GAIN: A Model for Best Practices in Inclusive Recreation Programs
By Wendy Chotiner
National Center on Accessibility
True inclusion occurs when individuals with and without disabilities
are valued for their individuality and are active participants in
the social fabric of their communities. Recreation activities are
a vehicle through which true inclusion can be achieved due to the
tendency of such activities to lead to other social ventures. Research
by Murray (2002) involving individuals with disabilities, found that “The
thread linking leisure to all aspects of their lives was that of
relationship—opportunities for fun being dependent on having
friends. In this way, the research participants described inclusive
leisure as a process through which we all belong, whatever setting
we happen to be in” (p.42). Since golf is one activity that
is social in nature, it would therefore seem appropriate for reaching
true inclusion. “A round of golf can take around four hours
where individual differences disappear as playing the game becomes
the common focus” (Birmingham City Council, para. 7).
Project GAIN lessons teach participants the
game of golf while having fun.
Benefits of Golf
The game of golf offers endless benefits to all who play. Golfers
receive health benefits from the physical activity, experience
greater quality of life from the social nature of the game, and
acquire feelings of self-determination and confidence, among numerous
other benefits. Ryan and Chorost (2002) assert that these “social
and cultural attributes make golf an excellent basis for programs
which aim to teach skills that can be used both in the sport and
in life (p. 7).” In addition, golf is one of the few sports
where participation spans across generations, making it truly a
Barriers to Golf
As they age, many avid golfers become faced with the devastating
perception that they can no longer engage in the sport they love
due to the onset of various disabilities. In addition, many people
with disabilities (physical, developmental, cognitive, etc.) have
either never been presented with the opportunity to play golf,
or have faced various barriers to their participation. Schleien
(1993) identified categories of barriers to inclusive recreation
as architectural, programmatic, and attitudinal. Architectural
barriers include physical obstacles to inclusion such as access
to buildings or outdoor facilities. Programmatic barriers include
safety, not having qualified staff, and other such administrative
issues. Lastly, attitudinal barriers, which individuals with disabilities
have identified as the most significant barrier, include negative
social responses, unequal treatment or expectations, lack of acceptance,
stigmas, and so on (Devine & Broach, 1998).
While past efforts have been made to promote inclusion in the game
of golf, they have not seen much success, or at least have not managed
to produce enduring benefits. The reason that substantial results
have not been achieved is likely due to the brief nature of these
inclusive experiences that were often carried out as one-day clinics.
These brief exposures may have brought people with and without disabilities
together and induced excitement and interest in the game of golf,
but once the clinic was over, the participants were left without
the tools and skills to pursue golf nor the continuation of a structure
or resources to be made available to them.
Best Practices in Inclusive Recreation Programs
Project GAIN (Golf: Accessible and Inclusive Networks) highlights
best practices in inclusion, and more specifically best practices
in inclusive recreation programs through golf. Project GAIN strives
to achieve true inclusion by:
- taking steps to account for the previously mentioned barriers;
- providing in depth training for comprehensive and appropriate
- utilizing theory, specifically self-efficacy theory, to obtain
predictable and optimal outcomes;
- individualizing lessons to meet each participant’s needs
- involving the community for greater awareness, acceptance,
and to yield long-term inclusive leisure lifestyles for participants’;
- providing necessary adaptations and equipment to best serve
These efforts made by GAIN have led to successfully providing experiences
through which individuals reap the vast benefits of golf and true
inclusion. GAIN strives for inclusion beyond mere physical access,
but rather focuses on social inclusion through which lasting friendships
can be developed. Thus, the participants are provided with the tools
and experiences to become active and integral members of their community
long after their involvement with Project GAIN.
Project GAIN participants and mentors form
bonds that can last a lifetime.
Project GAIN (Golf: Accessible and Inclusive Networks)
Project GAIN was initiated as a national research and development
project funded by the United States Golf Association with supportive
funding from the PGA of America Foundation, and The PGA TOUR. It
is a trademarked Program of the National Alliance for Accessible
Golf. GAIN™ is designed to be a comprehensive community based
program, using the game of golf as the primary medium, to maximize
opportunities for inclusion into the fabric of the local community
by people with disabilities. The purpose of the project is to provide
opportunities for people with disabilities to become involved in
the game of golf by also involving them in the social and community
aspects of the game. This involvement in golf refers to playing
at any level, not just the experience of an 18 hole round of golf
for which only a select segment of the population can engage in.
