- Be aware that descriptive practices diverge sharply from subject practices. For subjects, see: Russia/Soviet Union/Former Soviet republics: a short course in subject analysis
Geographic Headings for Russian Corporate Names
For Russia (Federation), always change the qualifier from R.S.F.S.R. to Russia, except when the name of the city has changed also (such as Leningrad to Saint Petersburg), e.g.
- Moscow (R.S.F.S.R.)
is never valid. Use Moscow (Russia).
- Leningrad (R.S.F.S.R.)
is valid for the period 1925-1991 because the name of the city changed.
is used for items produced there today and before 1914.
- In the same way, Petrograd (R.S.F.S.R.) is used for the period 1914-1924.
Corporate Bodies: Main Headings
The old names are still valid for the period before 1991: Russia (through 1917)
Soviet Union (1917-1991) and
Russian S.F.S.R. (1917-1991)
are valid headings for corporate bodies.
RI24.4C6 states that a corporate body is qualified by the latest name of a place during the lifetime of the
body. In such cases, the name of the city remains unchanged during each time period. Obviously, this may require some research.
See the following examples.
Geographic headings as Qualifiers
The previous examples are very simple and show no change from previous descriptive practices, but now we shall begin to analyse some of the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Corporate bodies qualified by Soviet Union must change their headings if they still exist, but if they ceased to exist in 1991, they retain the qualifier Soviet Union.
Again, Commonwealth of Independent States is not a jurisdiction and is not the successor to the Soviet Union. This means that when confronted with a name change, the larger body (Soviet Union) must be associated with a smaller jurisdiction (e.g. Russia (Federation), Ukraine, Belarus, etc.).
The only other choice is that the older, Soviet corporate body had no successors at all.
When, and if, another item arrives by this body that was published after 1991, we will change the qualifier to (Russia) or perhaps (Moscow, Russia).
Glavnaia astronomicheskaia observatoriia (Soviet Union)
Glavnaia astronomicheskaia observatoriia (Pulkovo, Russia)
The following examples show how these headings are used.
Corporate Bodies Qualified by Cities
For corporate bodies that are qualified by cities, the former qualifier (R.S.F.S.R.) always changes to (Russia) [again, not Russia (Federation) RI23.4B!] except when the name of the city has also changed.
Isaakievskii sobor (Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.)
Isaakievskii sobor (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
Arkticheskii nauchno-issledovatelskii institut (Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.)
- Arkticheskii i antarkticheskii nauchno-issledovatelskii institut (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
For qualifiers of conferences, the rule is the same. Qualifiers in the ‡c of the additions will use the name in effect during the time of the conference. The following examples are both valid headings because of the dates.
Vsesoiuznaia konferentsiia "Kniga v Rossii do serediny XIX v." (3rd : 1985 : Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.)
International Conference LPAR '92 (1992 : Saint Petersburg, Russia)
Vserossiiskoe uchreditelnoe sobranie (1918 : Petrograd, R.S.F.S.R.)
Uniform titles follow the same rules as corporate bodies. When a title is qualified, it uses the latest form of
the name during the lifetime of the title.
All titles qualified by e.g. Moscow (R.S.F.S.R.) will change to Moscow (Russia), but titles qualified by a city that has changed its name may, or may not change its uniform title.
Stupeni (Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.)
Stupeni (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
Krasnaia letopis (Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.)
Series qualifiers will change according to the same rules for other uniform titles: (R.S.F.S.R.) will automatically change to (Russia), except when the city has also changed its name.
IUridicheskie nauki (Moscow, R.S.F.S.R.)
IUridicheskie nauki (Moscow, Russia)
Poeziia (Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.)
After the Soviet Union collapsed, one result was that the official language of each republic is no longer Russian. Consequently, in areas other than Russia (Federation), the headings of all cities must be in the language of the country (e.g. Armenian cities in Armenian, Uzbek names in Uzbek). This means that practically every heading changes.
Aside from the tricky problem of determining the name of a city in an obscure language (e.g. Turkmen),
the question arises: what constitutes a change of name? Should a change in the official language of the country result in an earlier/later change of name? In simpler terms, should the practice be similar to Moscow (Russia) or Saint Petersburg (Russia)?
There is no hard and fast rule for this, and the NAF does not provide consistent examples.
A clear example:
151 0 Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
551 0 ‡wa‡aFrunze (Kirghiz S.S.R.)
In many cases, LC considered a change in language to be a change of name. Recently, this heading was changed by LC.
See also under the earlier heading: Kishinev (Moldavian S.S.R.)
This record told catalogers to follow the practice for Saint Petersburg (Russia).
Recently, this heading was changed.
- Kishinev (Moldavian S.S.R.)
See: Chisinau (Moldova)
A victory for simplicity!
Problems with non-English language forms
LC has shown a marked tendency for the vernacular forms over the English forms, even for well-known English language names.
151 0 T'bilisi (Georgia)
451 0 ‡wnne‡aTbilisi (Georgian S.S.R.)
More consequent are two of the best known Ukrainian cities, aside from Kiev:
151 0 Odesa (Ukraine)
451 0 ‡wnne‡aOdessa (Ukraine)
151 0 Chornobyl' (Ukraine)
451 0 ‡wnne‡aChernobyl' (Ukraine)
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident, Chornobyl', Ukraine, 1986.
Many of the changes to name and title headings have already been completed since 1991, but there are still many other records that reflect earlier practices. To complete the process of updating headings, it is important to know these earlier practices and how and why they have changed.