Project GAIN: A Model for Best Practices in Inclusive Recreation Programs

True inclusion occurs when individuals with and without disabilities are valued for their individuality and are active participants in the social fabric of their communities. Recreation activities are a vehicle through which true inclusion can be achieved due to the tendency of such activities to lead to other social ventures. Research by Murray (2002) involving individuals with disabilities, found that “The thread linking leisure to all aspects of their lives was that of relationship—opportunities for fun being dependent on having friends. In this way, the research participants described inclusive leisure as a process through which we all belong, whatever setting we happen to be in” (p.42). Since golf is one activity that is social in nature, it would therefore seem appropriate for reaching true inclusion. “A round of golf can take around four hours where individual differences disappear as playing the game becomes the common focus” (Birmingham City Council, para. 7).

Benefits of Golf
The game of golf offers endless benefits to all who play. Golfers receive health benefits from the physical activity, experience greater quality of life from the social nature of the game, and acquire feelings of self-determination and confidence, among numerous other benefits. Ryan and Chorost (2002) assert that these “social and cultural attributes make golf an excellent basis for programs which aim to teach skills that can be used both in the sport and in life (p. 7).” In addition, golf is one of the few sports where participation spans across generations, making it truly a lifetime activity.

Barriers to Golf
As they age, many avid golfers become faced with the devastating perception that they can no longer engage in the sport they love due to the onset of various disabilities. In addition, many people with disabilities (physical, developmental, cognitive, etc.) have either never been presented with the opportunity to play golf, or have faced various barriers to their participation. Schleien (1993) identified categories of barriers to inclusive recreation as architectural, programmatic, and attitudinal. Architectural barriers include physical obstacles to inclusion such as access to buildings or outdoor facilities. Programmatic barriers include safety, not having qualified staff, and other such administrative issues. Lastly, attitudinal barriers, which individuals with disabilities have identified as the most significant barrier, include negative social responses, unequal treatment or expectations, lack of acceptance, stigmas, and so on (Devine & Broach, 1998).

While past efforts have been made to promote inclusion in the game of golf, they have not seen much success, or at least have not managed to produce enduring benefits. The reason that substantial results have not been achieved is likely due to the brief nature of these inclusive experiences that were often carried out as one-day clinics. These brief exposures may have brought people with and without disabilities together and induced excitement and interest in the game of golf, but once the clinic was over, the participants were left without the tools and skills to pursue golf nor the continuation of a structure or resources to be made available to them.

Best Practices in Inclusive Recreation Programs
Project GAIN (Golf: Accessible and Inclusive Networks) highlights best practices in inclusion, and more specifically best practices in inclusive recreation programs through golf. Project GAIN strives to achieve true inclusion by:

  • taking steps to account for the previously mentioned barriers;
  • providing in depth training for comprehensive and appropriate instruction;
  • utilizing theory, specifically self-efficacy theory, to obtain predictable and optimal outcomes;
  • individualizing lessons to meet each participant’s needs and desires;
  • involving the community for greater awareness, acceptance, and to yield long-term inclusive leisure lifestyles for participants’; and
  • providing necessary adaptations and equipment to best serve participants.

These efforts made by GAIN have led to successfully providing experiences through which individuals reap the vast benefits of golf and true inclusion. GAIN strives for inclusion beyond mere physical access, but rather focuses on social inclusion through which lasting friendships can be developed. Thus, the participants are provided with the tools and experiences to become active and integral members of their community long after their involvement with Project GAIN.

Project GAIN (Golf: Accessible and Inclusive Networks)
Project GAIN was initiated as a national research and development project funded by the United States Golf Association with supportive funding from the PGA of America Foundation, and The PGA TOUR. It is a trademarked Program of the National Alliance for Accessible Golf. GAIN™ is designed to be a comprehensive community based program, using the game of golf as the primary medium, to maximize opportunities for inclusion into the fabric of the local community by people with disabilities. The purpose of the project is to provide opportunities for people with disabilities to become involved in the game of golf by also involving them in the social and community aspects of the game. This involvement in golf refers to playing at any level, not just the experience of an 18 hole round of golf for which only a select segment of the population can engage in. For instance, hitting golf balls on a putting green, going to a practice range, playing a few holes on a Par 3, or even playing a game of putt putt can constitute the involvement Project GAIN strives to achieve for participants. The program is open to all individuals with and without disabilities in the community and includes instruction and social experiences for all participants, mentors and volunteers.