For instance, hitting golf balls on a putting green, going to a
practice range, playing a few holes on a Par 3, or even playing
a game of putt putt can constitute the involvement Project GAIN
strives to achieve for participants. The program is open to all
individuals with and without disabilities in the community and
includes instruction and social experiences for all participants,
mentors and volunteers.
Breaking Down Barriers to Participation
Project GAIN addresses architectural barriers by insuring that every
aspect of the program is accessible to all individuals. This includes
the utilization of accessible indoor and outdoor facilities as well
as supplying adaptive and specifically designed equipment. Participants
are provided with the equipment necessary for them to successfully
engage in the program. The equipment may include single rider golf
cars, gripping aids, clubs, and stability devices among others. More
detailed information on the equipment available to golfers can be
found by following the links provided below in the resources section.
Individuals with mobility impairments may require the use of a single-rider
golf car. This device allows the participant access to all areas
of the course. They also come with support restraints, which increase
safety and serve to provide stability. Teeing and golf ball retrieval
devices are used to aid participants that have trouble bending down
to pick up or mark their balls. For individuals who decide to play
one-handed, due to not having the use of an arm or a weakened grip,
there are devices that aid in holding the club. Some of these include
gripping aids, gloves, shock absorbers, and cushioned grips. There
are a variety of adaptive equipment devices available, and participants
are provided with the device or devices that best fit their needs.
About this video:Project GAIN
utilizes an inclusion model that consists of four essential
components: opportunities to participate, golf skills, self-efficacy,
and mentors. Through successfully accumulating each of the
necessary parts, the greater goal of establishing friendships
can be attained.
At the beginning of the program, GAIN staffs are involved in an intensive
training program. The training aims at removing both programmatic
and attitudinal barriers. It addresses programmatic barriers, for
example, through seminars on adapting activities as well as safety
and techniques for teaching golfers with disabilities. The most
extensive training goes into the removal of attitudinal barriers.
This includes disability awareness, understanding of functional
abilities of individuals with disabilities, and the value of inclusion.
These components entail in depth information about disabilities
and ways to interact and instruct individuals with various disabilities
appropriately. This training provides the staff with the knowledge
needed to create a supportive and accepting environment for the
participants as well as providing an avenue for establishing true
inclusion. Follow-up training throughout the project is a critical
factor in the success of the program.
Project GAIN: Inclusion and Beyond
Project GAIN utilizes an inclusion model that consists of four essential
components: opportunities to participate, golf skills, self-efficacy,
and mentors. Through successfully accumulating each of the necessary
parts, the greater goal of establishing friendships can be attained.
In order to engage in and reap the benefits from (inclusive) golf,
individuals must initially be presented with opportunities to participate.
While there can be numerous entry points into the game, Project
GAIN can be distinguished by its emphasis on valuing each individual
as a golfer rather than as a person with disability. However, while
this philosophy indicates best practices in terms of inclusion,
through the community there are other beneficial entry points into
the game for individuals with disabilities. The various opportunities,
or points of entry, can serve to introduce individuals to Project
GAIN where they would have otherwise not been aware or exposed
to the program. Community involvement has also resulted in opportunities
to access various golf facilities as well as people that have aided
the GAIN program by providing goods and services. In addition,
members of the community have become more aware and sensitive to
the importance of inclusive recreation opportunities. This increases
the comfort level of members of the community, both with and without
disabilities, for engaging in truly inclusive activities with greater
frequency. The more inclusive experiences one participates in,
the greater the chance is that inclusion opportunities will become
the norm rather than the exception. Ultimately this will allow
individuals with disabilities to establish enduring leisure lifestyles
through which lasting friendships can be made.
Golf skills are necessary for all new golfers in order for them
to feel confident enough in their ability and knowledge to
play. These skills are not only the hard skills, but soft skills as well.
The sport can be intimidating for any new golfer as it is seen
a sort of “culture” - one that is commonly perceived
as ostentatious. To ensure the retention of participants in
the program, GAIN must aid in creating that level of confidence in
About this video:In order
to engage in and reap the benefits from (inclusive) golf,
individuals must initially be presented with opportunities
to participate. While there can be numerous entry points
into the game, Project GAIN can be distinguished by its emphasis
on valuing each individual as a golfer rather than as a person
Golf Lesson Components
The basic GAIN program consists of six sessions. The lesson components
include: socialization (social/inclusive component); teaching (golf
skills/techniques); and linking (community resourcefulness component)
which helps the participants with the transition from the program to
playing golf with others outside the program. The program components
provide participants with the necessary knowledge and skills for future
inclusive experiences. Not only will they gain confidence in their
golfing abilities, but they will also acquire the tools needed to create
and maintain friendships. These friendships can maximize the probability
that participants will continue with the game of golf due to having
a social network to golf with. Community resourcefulness also aids
in accomplishing this goal in that it teaches participants where to
look for resources in their communities that would allow them to continue
Confidence in ones abilities is important in any new venture if
one hopes to continue with the venture in the future. Self-efficacy
is a crucial component and theory behind the Project GAIN program.
