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E4.5.1

Write narratives (stories) that:

-include ideas, observations, or memories of an event or experience.

-provide a context to allow the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience.

-use concrete sensory details.

E4.5.3

Write informational reports that:

-ask a central question about an issue or situation.

-include facts and details for focus.

-use more than one source of information, including speakers, books, newspapers, media sources, and online information.

 

E4.5.6

Write for different purposes (information, persuasion) and to a specific audience or person.

 

E4.6.3

Create interesting sentences by using words that describe, explain, or provide additional details and connections, such as adjectives, adverbs, appositives, participial phrases, prepositional phrases, and conjunctions.

 

E4.7.12

Make informational presentations that:

-focus on one main topic.

-include facts and details that help listeners focus.

-incorporate more than one source of information (including speakers, books, newspapers, television broadcasts, radio reports, or Web sites).

 

 

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1.1 Observe & describe that scientific investigations generally work the same way in different places.

 

2.1 Judge whether measurements & computations of quantities, such as length, area, volume, weight, or time, are reasonable.

M4.2.11


Know and use strategies for estimating results of any whole-number computations.

M4.2.12

Use mental arithmetic to add or subtract numbers rounded to hundreds or thousands.

M4.7.7

Know and use appropriate methods for estimating results of whole-number computations.

M4.7.8

Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.

M.7.9

Decide whether a solution is reasonable in the context of the original situation.

3.1 Observe & report that the moon can be seen sometimes at night and sometimes during the day.

 

4.1 Investigate, such as by using microscopes, to see that living things are made mostly of cells.

 

5.1 Explain that the meaning of numerals in many-digit numbers depends on their positions.

 

6.1 Demonstrate that in an object consisting of many parts, the parts usually influence or interact with one another.

 

 

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1.2 Recognize & describe that results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same. If differences occur, such as large variation in the measurement of plant growth, propose reasons for why these differences exist, using recorded information about investigations.

 

2.2 State the purpose, orally or in writing, of each step in a computation.

M4.7.5

Express solutions clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical terms and notation. Support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.

E4.2.7

Follow multiple-step instructions in a basic technical manual.

E4.7.4

Give precise directions and instructions.

 

3.2 Begin to investigate & explain that air is a substance that surrounds us & takes up space, & whose movements we feel as wind.

 

4.2 Investigate, observe, & describe that insects & various other organisms depend on dead plant & animal material for food.

 

5.2 Explain that in some situations, “0" means none of something, but in others it may be just the label of some point on a scale.

M4.3.8

Plot and label whole numbers on a number line up to 100. Estimate positions on the number line.

 

6.2 Show that something may not work as well, or at all, if a part of it is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or incorrectly connected.

 

 

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1.3 Explain that clear communication is an essential part of doing science since it enables scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to evaluation by other scientists, & to allow scientists to stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world.

E.7.12

Make informational presentations that:

-focus on one main topic.

-include facts and details that help listeners focus.

-incorporate more than one source of information (including speakers, books, newspapers, television broadcasts, radio reports, or Web sites).

 

 

2.3 Make simple & safe electrical connections with various plugs, sockets, & terminals.

 

3.3 Identify salt as the major difference between fresh & ocean waters.

 

4.3 Observe/describe that organisms interact with one another in various ways, such as providing food, pollination, & seed dispersal.

 

5.3 Illustrate how length can be thought of as unit lengths joined together, area as a collection of unit squares, & volume as a set of unit cubes.

M4.5.1

Measure length to the nearest quarter-inch, eighth-inch, and millimeter.

M4.5.5

Estimate and calculate the area of rectangular shapes using appropriate units, such as square centimeter (cm2), square meter (m2), square inch (in2), or square yard (yd2).

M4.5.7

Find areas of shapes by dividing them into basic shapes such as rectangles.

M4.5.8

Use volume and capacity as different ways of measuring the space inside a shape.

6.3 Recognize/describe how changes made to a model can help predict how the real thing can be altered.

 

 

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1.4 Describe how people all over the world have taken part in scientific investigation for many centuries.

 

2.4 Use numerical data to describe & compare objects & events.

M4.7.4

Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, tools, and models to solve problems, justify arguments, and make conjectures.