Breaking Down Barriers to Participation

Adaptive Equipment
Project GAIN addresses architectural barriers by insuring that every aspect of the program is accessible to all individuals. This includes the utilization of accessible indoor and outdoor facilities as well as supplying adaptive and specifically designed equipment. Participants are provided with the equipment necessary for them to successfully engage in the program. The equipment may include single rider golf cars, gripping aids, clubs, and stability devices among others. More detailed information on the equipment available to golfers can be found by following the links provided below in the resources section.

Individuals with mobility impairments may require the use of a single-rider golf car. This device allows the participant access to all areas of the course. They also come with support restraints, which increase safety and serve to provide stability. Teeing and golf ball retrieval devices are used to aid participants that have trouble bending down to pick up or mark their balls. For individuals who decide to play one-handed, due to not having the use of an arm or a weakened grip, there are devices that aid in holding the club. Some of these include gripping aids, gloves, shock absorbers, and cushioned grips. There are a variety of adaptive equipment devices available, and participants are provided with the device or devices that best fit their needs.

Training
At the beginning of the program, GAIN staffs are involved in an intensive training program. The training aims at removing both programmatic and attitudinal barriers. It addresses programmatic barriers, for example, through seminars on adapting activities as well as safety and techniques for teaching golfers with disabilities. The most extensive training goes into the removal of attitudinal barriers. This includes disability awareness, understanding of functional abilities of individuals with disabilities, and the value of inclusion. These components entail in depth information about disabilities and ways to interact and instruct individuals with various disabilities appropriately. This training provides the staff with the knowledge needed to create a supportive and accepting environment for the participants as well as providing an avenue for establishing true inclusion. Follow-up training throughout the project is a critical factor in the success of the program.

Project GAIN: Inclusion and Beyond

Project GAIN utilizes an inclusion model that consists of four essential components: opportunities to participate, golf skills, self-efficacy, and mentors. Through successfully accumulating each of the necessary parts, the greater goal of establishing friendships can be attained.

Opportunities
In order to engage in and reap the benefits from (inclusive) golf, individuals must initially be presented with opportunities to participate. While there can be numerous entry points into the game, Project GAIN can be distinguished by its emphasis on valuing each individual as a golfer rather than as a person with disability. However, while this philosophy indicates best practices in terms of inclusion, through the community there are other beneficial entry points into the game for individuals with disabilities. The various opportunities, or points of entry, can serve to introduce individuals to Project GAIN where they would have otherwise not been aware or exposed to the program. Community involvement has also resulted in opportunities to access various golf facilities as well as people that have aided the GAIN program by providing goods and services. In addition, members of the community have become more aware and sensitive to the importance of inclusive recreation opportunities. This increases the comfort level of members of the community, both with and without disabilities, for engaging in truly inclusive activities with greater frequency. The more inclusive experiences one participates in, the greater the chance is that inclusion opportunities will become the norm rather than the exception. Ultimately this will allow individuals with disabilities to establish enduring leisure lifestyles through which lasting friendships can be made.

Golf Skills

 Golf skills are necessary for all new golfers in order for them to feel confident enough in their ability and knowledge to play. These skills are not only the hard skills, but soft skills as well. The sport can be intimidating for any new golfer as it is seen as a sort of “culture” - one that is commonly perceived as ostentatious. To ensure the retention of participants in the program, GAIN must aid in creating that level of confidence in each participant.

This is a diagram outlining the various points of entry to Project GAIN.

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About this video:In order to engage in and reap the benefits from (inclusive) golf, individuals must initially be presented with opportunities to participate. While there can be numerous entry points into the game, Project GAIN can be distinguished by its emphasis on valuing each individual as a golfer rather than as a person with disability.

