or

Any of the terms in the search box may be present in the records. Or broadens your search. Can be used for synonyms or variant spellings of a word.

Example : television or TV

Not

Excludes all records found in the search that include the next term in the box or the term in the next search box. Narrows your search.

Example : pollution not air

Xor

Either one or the other search term must be present but not both. Narrows your search.

Example : rats xor rodents

Positional Operators

Same

The terms in the search box must all appear in the same field of a record (author, title, subject, etc.).

Example : gun same control

Adj

Terms in the search box must appear in the record next to (adjacent to) each other in the same order as you enter them in the box.

Example : civil rights

Near

Terms in the search box must appear in the record next to (adjacent to) each other, but may appear in any order.

Example : financial near plan$

With

Terms in the search box must appear in the record in the same sentence and in the same field/part of the record.

Example : merchant with venice

You may also add numbers to the positional operators to specify how many words apart the two terms can be.

Example : juvenile near4 courts

Truncation
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Use a truncation symbol to find variant forms of a search term. IUCAT has two different truncation symbols:

       $ Retrieves all terms beginning with the same root. The $ may replace more than one character. Must be used at the end of a word. You may specify the number of characters you want the computer to find.

       ? Takes the place of one character. It maybe used in the middle or at the end of a word.

Example : comput$
Finds words such as computer, computers, computing, computation.

Example : alcohol$2
Finds words with 0 to 2 characters following the l, including alcohol or alcoholic, but not alcoholism.

Example : wom?n
Finds woman or women.

Nesting
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Nest terms by using. parentheses ( ). This is useful when combining like terms.

Example : (television or TV) and advertising not (children or youth or teen$)

Adding parentheses to a search tells the computer in which order keywords should be searched. Without parentheses, the computer will search the most specific operator first. The sequence from most to least specific is: adj, near, with, same, and, not, xor, or.

To search for an operator as a word, put it in quotes (" ").

Examples : "not" by bread alone

"near" death

Stop Words
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IUCAT ignores stop words if you enter them in an Advanced or Keyword search.

These include:
a, an, as, at, be, but, by, do, for, if, in, is, it, of, on, the, to

To search for a stop word as a word, put it in quotes (" ").

Example : "the" (French word for tea)

Search Punctuation
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A variety of punctuation may be used when searching.

Parentheses ( )

Use parentheses to nest search terms together. Search terms contained within the parentheses will be conducted first and the results will them be compared with the terms outside the parentheses.

Examples : (iraq or Kuwait) and oil

(English and Poetry) not criticism

Braces/Curly Brackets { }

Braces are used to specify a search term in a specific field of a record. Braces may be used only in Keywords Anywhere searches.

Example : faulkner {au} and dying {ti}

Paired Single Quotes ' '

Paired single quotes are used to enclose a phrase to search for it exactly as it is typed. The words must all appear in the order entered and adjacent to each other.

Examples : 'free trade'

'multicultural education'

Paired Double Quotes " "

To search for stop words and Boolean or positional operators as search terms.

Examples : "the" (French word for tea)

"not" by bread alone

Dollar Sign $

The dollar sign is used as a truncation symbol at the end of a word to replace one or more characters. You may specify the number of characters you want the computer to find.

Example : comput$
finds words such as computer, computers, computing, computation

Example : alcohol$2
finds words with 0 to 2 characters following the l, including alcohol or alcoholic, but not alcoholism.

Question Mark ?

The question mark is used to replace one character. It may be used in the middle or the end of a word.

Example : wom?n
finds woman or women

Greater Than >, Less Than <, Equal to =, Greater Than or Equal to >=

These symbols are use for relational searching in Keywords Anywhere or to input dates in the Publication Year limit.

Example : internet and pbyr > 1998

Field/MARC Tag Searching

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Each catalog record is made up of a series of individual fields. Each field contains specific data for a part of the record, such as the author, the title, the official subject headings, publisher information, notes, etc. Each of these fields is "tagged" with a constant number so that the computer will know how and where to display the information in the field.

You may search for fields in either Keyword search or Advanced search.

Always use a Keywords Anywhere search to search for field tags. Some tags will not work in a specific type of keyword search.

Type the search term followed by the MARC tag in curly brackets { }

Examples : bach {100, 700}
to find bach in the author main entry and added entry fields

wiley {260)
to find wiley in the publisher field

courage {505}
to find courage in a contents note

For a complete list of MARC tags, try:
MARC [Machine Readable Catalog] Field Tag Outline

Sort Results
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Advanced and Keyword search results appear on the list in last in/first out (LIFO) order. That means materials cataloged most recently will appear first on the list.

You may sort result sets of up to 999 records. You may sort these on the following:

    Author
    Title
    Publication Year (earlier year to latest year)
    -Publication Year (reverse chronological order, latest first)


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