 

3.4 Describe some of the effects of oceans on climate.

 

4.4 Observe/describe that some source of energy is needed for all organisms to stay alive & grow.

 

5.4 Demonstrate how graphical displays of numbers may make it possible to spot patterns that are not otherwise obvious, such as comparative size & trends.

M4.6.2

Interpret data graphs to answer questions about a situation.

6.4 Observe/describe that some features of things may stay the same even when other features change.

 

 

4

1.5 Demonstrate how measuring instruments, such as microscopes, telescopes, & cameras, can be used to gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects & events. Note that measuring instruments, such as rulers, can also be used for designing & constructing things that will work properly.

M4.5.1

Measure length to the nearest quarter-inch, eighth-inch, and millimeter.

2.5 Write descriptions of investigations, using observations & other evidence as support for explanations.

 

3.5 Describe how waves, wind, water, & glacial ice shape & reshape Earth’s land surface by the erosion of rock & soil in some areas & depositing them in other areas.

 

4.5 Observe/explain that most plants produce far more seeds than those that actually grow into new plants.

 

5.5 Explain how reasoning can be distorted by strong feelings.

 

 

 

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1.6 Explain that even a good design may fail even though steps are taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure.

 

2.6 Support statements with facts found in print & electronic media, identify the sources used, & expect others to do the same.

E4.4.5

Quote or paraphrase information sources, citing them appropriately.

E4.4.6

Locate information in reference texts by using organizational features, such as prefaces and appendixes.

E4.4.7

Use multiple reference materials and online information (the Internet) as aids to writing.

 

3.6 Recognize & describe that rock is composed of different combinations of minerals.

 

4.6 Explain how in all environments, organisms are growing, dying, & decaying, & new organisms are being produced by the old ones.

 

 

 

 

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1.7 Discuss & give examples of how technology, such as computers & medicines, has improved the lives of many people, although the benefits are not equally available to all.

H.4.4.4. describe how technology has increased the fast food business and how the level of consumption has increased (serving sizes are bigger and we are eating more meals through fast food). 

2.7 Identify better reasons for believing something than “Everybody knows that ...” or “I just know,” & discount such reasons when given by others.

E4.2.6

Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in informational text.

3.7 Explain that smaller rocks come from the breakage & weathering of bedrock & larger rocks & that soil is made partly from weathered rock, partly from plant remains, & also contains many living organisms.

 

4.7 Describe that human beings have made tools & machines, such as x-rays, microscopes, & computers, to sense & do things that they could not otherwise sense or do at all, or as quickly, or as well.

 

 

 

 

4

1.8 Recognize &explain that any invention may lead to other inventions.

 

 

3.8 Explain that the rotation of Earth on its axis every 24 hours produces the night-and-day cycle.

 

4.8 Know/explain that artifacts & preserved remains provide some evidence of the physical characteristics & possible behavior of human beings who lived a very long time ago.

 

 

 

 

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1.9 Explain how some products & materials are easier to recycle than others.

 

 

3.9 Draw or correctly select drawings of shadows & their direction & length at different times of day.

 

4.9 Explain that food provides energy & materials for growth & repair of body parts. Recognize that vitamins & minerals, present in small amounts in foods, are essential to keep everything working well. Further understand that as people grow up, the amounts & kinds of food & exercise needed by the body may change.

H.4.1.1.  Recognize the importance of cleanliness, sleep, balance diet and good dental hygiene for growth and development.

H.4.1.5.  Describe how growth and development occur at different rates for body parts.  The effects of heredity on growth and development.

H.4.1.9. Explain that weight is related to the amount of food that goes in (diet) and how much you burn off (exercise)

 

 

 

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3.10 Demonstrate that the mass of a whole object is always the same as the sum of the masses of its parts.

4.10 Explain that if germs are able to get inside the body, they may keep it from working properly. Understand that for defense against germs, the human body has tears, saliva, skin, some blood cells, & stomach secretions. Also note that a healthy body can fight most germs that invade it. Recognize, however, that there are some germs that interfere with the body's defenses. H.4.7.1  Demonstrate the ability to express information and ideas about health issues (communicable and non-communicable diseases) and how our bodies protect itself.

 

 

 

 

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3.11 Investigate, observe, & explain that things that give off light often also give off heat.

 

4.11 Explain that there are some diseases that human beings can only catch once. Explain that there are many diseases that can be prevented by vaccinations, so that people do not catch them even once.

