Skip to main content
Indiana University Bloomington

Faculty from several departments participate in our Graduate Program. They are listed according to the following research area.

students in labs

Richard HardyRichard Hardy

Professor, Biology/Associate Chair of Teaching

Office: Simon Hall 220E

Phone: 812/856-0652

Send Email


Ph.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1998
Post-doctoral Fellow, Washington University, St. Louis, 1998-2002


Genome functions of RNA viruses and the roles of trans-acting factors

Representative Publications

J. C. Rupp, N. Jundt and R. W. Hardy. 2011. Requirement for the amino-terminal domain of Sindbis virus nsP4 during virus infection. J. Virol. (accepted)

V. Avadhanula, B. P. Weasner, G. G. Hardy, J. P. Kumar, R. W. Hardy. 2009. A novel system for the launch of alphavirus RNA synthesis reveals a role for the Imd pathway in arthropod antiviral response. PLoS Pathogens. 5 (9). e1000582

J. Rubach*, B. R. Wasik*, J. C. Rupp R. J. Kuhn, R. W. Hardy, and J. Smith. 2009. Characterization of purified Sindbis virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Virology. 384: 201-208. * - equal contribution by these authors.

D. G. Nickens and R. W. Hardy. 2008. Structural and functional analyses of stem-loop 1 of the Sindbis virus genome. Virology. 370: 158-172.

A. J. Burnham, L. Gong, and R. W. Hardy. 2007. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein K interacts with Sindbis virus nonstructural proteins and viral subgenomic mRNA. Virology. In press.

M. A. Thal, B. R. Wasik, J. Posto, and R. W. Hardy. 2007. Template requirements for recognition and copying by Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Virology. 358: p.221-232.

S. Tomar, R. W. Hardy, J. Smith, and R. J. Kuhn. 2006. Catalytic core of alphavirus nonstructural protein, nsP4 possesses a terminal adenyly transferase activity. J. Virol. 80(20): p.9962-9969.

R. W. Hardy. 2005. The role of the 3’ terminus of the Sindbis virus genome in minus-strand initiation site selection. Virology 345: p.520-531.

R. W. Hardy and C. M. Rice. 2005. Requirements at the 3’ end of the Sindbis virus genome for efficient synthesis of minus-strand RNA. J. Virol. 79 (8): p. 4630-4639.

R. Gorchakov, R. Hardy, C.M. Rice, and I. Frolov, 2004. Selection of functional 5' cis-acting elements promoting efficient Sindbis virus genome replication. J. Virol, 78(1): p. 61-75.

R. W. Hardy, J. Marcotrigiano, K. Blight, J. Majors, and C. M. Rice. 2003. Hepatitis C virus RNA synthesis in a cell-free system isolated from replicon-containing hepatoma cells. J. Virol. 77 (3). 2029-2037.

Frolov*, R. W. Hardy*, C. M. Rice. 2001. cis-acting RNA elements at the 5’ end of Sindbis virus genome RNA regulate minus and plus strand RNA synthesis. RNA. 7. 1638-1651. * co-first authors