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E

E3.5.2

Write descriptive pieces about people, places, things, or experiences that:  -develop a unified main idea

-use details to support the main idea.

E3.5.5

Write for different purposes and to a specific audience or person.

E3.7.1

Retell, paraphrase, and explain what a speaker has said.

E3.7.2

Connect and relate experiences and ideas to those of a speaker.

E3.7.5

Organize ideas chronologically (in the order that they happened) or around major points of information.

E3.7.8

Clarify and enhance oral presentations through the use of appropriate props, including objects, pictures, and charts.

E3.7.14

Make descriptive presentations that use concrete sensory details to set forth and support unified impressions of people, places, things, or experiences.

3

1.1 Recognize/explain that we expect similar results for repeated investigations.

2.1 + & - whole numbers mentally, on paper & w/a calculator

M.3.1.1

Count, read, and write whole numbers up to 1,000.

3.1 Observe/describe the apparent motion of the sun & moon over a time span of one day.

4.1 Sort (by features, habitat, behavior, etc) a variety of living things into groups.

5.1 Select & use appropriate measuring units (cm, m, g, kg, & Co)

M.3.5.12

Carry out simple unit conversions within a measurement system (e.g., centimeters to meters, hours to minutes).

6.1 Investigate how & describe that when parts are put together, they can do things that they could not do by themselves.

 

 

3

1.2 Participate in dif. types of guided scientific investigations. (use senses to observe objects & events, collect specimens for analysis)

E3.2.7

Follow simple multiple-step written instructions.

2.2 Measure/mix dry & liquid materials in prescribed amts. safely.

M3.5.6

Estimate & measure capacity using quarts, gallons, & liters.

M.3.5.7

Estimate and measure weight using pounds and kilograms.

3.2 Observe/describe that there are more stars than one can count and they are not scattered evenly.

4.2 Explain that features used for grouping depend on the reason for grouping.

5.2 Observe that & describe how some measurements will be slightly different for the same object.

6.2 Investigate how & describe that something may not work if some of its parts are missing.

 

 

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1.3 Keep/report records (journals, charts, graphs computers) for the previous indicator. (above)

2.3 Keep a notebook that describes observations in enough detail so it can make sense months later.

3.3 Observe/describe that the sun can be seen only in the daytime.

4.3 Observe/describe how offspring are similar to each other & their parents but still unique.

H.3.4.1  Describe how the family influences personal health behavior.  How offspring are similar to each other and their parents yet still unique.

5.3 Construct tables & graphs to show how values of 1 quantity are related to values of another.

M3.1.13

Interpret data displayed in a circle graph & answer questions about the situation.

6.3 Explain how a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to learn something about the real thing.

 

 

3

1.4 Discuss investigation results, consider explanations of others

2.4 Use simple tools & technology (clamps, rulers, scissors, hand lenses, calculators, computers) to solve problems.

3.4 Observe/describe that the moon looks dif. every day, but is the same every 4 weeks

4.4 Describe that almost all kinds of animals’ food can be traced back to plants.

5.4 Illustrate that if 0 & 1 are located on a line, any other number can be depicted as a position on the line.

6.4 Take, record, & display counts & simple measurements of things over time, such as plant or student growth.

 

 

3

1.5 Work cooperatively, while respecting the ideas of others & communicating one’s own conclusions.

2.5 Construct something out of paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal or existing object that can be used for performing a task.

3.5 Give ex’s how change is a continual process on Earth (ex. Weather patterns)

4.5 Give ex’s of organisms that are extinct & how these organisms are similar to those living today.

5.5 Explain that one way to make sense of something is to think of how it relates to something more familiar.

6.5 Observe that & describe how some changes are very slow, some are very fast & that some of these changes may be hard to see and/or record.

 

 

 

 

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1.6 Give examples of how tools have affected our lives (automobiles, computers, etc.)

H.3.4.4  Describe how the internet can be a good thing or risky influence.  Information source or a place for strangers to engage young people inappropriately.  

2.6 Make sketches & write descriptions to aid in explaining procedures or ideas.

3.6 Describe ways human beings protect themselves from the weather.

H.3.3.6  Discuss safety considerations for bad weather (tornado, heat, freezing, blizzard)

4.6 Explain (like other animals) that people need water, food, air, waste removal, & temp. range.

H.3.1.5 Explain how the major body systems (circulatory, digestive, skelatal, nervous, respt) take care of above water, food, air, waste etc.