Golf Lesson Components

The basic GAIN program consists of six sessions. The lesson components include: socialization (social/inclusive component); teaching (golf skills/techniques); and linking (community resourcefulness component) which helps the participants with the transition from the program to playing golf with others outside the program. The program components provide participants with the necessary knowledge and skills for future inclusive experiences. Not only will they gain confidence in their golfing abilities, but they will also acquire the tools needed to create and maintain friendships. These friendships can maximize the probability that participants will continue with the game of golf due to having a social network to golf with. Community resourcefulness also aids in accomplishing this goal in that it teaches participants where to look for resources in their communities that would allow them to continue golfing.

Self-Efficacy
Confidence in ones abilities is important in any new venture if one hopes to continue with the venture in the future. Self-efficacy is a crucial component and theory behind the Project GAIN program. Bandura described self-efficacy as the “beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given levels of attainments (Bandura, 1998, p. 3).” GAIN™ uses golf to positively change participants’ self-efficacy. This is done by structuring many facets of the program to reflect to the four sources of self-efficacy: enactive mastery experience; vicarious experiences; verbal persuasion; and physiological and affective states.

Enactive Mastery Experience
Efficacy is most influenced through mastery experiences. Bandura (1997) describes these experiences as being the result of successfully overcoming obstacles. This will be implemented into Project GAIN by increasing how individuals view their mastery of skill. Implementation will also include improving people with disabilities ability to cognitively feel they can accomplish other tasks successfully.

One way Project GAIN utilizes enactive mastery to increase self-efficacy is through structuring lessons differently for different participants depending on their abilities, needs, and desires. Some may not be able to physically tolerate 18 holes of golf, or they may desire to achieve a level of skill and ability necessary to go to a driving range or miniature golf course. The key is that lesson plans are individualized to establish a task/goal for each individual that will be moderately challenging so that the participant will likely succeed resulting in feelings of personal accomplishment. The confidence gained from success in a challenging task would be undermined had the task been perceived by the individual as easy to accomplish. On the contrary, if tasks are perceived as too difficult or impossible, they tend to lower self-efficacy thus reducing the individual’s willingness to engage in the activity in the future.

Project GAIN structures activities to aid in the development of self-confidence. This allows each participant to challenge themselves by developing their level of mastery at each facet of the game. This ensures that participants are not stretching far beyond their abilities and engaging in the game in ways that would not be very comfortable for them. It also works to create tasks that are increasingly challenging as the participant acquires more skills and confidence in their abilities.

Vicarious Experiences
Vicarious experiences occur through opportunities to observe how others respond to a given situation. While such learning can occur through observing how an experienced golfer reacts to a given situation, seeing people similar to oneself (such as a mentor who is also learning the game, or other participants with disabilities) succeed by persistent effort, influences participants’ beliefs that they too are capable of succeeding in similar situations and tasks. Through modeling appropriate behavior and demonstrating ways of thinking, models share their knowledge and teach participants effective skills and strategies for appropriately and successfully managing tasks. Project GAIN capitalizes on this source of efficacy, as there are numerous models for participants to learn from. Whether it is an experienced golfer modeling skills and golf etiquette, a mentor who is modeling appropriate social skills, or the successful navigation around obstacles and success of a fellow participant one can identify with, participants are more than likely to find at least one “role-model” capable of influencing their efficacy beliefs.

Verbal Persuasion
Verbal persuasion is the giving of positive verbal feedback. This can have a positive effect on self-efficacy as long as the feedback is given immediately following the behavior and is perceived by the participant as an honest appraisal of their performance (Margolis & McCabe, 2006). It is important to give honest feedback so that the participant does not have unrealistic beliefs about themselves. In addition, if the participant is given positive feedback when they have not legitimately earned it, they may come to view praise in the future as insincere. Project GAIN staff has gone through comprehensive training that incorporates field experience in teaching golfers with disabilities as well as appropriate interactions and communications. Educating staff on these crucial matters insures a greater probability that this source of efficacy will be implemented accordingly.