Bandura described self-efficacy as the “beliefs in one's capabilities
to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given
levels of attainments (Bandura, 1998, p. 3).” GAIN™ uses
golf to positively change participants’ self-efficacy. This is
done by structuring many facets of the program to reflect to the four
sources of self-efficacy: enactive mastery experience; vicarious experiences;
verbal persuasion; and physiological and affective states.
Enactive Mastery Experience
Efficacy is most influenced through mastery experiences. Bandura
(1997) describes these experiences as being the result of successfully
overcoming obstacles. This will be implemented into Project GAIN by
increasing how individuals view their mastery of skill. Implementation
will also include improving people with disabilities ability to cognitively
feel they can accomplish other tasks successfully.
One way Project GAIN utilizes enactive mastery to increase self-efficacy
is through structuring lessons differently for different participants
depending on their abilities, needs, and desires. Some may not be able
to physically tolerate 18 holes of golf, or they may desire to achieve
a level of skill and ability necessary to go to a driving range or miniature
golf course. The key is that lesson plans are individualized to establish
a task/goal for each individual that will be moderately challenging so
that the participant will likely succeed resulting in feelings of personal
accomplishment. The confidence gained from success in a challenging task
would be undermined had the task been perceived by the individual as
easy to accomplish. On the contrary, if tasks are perceived as too difficult
or impossible, they tend to lower self-efficacy thus reducing the individual’s
willingness to engage in the activity in the future.
Project GAIN structures activities to aid in the development of self-confidence.
This allows each participant to challenge themselves by developing their
level of mastery at each facet of the game. This ensures that participants
are not stretching far beyond their abilities and engaging in the game
in ways that would not be very comfortable for them. It also works to
create tasks that are increasingly challenging as the participant acquires
more skills and confidence in their abilities.
Vicarious experiences occur through opportunities to observe how
others respond to a given situation. While such learning can occur
through observing how an experienced golfer reacts to a given situation,
seeing people similar to oneself (such as a mentor who is also learning
the game, or other participants with disabilities) succeed by persistent
effort, influences participants’ beliefs that they too are capable
of succeeding in similar situations and tasks. Through modeling appropriate
behavior and demonstrating ways of thinking, models share their knowledge
and teach participants effective skills and strategies for appropriately
and successfully managing tasks. Project GAIN capitalizes on this source
of efficacy, as there are numerous models for participants to learn
from. Whether it is an experienced golfer modeling skills and golf
etiquette, a mentor who is modeling appropriate social skills, or the
successful navigation around obstacles and success of a fellow participant
one can identify with, participants are more than likely to find at
least one “role-model” capable of influencing their efficacy
GAIN praticipants work as a team to aquire
skills to succeed in golf and and beyond.
Verbal persuasion is the giving of positive verbal feedback. This
can have a positive effect on self-efficacy as long as the feedback
is given immediately following the behavior and is perceived by the
participant as an honest appraisal of their performance (Margolis & McCabe,
2006). It is important to give honest feedback so that the participant
does not have unrealistic beliefs about themselves. In addition, if
the participant is given positive feedback when they have not legitimately
earned it, they may come to view praise in the future as insincere.
Project GAIN staff has gone through comprehensive training that incorporates
field experience in teaching golfers with disabilities as well as appropriate
interactions and communications. Educating staff on these crucial matters
insures a greater probability that this source of efficacy will be
Physiological and Affective States
Physiological and affective states are often used to judge one’s
capabilities. The physical and emotional sensations felt by participants
are often, at least initially, those of anxiety and tension (Bandura,
1997). The interpretation of these sensations can lower perceived efficacy
thus negatively impacting performance and ultimately the outcome. Project
GAIN has worked to counteract this issue by often beginning each lesson
with a social activity that serves to reduce the anxiety of the participants
before engaging in the instructional component of the lesson. In doing
so, desired outcomes are more frequently achieved.