H.4.7.1  Demonstrate the ability to express information and ideas about health issues (communicable and non-communicable diseases) and how our bodies protect itself.

 

 

 

4

 

 

3.12 Investigate, observe, & explain that heat is produced when one object rubs against another, such as one’s hands rubbing together.

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

3.13 Observe & describe that things that give off heat, such as people, animals, & the sun.

 

 

 

 

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3.14 Explain that energy in fossil fuels comes from plants that grew long ago.

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

3.15 Demonstrate that without touching them, a magnet pulls all things made of iron & either pushes or pulls other magnets.

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

3.16 Investigate & describe that without touching them, material that has been electrically charged pulls all other materials & may either push or pull other charged material.

 

 

 

 

 

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E5.4.3

Write informational pieces with multiple paragraphs that:

-present important ideas or events in sequence or in chronological order.

-provide details and transitions to link paragraphs.

-offer a concluding paragraph that summarizes important ideas and details.

 

E.5.4.5

Use note-taking skills.

 

E5.5.3

Write research reports about important ideas, issues, or events by using the following guidelines:

Frame questions that direct the investigation.

Establish a main idea or topic.

Develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations.

Use a variety of information sources, including firsthand interviews, reference materials, and electronic resources, to locate information for the report.

 

E5.7.1

Ask questions that seek information not already discussed.

E5.7.5

Clarify and support spoken ideas with evidence and examples.

E5.7.10

Deliver informative presentations about an important idea, issue, or event by the following means:

-frame questions to direct the investigation.

-establish a controlling idea or topic.

-develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations.

 

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1.1 Recognize/describe that results of similar scientific investigations may turn out differently because of inconsistencies in methods, materials, & observations.

 

2.1 Multiply & divide whole numbers mentally, on paper, & with a calculator. 

M5.2.6

Use estimation to decide whether answers are reasonable in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems

M5.2.7

Use mental arithmetic to add or subtract simple decimals.

M5.7.7

Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.

M5.7.8

Decide whether a solution is reasonable in the context of the original situation.

The Universe

3.1 Explain that telescopes are used to magnify distant objects in the sky, including the moon & the planets.

 

Diversity of Life

4.1 Explain that for offspring to resemble their parents there must be a reliable way to transfer information from one generation to the next.

H.5.4.1 Understand the influences your family genetically has in terms of your rate of maturation and that this varies greatly.

5.1 Make precise & varied measurements & specify the appropriate units.

M5.5.4

Find the surface area and volume of rectangular solids using appropriate units.

M5.5.5

Understand and use the smaller and larger units for measuring weight (ounce, gram, and ton) and their relationship to pounds and kilograms.

M5.5.6

Compare temperatures in Celsius and Fahrenheit, knowing that the freezing point of water is 0°C and 32°F and that the boiling point is 100°C and 212°F.

6.1 Recognize/describe that systems contain objects as well as processes that interact with each other.

 

 

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1.2 Begin to evaluate the validity of claims based on the amount & quality of the evidence cited.

 

2.2 Use appropriate fractions & decimals when solving problems.

M5.2.2

Add and subtract fractions (including mixed numbers) with different denominators.

M5.2.4

Multiply and divide fractions to solve problems.

M5.2.5

Add and subtract decimals and verify the reasonableness of the results.

3.2 Observe/describe that stars are like the sun, some being smaller & some being larger, but they are so far away that they look like points of light.

 

4.2 Observe/describe that some living things consist of a single cell that needs food, water, air, a way to dispose of waste, & an environment in which to live.

 

5.2 Show that mathematical statements using symbols may be true only when the symbols are replaced by certain numbers.

M5.3.1

Use a variable to represent an unknown number.

6.2 Demonstrate how geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, & stories can be used to represent objects, events, & processes in the real world, although such representation can never be exact in every detail.

M5.4.1

Measure, identify, and draw angles, perpendicular and parallel lines, rectangles, triangles, and circles by using appropriate tools (e.g., ruler, compass, protractor, appropriate technology, media tools).

M5.6.1

Explain which types of displays are appropriate for various sets of data.

M.5.6.2

Find the mean, median, mode, and range of a set of data and describe what each does and does not tell about the data set.

 

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1.3 Explain that doing science involves many different kinds of work & engages men, women, & children of all ages & backgrounds.