Physiological and Affective States
Physiological and affective states are often used to judge one’s capabilities. The physical and emotional sensations felt by participants are often, at least initially, those of anxiety and tension (Bandura, 1997). The interpretation of these sensations can lower perceived efficacy thus negatively impacting performance and ultimately the outcome. Project GAIN has worked to counteract this issue by often beginning each lesson with a social activity that serves to reduce the anxiety of the participants before engaging in the instructional component of the lesson. In doing so, desired outcomes are more frequently achieved.

Project GAIN Intentional Programming and Individualized Lesson Plans
Intentional programming uses individualized lesson plans so that each participant can achieve optimal success. The more comfortable and confident the participants’ are, the more likely they are to continue with golf after the program has ended. Every lesson also involves at least one social or inclusive activity. When done at the start of the lesson, the activity will serve as a way to break down barriers and inhibitions and thus reduce anxiety before moving on to the rest of the lesson. It also allows for the participants and mentors to get to know each other in a fun and relaxed environment enabling new friendships to form among the group members.

Varying Levels of Participation
It is not realistic to have a single goal toward which all participants work. If this were the case, then some participants would not be able to accomplish the goal of the lesson, while others would not be challenged. Therefore, GAIN strives to fluctuate levels of participation as well as the level of the activity to increase the chance for success during the lessons. It is imperative to create a level of participation to match the competencies and skills the individual possesses in order to optimize their potential of achieving mastery of what they should be able to accomplish. Creating goals that a participant would never be able to accomplish would have negative consequences. Determining the participant’s abilities, competencies, and skills, can be done after the participants’ initial assessment.

For example, one participant’s goal may be to hit the ball 10 yards while another participant in the same lesson may have the goal of hitting the ball 50 yards. It was suggested by Dave Compton (personal communication, January 17, 2006), the Site Coordinator of Salt Lake City GAIN, that rather than discussing the goals in measurement terms, such as yards, it would be better to place targets on the green at the various distances to reflect the individual’s goal, and identify that hitting the specific target is their goal. Asking the participant to hit a target instead of specifying a distances is beneficial because stating the goal in “yards” can be anxiety producing as well as lead to automatic feelings of inferiority if one’s goal is at a much closer distance than another’s.

Individuals will also have different long-term goals. These goals are dependant on the abilities and interests of the participant. For example, one participant’s goal could be to go to the driving range or putting green, while another participant may strive for playing 9 holes, and another for playing 18 holes. Combined with the information from assessments on ability, these goals are formulated from how far the individual wants to go with their involvement with golf.

Mentors
Mentors are the final and most crucial aspect of GAIN in accomplishing true inclusion. Project GAIN uses volunteers to act as mentors who are paired with participants.

People with disabilities often do not have the same opportunities to develop friendships and a social support network, as do individuals who do not have a disability. This acts as a barrier to their access of recreational resources. Mentors have the opportunity to share social interaction skills that they have developed over their lifetime. This naturally occurs during the interactions between the mentor and participant. Mentors help the participants to remove barriers, real and perceived, to their inclusion in the game of golf.

Mentors can be a family member, friend, or any individual that chooses to participate in learning or sharing the game with the participant. While the mentor and the individual with a disability may be at different levels of learning, learning, in general, is an experience that the two will share. This shared experience is crucial for developing a real bond between the mentor and participant that can lead to a strong friendship. The key to the newly formed friendship is that it is constructed around genuine interests that are mutually shared (D. Compton, personal communication, March 1, 2006). Aside from acting as a role model and serving as a source of support and self-efficacy (achieved through vicarious learning) for the participant, mentors can also provide a link to the larger community and future golf endeavors.

GAIN and Friendship
Friendships greatly impact our quality of life throughout our lives. Shleien, et al. (1999) identifies two categories of strategies for promoting friendships in inclusive recreation: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic strategies are those implemented by recreation programs to encourage positive social interactions between people with and without disabilities. The hope is that with positive interactions will come friendship. Intrinsic strategies are those implemented by recreation programs to inspire changes in the individuals that will allow them to learn and demonstrate the skills for positive social interaction. Implementing both strategies together will lead to more optimal results (Shleien, et al. 1999).