Project GAIN Intentional Programming and Individualized Lesson Plans
Intentional programming uses individualized lesson plans so that
each participant can achieve optimal success. The more comfortable
and confident the participants’ are, the more likely they are
to continue with golf after the program has ended. Every lesson also
involves at least one social or inclusive activity. When done at the
start of the lesson, the activity will serve as a way to break down
barriers and inhibitions and thus reduce anxiety before moving on to
the rest of the lesson. It also allows for the participants and mentors
to get to know each other in a fun and relaxed environment enabling
new friendships to form among the group members.
Varying Levels of Participation
It is not realistic to have a single goal toward which all participants
work. If this were the case, then some participants would not be able
to accomplish the goal of the lesson, while others would not be challenged.
Therefore, GAIN strives to fluctuate levels of participation as well
as the level of the activity to increase the chance for success during
the lessons. It is imperative to create a level of participation to
match the competencies and skills the individual possesses in order
to optimize their potential of achieving mastery of what they should
be able to accomplish. Creating goals that a participant would never
be able to accomplish would have negative consequences. Determining
the participant’s abilities, competencies, and skills, can be
done after the participants’ initial assessment.
For example, one participant’s goal may be to hit the ball 10
yards while another participant in the same lesson may have the goal
of hitting the ball 50 yards. It was suggested by Dave Compton (personal
communication, January 17, 2006), the Site Coordinator of Salt Lake City
GAIN, that rather than discussing the goals in measurement terms, such
as yards, it would be better to place targets on the green at the various
distances to reflect the individual’s goal, and identify that hitting
the specific target is their goal. Asking the participant to hit a target
instead of specifying a distances is beneficial because stating the goal
in “yards” can be anxiety producing as well as lead to automatic
feelings of inferiority if one’s goal is at a much closer distance
Individuals will also have different long-term goals. These goals are
dependant on the abilities and interests of the participant. For example,
one participant’s goal could be to go to the driving range or putting
green, while another participant may strive for playing 9 holes, and
another for playing 18 holes. Combined with the information from assessments
on ability, these goals are formulated from how far the individual wants
to go with their involvement with golf.
Andy, a Project GAIN participant, sinks a shot
as his instructor looks on.
Mentors are the final and most crucial aspect of GAIN in accomplishing
true inclusion. Project GAIN uses volunteers to act as mentors who
are paired with participants.
People with disabilities often do not have the same opportunities
to develop friendships and a social support network, as do individuals
who do not have a disability. This acts as a barrier to their
access of recreational resources. Mentors have the opportunity to
interaction skills that they have developed over their lifetime.
This naturally occurs during the interactions between the mentor
Mentors help the participants to remove barriers, real and perceived,
to their inclusion in the game of golf.
Mentors can be a family member, friend, or any individual that
chooses to participate in learning or sharing the game with
the participant. While the mentor and the individual with a disability
may be at different
levels of learning, learning, in general, is an experience
the two will share. This shared experience is crucial for developing
a real bond
between the mentor and participant that can lead to a strong
friendship. The key to the newly formed friendship is that
it is constructed around
genuine interests that are mutually shared (D. Compton, personal
communication, March 1, 2006). Aside from acting as a role
model and serving as a source
of support and self-efficacy (achieved through vicarious learning)
for the participant, mentors can also provide a link to the
and future golf endeavors.
About this video:Project GAIN is designed
to provide inclusive opportunites through which lasting friendships can
GAIN and Friendship
Friendships greatly impact our quality of life throughout our lives.
Shleien, et al. (1999) identifies two categories of strategies for
promoting friendships in inclusive recreation: extrinsic and intrinsic.
Extrinsic strategies are those implemented by recreation programs to
encourage positive social interactions between people with and without
disabilities. The hope is that with positive interactions will come
friendship. Intrinsic strategies are those implemented by recreation
programs to inspire changes in the individuals that will allow them
to learn and demonstrate the skills for positive social interaction.
Implementing both strategies together will lead to more optimal results
(Shleien, et al. 1999).
Project GAIN has successfully facilitated the use of both strategies.
