Photo Caption:

Delegates at the Sixth International Peace Congress, held in Antwerp, Belgium from August 29-September 1, 1894, pose for a group photograph. Among the representatives are future Nobel Peace Prize laureates Fredrik Bajer, Elie Ducommun, and Bertha von Suttner.

Universal Peace Congresses

The Universal Peace Congresses were the primary fora for the pre-World War I peace movement. Delegates met for the first Universal Peace Congress in Paris in June 1889 and meetings followed almost every year until 1913. The Permanent International Peace Bureau, the recepient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1910, was established at the Third Universal Peace Congress at Rome in 1891. It became the clearinghouse for information about the peace movement and now is affiliated with the United Nations. The outbreak of World War I postponed further Universal Peace Congresses until 1921, when delegates met in Belgium to prevent the reoccurance of another global conflict. Peace delegates continued to meet at annual congresses during the inter-war years, but failed to prevent the Second World War. The last inter-war congress met at Zurich in August 1939, concluding their meeting four days before the Germans invaded Poland.

         
 
 
Congress Dates     Location
 
First Universal Peace Congress June 23-27, 1889     Paris, France
Second Universal Peace Congress July 14-19, 1890     London, United Kingdom
Third Universal Peace Congress November 11-16, 1891     Rome, Italy
Fourth Universal Peace Congress August 22-27, 1892     Berne, Switzerland
Fifth Universal Peace Congress August 14-20, 1893     Chicago, Illinois, United States
Sixth Universal Peace Congress August 29-September 1, 1894     Antwerp, Belgium
Seventh Universal Peace Congress September 17-22, 1896     Budapest, Hungary
Eighth Universal Peace Congress August 12-16, 1897     Hamburg, Germany
Ninth Universal Peace Congress September 30-October 5, 1900     Paris, France
Tenth Universal Peace Congress September 10-13, 1901     Glasgow, Scotland
Eleventh Universal Peace Congress April 2-6, 1902     Monaco
Twelfth Univeral Peace Congress September 22-27, 1903     Rouen, France
Thirteenth Universal Peace Congress October 3-7, 1904     Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Fourteenth Universal Peace Congress September 19-23, 1905     Lucerne, Switzerland
Fifteenth Universal Peace Congress September 15-22, 1906     Milan, Italy
Sixteenth Universal Peace Congress September 9-14, 1907     Munich, Germany
Seventeenth Universal Peace Congress July 27-August 1, 1908     London, United Kingdom
Eighteenth Universal Peace Congress August 1-5, 1910     Stockholm, Sweden
Nineteenth Universal Peace Congress September 22-28, 1912     Geneva, Switzerland
Twentieth Universal Peace Congress August 18-23, 1913     The Hague, The Netherlands
World War I August 1914-June 1919      
Twenty-First Universal Peace Congress August 10-13, 1921     Luxembourg, Belgium
Twenty-Second Universal Peace Congress July 25-29, 1922     London, United Kingdom
Twenty-Third Universal Peace Congress October 2-8, 1924     Berlin, Germany
Twenty-Fourth Universal Peace Congress September 1-6, 1925     Paris, France
Twenty-Fifth Unviersal Peace Congress August 28-September 3, 1926     Geneva, Switzerland
Twenty-Sixth Universal Peace Congress June 25-28, 1928     Warsaw, Poland
Twenty-Seventh Universal Peace Congress October 6-10, 1929     Athens, Greece
Twenty-Eighth Universal Peace Congress July 5-10, 1931     Brussels, Belgium
Twenty-Ninth Universal Peace Congress September 4-9, 1932     Vienna, Austria
Thirtieth Universal Peace Congress September 1-6, 1934     Locarno, Switzerland
Thirty-First Universal Peace Congress June 13-19, 1936     Cardiff, Wales
Thirty-Second Universal Peace Congress August 24-29, 1937     Paris, France
Thirty-Third Universal Peace Congress August 21-27, 1939     Zurich, Switzerland