Project GAIN has successfully facilitated the use of both strategies. The most important initiative of Project GAIN is to structure the program in a way that inspires the development of strong and lasting friendships through inclusive recreation experiences. While different GAIN sites may have different ways of accomplishing this inclusion, it is nonetheless implemented from the very start of the program and continues to be a priority throughout its duration. Project GAIN in Salt Lake City, Utah, for example, begins each lesson with an inclusive activity or game. This social activity serves to break down barriers and inhibitions and thus reduce any anxiety before moving on to the lesson. These activities present an opportunity for participants and mentors to work as a team. Participants will play an equal part in accomplishing the task thus being valued for their contributions. Each lesson typically ends with another social activity nested around friendly competition. This is, in essence, a soft competition (no real winners or losers) where all participants leave feeling good about themselves and their experience. Over the course of the program, the instructor creates different groups of participants and mentors to engage in the social activities and competitions. They will be moved around for each new activity enabling them to create new friendships with all group members (D. Compton, personal communication, January 17, 2006).

Implications for success

Theoretical Implications
The Physical Activity for people with a Disability (PAD) model was reproduced from van der Ploeg, van der Beek, van der Woude, & van Mechelen (2004), with permission

In this diagram there are two large arrows that form an oval shape much like an athletic track. Ablove the “track” is the text: Start Your Plan for Inclusion Here. In the first Arrow there is an image of a stoplight. Next to the stoplight is the word “Ready!” Besides the stoplight image is the first step of the programming cycle: promote inclusion. Further down the track is the second step: collect registration and talk with families. As the arrow curves around there is another stop light. Beside is the word “Set!” Beside this image is the third step: hire staff, purchase equipment, prepare materials. At the beginning of the second arrow is the fourth step: disability awareness and inclusion training. As the arrow curves around there is another stoplight. Beside this stop light is the word “Go!” Beside this image is the fifth step: your program is up and running. At the top of the arrow is the sixth and final step, which reads: How did you do? “Track” your success, implement changes on your next lap. In the center of the arrows is the text: Right on Track, The St. Paul Jewish Community Center’s Six Phase Programming Cycle for Inclusion.
Source: van der Ploeg, van der Beek, van der Woude, & van Mechelen (2004), Figure 3 page 645. Copywrite 2004 by Adis International. Reproduced with permission.

External Variables: Personal factor such as age, socioeconomic factors, health conditions, lifestyle, coping styles, social background, education, and other characteristics.

Environmental Factors: Physical, Social, Attitudinal environment

Environmental Factors: External factors such as the individual’s physical and social environment as well as the feelings or attitudes of others influencing the individual.

Social Influence: How others feel about an active leisure lifestyle for the individual.

Environmental Facilitators/Barriers: External factors such as accessibility, no one to engage in activities with, and lack of assistance. The presence or absence of these factors determines whether they are facilitators or barriers.

Personal Factors: Cognitive, and behavioral factors, personal history and characteristics that influence the individual.

Health Condition(s): Diseases, disorders, traumas, injuries, and other such problems that, as a result, constitute disability.

Attitude: How the individual feels about their ability and desire to have active leisure lifestyle.

Self-Efficacy: How confident the individual is that they can succeed in an activity despite barriers.

Personal Facilitators/Barriers: Money, motivation, skills to engage in the activity, social skills. The presence or absence of these factors determines whether they are facilitators or barriers.

Intention: Plan or commitment to participate in physical activity.

Body Functions and Structures: Body or body part level. Impairments in the structure and function (including physiological and psychological function) of body/body parts. For example, impairment in structures related to movement and impairment in movement related functions.

Activities: Person/individual level limitations. Limitations in performance or ability that influence whether an individual participates in a given activity.

Participation: Societal level restrictions. Participation/societal participation restrictions can be a result of discrimination and stigmas.

This model infers that engaging in physical activity can be understood at each of the three levels of functioning (body functions and structures, activities, and participation) and is determined by the other above elements. The main determinant of behavior is the intention to engage in behavior, and without this intention, the behavior will not take place. However, the intention alone does not guarantee participation due to the environmental and personal components impacting whether that individual will act on their intention.