The most important initiative of Project GAIN is to structure the program
in a way that inspires the development of strong and lasting friendships
through inclusive recreation experiences. While different GAIN sites
may have different ways of accomplishing this inclusion, it is nonetheless
implemented from the very start of the program and continues to be a
priority throughout its duration. Project GAIN in Salt Lake City, Utah,
for example, begins each lesson with an inclusive activity or game. This
social activity serves to break down barriers and inhibitions and thus
reduce any anxiety before moving on to the lesson. These activities present
an opportunity for participants and mentors to work as a team. Participants
will play an equal part in accomplishing the task thus being valued for
their contributions. Each lesson typically ends with another social activity
nested around friendly competition. This is, in essence, a soft competition
(no real winners or losers) where all participants leave feeling good
about themselves and their experience. Over the course of the program,
the instructor creates different groups of participants and mentors to
engage in the social activities and competitions. They will be moved
around for each new activity enabling them to create new friendships
with all group members (D. Compton, personal communication, January 17,
Implications for success
The Physical Activity for people with a Disability (PAD) model
was reproduced from van der Ploeg, van der Beek, van der Woude, & van
Mechelen (2004), with permission
Source: van der Ploeg, van der Beek, van der
Woude, & van Mechelen (2004), Figure 3 page 645. Copywrite
2004 by Adis International. Reproduced with permission.
External Variables: Personal factor such as age, socioeconomic
factors, health conditions, lifestyle, coping styles, social background,
education, and other characteristics.
Environmental Factors: Physical, Social, Attitudinal environment
Environmental Factors: External factors such as the individual’s
physical and social environment as well as the feelings or attitudes
of others influencing the individual.
Social Influence: How others feel about an active leisure lifestyle
for the individual.
Environmental Facilitators/Barriers: External factors such as
accessibility, no one to engage in activities with, and lack of assistance.
presence or absence of these factors determines whether they
are facilitators or barriers.
Personal Factors: Cognitive, and behavioral factors, personal
history and characteristics that influence the individual.
Health Condition(s): Diseases, disorders, traumas, injuries,
and other such problems that, as a result, constitute disability.
Attitude: How the individual feels about their ability and
desire to have active leisure lifestyle.
Self-Efficacy: How confident the individual is that they
can succeed in an activity despite barriers.
Personal Facilitators/Barriers: Money, motivation, skills
to engage in the activity, social skills. The presence
or absence of these factors determines whether they are
facilitators or barriers.
Intention: Plan or commitment to participate in physical
Body Functions and Structures: Body or body part level.
Impairments in the structure and function (including
psychological function) of body/body parts. For example,
impairment in structures
related to movement and impairment in movement related
Activities: Person/individual level limitations. Limitations in performance
or ability that influence whether an individual participates in a given
Participation: Societal level restrictions. Participation/societal
participation restrictions can be a result of discrimination and
This model infers that engaging in physical activity can be understood
at each of the three levels of functioning (body functions and structures,
activities, and participation) and is determined by the other above elements.
The main determinant of behavior is the intention to engage in behavior,
and without this intention, the behavior will not take place. However,
the intention alone does not guarantee participation due to the environmental
and personal components impacting whether that individual will act on
About this video:Dave Compton
shares how the research indicates that Project GAIN participants
are likely to become active members in their communities
through building friendships.
Project GAIN has taken into account all elements of the PAD model. The
program provides an opportunity for all individuals to participate in
golf regardless of skills or abilities. Adaptive equipment/assistive
devices are provided to alleviate the activity limitations and to aid
in the acquisition of skills for participation, which will foster confidence.
The mentors, volunteers, and all involved are trained so that they can
remove stigmas concerning individuals with disabilities and their ability
to perform various tasks. In addition, Project GAIN strives to involve
the larger community so that inclusion is a widespread value and practice.
In doing so, GAIN has demonstrated that individuals with disabilities
can participate successfully along side their non-disabled peers. This
has been accomplished through golf tournaments or outings where participants
have been integral members of their winning teams.
Through participation in the program, those who did not have the attitude
that would produce intention, will likely acquire this attitude as they
will be having fun and seeing others, similar to themselves, engaging
successfully. The lessons will not only build the skills needed for playing
golf and for appropriate social interaction in golf, but through the
lessons the instructors and mentors will structure experiences in a way
that will create self-efficacy for the participant. Lastly, Project GAIN
begins removing barriers to participation before the program even starts
and as the program progresses, continues to remove barriers in all domains
Weekly Participant Logs
Participants are often provided with practice or homework to do
before their next lesson. The homework contains a list of activities,
both active and passive, that are centered around golf. The participants
are asked to check off the activities they engage in between lessons.
The instructor will begin the following lesson with a discussion of
the activities the participants’ engaged in over the week. The
responses are recorded in each participants weekly golf activity log.