 

 

 

3

1.7 Recognize/explain how an invention can have multiple uses. (Radio = info. & entertainment)

2.7 Ask & answer “How do you know?” in appropriate situations.

3.7 Identify/explain some effects human activities have on weather.

4.7 Explain that eating a variety of healthful foods, exercise and rest help people stay healthy.

H.3.1.2  Explain the relationship between personal health behaviors and individual health by eating healthy, exercise and rest.

 

 

 

3

1.8 Describe the problem of waste & the solution of recycling.

 

3.8 Investigate/describe how moving air & water can be used to run machines like windmills.

4.8 Explain (w/ex’s) that some things taken into the body can be harmful.

H.3.1.1. discuss consequences of unsafe  and risky behavior to personal health.

 

 

 

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3.9 Demonstrate that sound originates from a vibration. (vocal cords, instruments)

4.9 Explain that some diseases are caused by germs & some are not. Germs spread disease & washing w/soap & water is beneficial.

H.3.1.8.  Explain how childhood injuries and illnesses can be prevented or treated.

 

 

 

 

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E4.5.1

Write narratives (stories) that:

-include ideas, observations, or memories of an event or experience.

-provide a context to allow the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience.

-use concrete sensory details.

E4.5.3

Write informational reports that:

-ask a central question about an issue or situation.

-include facts and details for focus.

-use more than one source of information, including speakers, books, newspapers, media sources, and online information.

 

E4.5.6

Write for different purposes (information, persuasion) and to a specific audience or person.

 

E4.6.3

Create interesting sentences by using words that describe, explain, or provide additional details and connections, such as adjectives, adverbs, appositives, participial phrases, prepositional phrases, and conjunctions.

 

E4.7.12

Make informational presentations that:

-focus on one main topic.

-include facts and details that help listeners focus.

-incorporate more than one source of information (including speakers, books, newspapers, television broadcasts, radio reports, or Web sites).

 

 

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1.1 Observe & describe that scientific investigations generally work the same way in different places.

 

2.1 Judge whether measurements & computations of quantities, such as length, area, volume, weight, or time, are reasonable.

M4.2.11


Know and use strategies for estimating results of any whole-number computations.

M4.2.12

Use mental arithmetic to add or subtract numbers rounded to hundreds or thousands.

M4.7.7

Know and use appropriate methods for estimating results of whole-number computations.

M4.7.8

Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.

M.7.9

Decide whether a solution is reasonable in the context of the original situation.

3.1 Observe & report that the moon can be seen sometimes at night and sometimes during the day.

 

4.1 Investigate, such as by using microscopes, to see that living things are made mostly of cells.

 

5.1 Explain that the meaning of numerals in many-digit numbers depends on their positions.

 

6.1 Demonstrate that in an object consisting of many parts, the parts usually influence or interact with one another.

 

 

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1.2 Recognize & describe that results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same. If differences occur, such as large variation in the measurement of plant growth, propose reasons for why these differences exist, using recorded information about investigations.

 

2.2 State the purpose, orally or in writing, of each step in a computation.

M4.7.5

Express solutions clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical terms and notation. Support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.

E4.2.7

Follow multiple-step instructions in a basic technical manual.

E4.7.4

Give precise directions and instructions.

 

3.2 Begin to investigate & explain that air is a substance that surrounds us & takes up space, & whose movements we feel as wind.

 

4.2 Investigate, observe, & describe that insects & various other organisms depend on dead plant & animal material for food.

 

5.2 Explain that in some situations, “0" means none of something, but in others it may be just the label of some point on a scale.

M4.3.8

Plot and label whole numbers on a number line up to 100. Estimate positions on the number line.

 

6.2 Show that something may not work as well, or at all, if a part of it is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or incorrectly connected.

 

 

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1.3 Explain that clear communication is an essential part of doing science since it enables scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to evaluation by other scientists, & to allow scientists to stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world.

E.7.12

Make informational presentations that:

-focus on one main topic.

-include facts and details that help listeners focus.

-incorporate more than one source of information (including speakers, books, newspapers, television broadcasts, radio reports, or Web sites).