Project GAIN has taken into account all elements of the PAD model. The program provides an opportunity for all individuals to participate in golf regardless of skills or abilities. Adaptive equipment/assistive devices are provided to alleviate the activity limitations and to aid in the acquisition of skills for participation, which will foster confidence. The mentors, volunteers, and all involved are trained so that they can remove stigmas concerning individuals with disabilities and their ability to perform various tasks. In addition, Project GAIN strives to involve the larger community so that inclusion is a widespread value and practice. In doing so, GAIN has demonstrated that individuals with disabilities can participate successfully along side their non-disabled peers. This has been accomplished through golf tournaments or outings where participants have been integral members of their winning teams.

Through participation in the program, those who did not have the attitude that would produce intention, will likely acquire this attitude as they will be having fun and seeing others, similar to themselves, engaging successfully. The lessons will not only build the skills needed for playing golf and for appropriate social interaction in golf, but through the lessons the instructors and mentors will structure experiences in a way that will create self-efficacy for the participant. Lastly, Project GAIN begins removing barriers to participation before the program even starts and as the program progresses, continues to remove barriers in all domains effecting participants.

Weekly Participant Logs
Participants are often provided with practice or homework to do before their next lesson. The homework contains a list of activities, both active and passive, that are centered around golf. The participants are asked to check off the activities they engage in between lessons. The instructor will begin the following lesson with a discussion of the activities the participants’ engaged in over the week. The responses are recorded in each participants weekly golf activity log. These activities are looked at from week to week to track the number of times the individual engaged in an active (e.g. play golf) or passive (e.g. read a golf magazine) activity. The instructor can then encourage participants to take part in specific activities that would benefit the individual for which they can talk about at the following weeks lesson. An instructor may encourage one individual, for example, to participate in an active activity if that individual’s weekly participant log suggests they tend to choose mostly passive activities. The activity log helps encourage inclusion by asking that participants are engaging in activities every week that get them out in the community to play, or that build their knowledge and interest in the game. In either case, these activities increase their comfort yielding greater intentions to continue with golf after the program.

Indication of Successful Inclusion:

Research
Project GAIN has not yet identified the empirical results of the research initiative. However, by looking at the data, certain trends can be noted as having a positive and direct impact on inclusion.

Salt Lake City Story

Andy is 16 years old and was born with cerebral palsy. After more than 13 operations he now has the ability to stand for brief periods of time. Andy wants to be a motivational speaker. Before participating in Project GAIN, Andy just “watched TV” and not much else. Shriner’s Hospital referred Andy to the program. Andy and his mother and father were avid participants in the lessons. They all play golf together now for the first time. More importantly, Andy has gained clear increases in his confidence. He has been invited to speak at several gatherings including to his high school football team! Andy and his family also volunteered as mentors for others in the summer session. Andy’s father chaired the Johnny Miller Champions Challenge putting event that raised $1,200 for the program.

 
 
 
 
 

 

Participant Testimonials/Case Studies

“After the stroke I didn’t think I could do anything but this Project GAIN has taught me that I could still do whatever I thought I could do. I have made some new friends and the instructors are very adept at teaching us to play the game correctly and it has helped to keep me from getting depressed. I enjoy the fresh air, sunshine and meeting new friends.”
Jack Keegan, stroke survivor

“ This is a great program and am glad that Jack can be a part since I am a golfer and had not played since he had his stroke. I am looking forward to many golf vacations.”
Caroline Keegan, Jack’s wife

“ I can’t talk enough about this program. It’s fantastic about the friends I have made. I now play golf at least once a week. I couldn’t do anything before but now I know I can. I think it’s a fantastic program. We need more.”
Eugene Smith, stroke survivor

“ This has been a tremendous amount of help in playing this golf game. It helps me to get out on the road all the time. I now play regularly with friends I have met here. If we didn’t have this program, we would never do anything. It’s been very helpful for me and my wife.”
Ted Ammiro, stroke survivor

Special Thanks
Special thanks to Dave Compton, Project GAIN and the National Alliance for Accessible Golf, and the National Center on Accessibility (NCA) for permission to use their facilities for the video and images used in this monograph.