These activities are looked at from week to week to track the number
of times the individual engaged in an active (e.g. play golf) or passive
(e.g. read a golf magazine) activity. The instructor can then encourage
participants to take part in specific activities that would benefit
the individual for which they can talk about at the following weeks
lesson. An instructor may encourage one individual, for example, to
participate in an active activity if that individual’s weekly
participant log suggests they tend to choose mostly passive activities.
The activity log helps encourage inclusion by asking that participants
are engaging in activities every week that get them out in the community
to play, or that build their knowledge and interest in the game. In
either case, these activities increase their comfort yielding greater
intentions to continue with golf after the program.
Indication of Successful Inclusion:
Project GAIN has not yet identified the empirical results of the
research initiative. However, by looking at the data, certain trends
can be noted as having a positive and direct impact on inclusion.
Salt Lake City StoryAndy is 16 years old and was born with cerebral palsy. After more than 13 operations he now has the ability to stand for brief periods of time. Andy wants to be a motivational speaker. Before participating in Project GAIN, Andy just “watched TV” and not much else. Shriner’s Hospital referred Andy to the program. Andy and his mother and father were avid participants in the lessons. They all play golf together now for the first time. More importantly, Andy has gained clear increases in his confidence. He has been invited
to speak at several gatherings including to his high school football team! Andy and his family also volunteered as mentors for others in the summer session. Andy’s father chaired the Johnny Miller Champions Challenge putting event that raised $1,200 for the program.
Participant Testimonials/Case Studies
About this video:Dave Compton
shares the stories of Andy and Stan, two Project GAIN participants.
“After the stroke I didn’t
think I could do anything but this Project GAIN has taught me that
I could still do whatever
I thought I could do. I have made some new friends and the instructors
are very adept at teaching us to play the game correctly and it
has helped to keep me from getting depressed. I enjoy the fresh
and meeting new friends.”
Jack Keegan, stroke survivor
“ This is a great program and am glad that Jack can be a part
since I am a golfer and had not played since he had his stroke. I
am looking forward to many golf vacations.”
Caroline Keegan, Jack’s wife
“ I can’t talk enough about this program. It’s
fantastic about the friends I have made. I now play golf at least
once a week. I couldn’t do anything before but now I know I
can. I think it’s a fantastic program. We need more.”
Eugene Smith, stroke survivor
“ This has been a tremendous amount of help in playing this
golf game. It helps me to get out on the road all the time. I now
play regularly with friends I have met here. If we didn’t have
this program, we would never do anything. It’s been very helpful
for me and my wife.”
Ted Ammiro, stroke survivor
Special thanks to Dave Compton, Project GAIN and the National Alliance
for Accessible Golf, and the National Center on Accessibility (NCA)
for permission to use their facilities for the video and images
used in this monograph.
About the Author
Wendy Chotiner is a graduate student at Indiana University, completing
her master’s degree in Therapeutic Recreation. Wendy is a
graduate assistant at the National Center on Accessibility.
Howard County, Maryland
Department of Recreation and Parks
7120 Oakland Mills, Road
Columbia, Maryland 21046-1677
Disabled Sports USA Far West
6060 Sunrise Vista Drive
Citrus Heights, CA 95610
Phone: (916) 722-6447
Salt Lake City, Utah
Office Location Mailing Address
Annex C, RM 1085A 250 S. 1850 E. RM 200
1901 E. South Campus Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0920
Phone: (801) 581-8754
Fax: (801) 581-4930
The Ability Center of Greater Toledo
5605 Monroe St.
Sylvania, OH 43560
Phone: (419) 885-5733
Fax: (419) 882-4813
USGA ’s website:
NCA’s website (the page linked below contains golf resources
including golf assistive devices and golf cars):
National Alliance for Accessible Golf
12100 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 130
Reston, VA 20190
Phone: (703) 234-4136
Fax: (703) 435-4390
United States Golf Association
1631 Mesa Avenue
Colorado Springs, CO 80906
Phone: (719) 471-4810
PGA of America
100 Avenue of the Champions
Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33418
Phone: (561) 624-8400
100 PGA TOUR Blvd.
Ponte Vedra, FL 32082
Phone: (904) 285-3700
Ladies Professional Golf Association
Daytona Beach, Florida 32124-1092
100 International Golf Drive
Phone: (386) 274-6200
Fax: (386) 274-1099
National Center on Accessibility
Indiana University Research Park
501 North Morton Street - Suite 109
Bloomington, IN 47404-3732
Phone: (812) 856-4422
TTY: (812) 856-4421
Fax: (812) 856-4480
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