 

 

2.3 Make simple & safe electrical connections with various plugs, sockets, & terminals.

 

3.3 Identify salt as the major difference between fresh & ocean waters.

 

4.3 Observe/describe that organisms interact with one another in various ways, such as providing food, pollination, & seed dispersal.

 

5.3 Illustrate how length can be thought of as unit lengths joined together, area as a collection of unit squares, & volume as a set of unit cubes.

M4.5.1

Measure length to the nearest quarter-inch, eighth-inch, and millimeter.

M4.5.5

Estimate and calculate the area of rectangular shapes using appropriate units, such as square centimeter (cm2), square meter (m2), square inch (in2), or square yard (yd2).

M4.5.7

Find areas of shapes by dividing them into basic shapes such as rectangles.

M4.5.8

Use volume and capacity as different ways of measuring the space inside a shape.

6.3 Recognize/describe how changes made to a model can help predict how the real thing can be altered.

 

 

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1.4 Describe how people all over the world have taken part in scientific investigation for many centuries.

 

2.4 Use numerical data to describe & compare objects & events.

M4.7.4

Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, tools, and models to solve problems, justify arguments, and make conjectures.

 

3.4 Describe some of the effects of oceans on climate.

 

4.4 Observe/describe that some source of energy is needed for all organisms to stay alive & grow.

 

5.4 Demonstrate how graphical displays of numbers may make it possible to spot patterns that are not otherwise obvious, such as comparative size & trends.

M4.6.2

Interpret data graphs to answer questions about a situation.

6.4 Observe/describe that some features of things may stay the same even when other features change.

 

 

4

1.5 Demonstrate how measuring instruments, such as microscopes, telescopes, & cameras, can be used to gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects & events. Note that measuring instruments, such as rulers, can also be used for designing & constructing things that will work properly.

M4.5.1

Measure length to the nearest quarter-inch, eighth-inch, and millimeter.

2.5 Write descriptions of investigations, using observations & other evidence as support for explanations.

 

3.5 Describe how waves, wind, water, & glacial ice shape & reshape Earth’s land surface by the erosion of rock & soil in some areas & depositing them in other areas.

 

4.5 Observe/explain that most plants produce far more seeds than those that actually grow into new plants.

 

5.5 Explain how reasoning can be distorted by strong feelings.

 

 

 

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1.6 Explain that even a good design may fail even though steps are taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure.

 

2.6 Support statements with facts found in print & electronic media, identify the sources used, & expect others to do the same.

E4.4.5

Quote or paraphrase information sources, citing them appropriately.

E4.4.6

Locate information in reference texts by using organizational features, such as prefaces and appendixes.

E4.4.7

Use multiple reference materials and online information (the Internet) as aids to writing.

 

3.6 Recognize & describe that rock is composed of different combinations of minerals.

 

4.6 Explain how in all environments, organisms are growing, dying, & decaying, & new organisms are being produced by the old ones.

 

 

 

 

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1.7 Discuss & give examples of how technology, such as computers & medicines, has improved the lives of many people, although the benefits are not equally available to all.

H.4.4.4. describe how technology has increased the fast food business and how the level of consumption has increased (serving sizes are bigger and we are eating more meals through fast food). 

2.7 Identify better reasons for believing something than “Everybody knows that ...” or “I just know,” & discount such reasons when given by others.

E4.2.6

Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in informational text.

3.7 Explain that smaller rocks come from the breakage & weathering of bedrock & larger rocks & that soil is made partly from weathered rock, partly from plant remains, & also contains many living organisms.

 

4.7 Describe that human beings have made tools & machines, such as x-rays, microscopes, & computers, to sense & do things that they could not otherwise sense or do at all, or as quickly, or as well.

 

 

 

 

4

1.8 Recognize &explain that any invention may lead to other inventions.

 

 

3.8 Explain that the rotation of Earth on its axis every 24 hours produces the night-and-day cycle.

 

4.8 Know/explain that artifacts & preserved remains provide some evidence of the physical characteristics & possible behavior of human beings who lived a very long time ago.

 

 

 

 

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1.9 Explain how some products & materials are easier to recycle than others.

 

 

3.9 Draw or correctly select drawings of shadows & their direction & length at different times of day.

 

4.9 Explain that food provides energy & materials for growth & repair of body parts. Recognize that vitamins & minerals, present in small amounts in foods, are essential to keep everything working well. Further understand that as people grow up, the amounts & kinds of food & exercise needed by the body may change.