Resources

GAIN Sites

Howard County, Maryland

Department of Recreation and Parks
7120 Oakland Mills, Road
Columbia, Maryland 21046-1677

Sacramento, California

Disabled Sports USA Far West
Office Location
6060 Sunrise Vista Drive
Suite 2540
Citrus Heights, CA 95610
Phone: (916) 722-6447

Salt Lake City, Utah

Office Location Mailing Address
Annex C, RM 1085A 250 S. 1850 E. RM 200
1901 E. South Campus Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0920
Phone: (801) 581-8754
Fax: (801) 581-4930

Toledo, Ohio

The Ability Center of Greater Toledo
5605 Monroe St.
Sylvania, OH 43560
Phone: (419) 885-5733
Fax: (419) 882-4813

Adaptive Equipment

USGA ’s website:

http://www.resourcecenter.usga.org/TeeOff/NewPlayers/Equipment.cfm

NCA’s website (the page linked below contains golf resources including golf assistive devices and golf cars):

http://www.ncaonline.org/golf/index.shtml

Organizations

National Alliance for Accessible Golf
12100 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 130
Reston, VA 20190
Phone: (703) 234-4136
Fax: (703) 435-4390
Email: info@accessgolf.org
http://www.accessgolf.org

United States Golf Association
1631 Mesa Avenue
Copper Building
Colorado Springs, CO 80906
Phone: (719) 471-4810
http://www.usga.org/home/index.html

PGA of America
100 Avenue of the Champions
Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33418
Phone: (561) 624-8400
http://www.pga.com/home

PGA Tour
100 PGA TOUR Blvd.
Ponte Vedra, FL 32082
Phone: (904) 285-3700
http://www.pgatour.com/

Ladies Professional Golf Association
Daytona Beach, Florida 32124-1092
100 International Golf Drive
Phone: (386) 274-6200
Fax: (386) 274-1099
http://www.lpga.com/default_new.aspx

National Center on Accessibility
Indiana University Research Park
501 North Morton Street - Suite 109
Bloomington, IN 47404-3732
Phone: (812) 856-4422
TTY: (812) 856-4421
Fax: (812) 856-4480
http://www.ncaonline.org

References

Bandura, A., (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.

Bandura A. (1997). Self-efficacy. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 13(9), 4-6.

Bandura, A. (1998). Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Psychology and Health, 13, 623-649.

Birmingham City Council. (n.d.). Play golf- it’s good for you. Retrieved March 28, 2006, from http://www.leisure.birmingham.gov.uk/sites/Golf/health.htm

Devine, M.A., & Broach, E. (1998). Inclusion in the aquatic environment. Parks and Recreation, 33(2), 60-68.

Gountas, J. & Mavondo, F. (2005, December). Personality, opportunity, motivation, self-efficacy, resources and ability (POMSERA) as predictors of consumer behaviour. Paper presented at the ANZMAC conference: Consumer Behaviour, Fremantle, Australia.

Margolis, H., & McCabe, P. P. (2006). Improving self-efficacy and motivation: What to do, what to say. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(4), 218-227.

Murray, P. (2002). Lessons of leisure. Community Care, 1432, 42-43.

Ryan, P. J., & Chorost, M. (2002, July 12). Youth participation in formal junior golf programs and the potential impact on social adjustment and academic performance. Report presented at the SRI International and Golf 20/20 Conference. Retrieved March 28, 2006, from http://www.golf2020.com/reports_2002YouthImpact.asp

Schleien, S. (1993). Access and inclusion in community leisure services. Parks and Recreation, 28(4), 66-72.

Schleien, S., Green, F., & Stone, C. (1999). Making friends within inclusive community recreation programs. Journal of Leisurability, 26(23).

Van der Ploeg, H. P., van der Beek, A. J., van der Woude, L. H. V., & van Mechelen, W. (2004). Physical activity for people with a disability: A conceptual model. Sports Medicine, 34(10), 639-649.

 The citation for this article is:

Chotiner, W. (2006).  Project GAIN: A model for best practicies in inclusive recreation programs.  Bloomington, IN: National Center on Accessibility, Indiana University-Bloomington.  Retrieved from www.ncaonline.org.