DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY
To build protein from amino acids requires ATP. To re-build the ATP, cells destroy glucose to extract the energy stored in its chemical bonds.
glycolysis and fermentation (all the gory details)
Glycolysis and fermentation require many enzymes, each of which catalyzes a specific chemical reaction. This shows all of those reactions.
a simplified caricature of glycolysis and fermentation (essentially none of the details; just the main concepts)
It helps to simplify the diagram of glycolysis and fermentation, and not memorize the names of the enzymes or intermediates. But we must have a mental image of the general process. the electron-transport chain is a proton pump The movement of electrons through the E.T.C. drives the pumping of protons (H+ ions) through the membrane.
mitochondrial metabolism (interactive)
Mitochondria are wonderfully complex, but if we break down the process into separate steps, we can make sense of it all. The most difficult-to-understand part of mitochondrial metabolism is electron transport and ATP synthesis. Here, it is magnified so we can see the different steps more easily.
mitochondrial metabolism (boring watch-the-movie version)
This is the first mitochondrial animation, but in a non-interactive form.
last updated:Dec. 22, 2014