H.4.1.1.  Recognize the importance of cleanliness, sleep, balance diet and good dental hygiene for growth and development.

H.4.1.5.  Describe how growth and development occur at different rates for body parts.  The effects of heredity on growth and development.

H.4.1.9. Explain that weight is related to the amount of food that goes in (diet) and how much you burn off (exercise)

 

 

 

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3.10 Demonstrate that the mass of a whole object is always the same as the sum of the masses of its parts.

4.10 Explain that if germs are able to get inside the body, they may keep it from working properly. Understand that for defense against germs, the human body has tears, saliva, skin, some blood cells, & stomach secretions. Also note that a healthy body can fight most germs that invade it. Recognize, however, that there are some germs that interfere with the body's defenses. H.4.7.1  Demonstrate the ability to express information and ideas about health issues (communicable and non-communicable diseases) and how our bodies protect itself.

 

 

 

 

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3.11 Investigate, observe, & explain that things that give off light often also give off heat.

 

4.11 Explain that there are some diseases that human beings can only catch once. Explain that there are many diseases that can be prevented by vaccinations, so that people do not catch them even once.

H.4.7.1  Demonstrate the ability to express information and ideas about health issues (communicable and non-communicable diseases) and how our bodies protect itself.

 

 

 

4

 

 

3.12 Investigate, observe, & explain that heat is produced when one object rubs against another, such as one’s hands rubbing together.

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

3.13 Observe & describe that things that give off heat, such as people, animals, & the sun.

 

 

 

 

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3.14 Explain that energy in fossil fuels comes from plants that grew long ago.

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

3.15 Demonstrate that without touching them, a magnet pulls all things made of iron & either pushes or pulls other magnets.

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

3.16 Investigate & describe that without touching them, material that has been electrically charged pulls all other materials & may either push or pull other charged material.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NATIONAL Research on Science Education...What does the research say?

 

*    The majority of lessons incorporate content that is significant and worthwhile.

*    Teachers seem confident in their ability to teach science and provide accurate content information.

*    Fewer than 1 in 5-science lessons …

-  Are strong in rigor.

-  Include teacher questioning that is likely to enhance student conceptual understanding

-  Provide "sense-making" appropriate for the needs of the student and the purposes of the lesson.

*    A drop in US international standing occurs between the 4th and 8th grade.

*    The best predictor of whether a student will complete a B.S./B.A. is the intensity & quality of that student's secondary school curriculum.

*    Accelerated curricular tracks receive clearer signals about college preparation.

*    Theory:  The brain is constantly searching for meaning and seeking patterns and connections, and adapts in response to external stimuli. 

*    Authentic learning situations increase the brain's ability to make connections and retain new information.

*    Brain-based teaching strategies:  manipulatives, active learning, field trips, guest speakers, & real-life projects (many learning styles and multiple intelligences), interdisciplinary curriculum

 

High-quality lessons share some common features...

*     Provide opportunities for students to grapple with content in meaningful ways.

*     Giving students experience with phenomena, making real-world connections, playing games that focus on important learning goals, and/or using contrived texts to motivate learners are all used effectively.

*     Start where the students are and provide opportunities for students to deepen their understanding.

*     Classroom learning environment that is both respectful and challenging of students.

*     Teachers make sure students are intellectually engaged, monitor student understanding with lesson progression and help students make sense of the concepts being addressed.

 

Low-quality lessons share some common features...

*     Learning environments that are lacking in respect and/or rigor.

*     Questioning that emphasizes getting the right answer and moving on w/o focusing on student understanding.

*     Just starting or ending with no particular motivation, w/o summarizing or other "sense-making."

 

Inquiry strategy that addresses some of the research...

 

1. What is the problem/issue/topic that you want to know about?

2. What do you already know about this topic?

3. Explore/Investigate/Collect Evidence (continuum of guided to open)

*     Labs

*     Activities

*     Demonstrations

*     Textual research

*     Expert/community contact

 4. Conclusion...what do you know now?

 5. What might be next questions?  What would you still like to know?  Unanswered questions?

 

 


INDIANA UNIVERSITY

107 S. Indiana Ave., Bloomington, IN 47405-7000

(812) 855-7074

Last updated: 05 December 2005

Comments: Jose Bonner, OSO

Copyright 2005, The Trustees of Indiana University

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