 

2.3 Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions & repairing things.

 

3.3 Observe the stars & identify stars that are unusually bright & those that have unusual colors, such as reddish or bluish.

 

4.3 Observe/explain that some organisms are made of a collection of similar cells that benefit from cooperating.  Explain that some organisms' cells, such as human nerve & muscle cells, vary greatly in appearance & perform very different roles in the organism.

 

5.3 Classify objects in terms of simple figures & solids.

 

6.3 Recognize/describe that almost anything has limits on how big or small it can be.

 

 

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1.4 Give examples of technology, such as telescopes, microscopes, & cameras, that enable scientists & others to observe things that are too small or too far away to be seen without them & to study the motion of objects that are moving very rapidly or are hardly moving.

 

2.4 Keep a notebook to record observations & be able to distinguish inferences from actual observations.

A daily entry into a “log” is common in the business community.

E5

Use note-taking skills.

 

 

Earth & the Processes That Shape It

3.4 Investigate that when liquid water disappears it turns into a gas (vapor) mixed into the air & can reappear as a liquid when cooled or as a solid if cooled below the freezing point of water.

 

Interdependence of Life & Evolution

4.4 Explain that in any particular environment, some kinds of plants & animals survive well, some do not survive as well, & some cannot survive at all.

5.4 Compare shapes in terms of concepts, such as parallel & perpendicular, congruence, & symmetry.

M5.4.1

Measure, identify, and draw angles, perpendicular and parallel lines, rectangles, triangles, and circles by using appropriate tools (e.g., ruler, compass, protractor, appropriate technology, media tools).

6.4 Investigate, observe, & describe that things change in steady, repetitive, or irregular ways, such as toy cars continuing in the same direction & air temperature reaching a high or low value.  Note that the best way to tell which kinds of changes are happening is to make a table or a graph of measurements.

M5.3.4

Identify and graph ordered pairs of positive numbers.

M5.3.5

Find ordered pairs (positive numbers only) that fit a linear equation, graph the ordered pairs, and draw the line they determine.

M5.3.6

Understand that the length of a horizontal line segment on a coordinate plane equals the difference between the x-coordinates and that the length of a vertical line segment on a coordinate plane equals the difference between the y-coordinates.

M5.3.7

Use information taken from a graph or equation to answer questions about a problem situation.

M5.6.1

Explain which types of displays are appropriate for various sets of data.

M.5.6.2

Find the mean, median, mode, and range of a set of data and describe what each does and does not tell about the data set.

 

 

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1.5 Explain that technology extends the ability of people to make positive &/or negative changes in the world.

 

2.5 Use technology, such as calculators or spreadsheets, in determining area & volume from linear dimensions.  Find area, volume, mass, time, & cost, & find the difference between two quantities of anything.

M5.2.5

Add and subtract decimals and verify the reasonableness of the results.

3.5 Observe/explain that clouds & fog are made of tiny droplets of water.

 

4.5 Explain how changes in an organism’s habitat are sometimes beneficial & sometimes harmful.

 

5.5 Demonstrate that areas of irregular shapes can be found by dividing them into squares and triangles.

M5.4.9

Given a picture of a three-dimensional object, build the object with blocks.

 

 

5

1.6 Explain how the solution to one problem, such as the use of pesticides in agriculture or the use of dumps for waste disposal, may create other problems.

 

2.6 Write instructions that others can follow in carrying out a procedure.

Known in industry as the “SOP”, standard operating procedures.

 

3.6 Demonstrate that things on or near Earth are pulled toward it by Earth’s gravity.

 

4.6 Recognize/

explain that most microorganisms do not cause disease & many are beneficial.

 

 

5.6 Describe & use drawings to show shapes & compare locations of things very different in size.

M5.4.1

Measure, identify, and draw angles, perpendicular and parallel lines, rectangles, triangles, and circles by using appropriate tools (e.g., ruler, compass, protractor, appropriate technology, …

 

 

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1.7 Give examples of materials not present in nature, such as cloth, plastic, & concrete that have become available because of science & technology.

 

2.7 Read & follow step-by-step instructions when learning new procedures.

All positions in industry have this type of instruction sheet, known as the SOP.  Must be readily accessible at all times.

 

3.7 Describe that, like all planets & stars, Earth is approximately spherical in shape.

 

4.7 Explain that living things, such as plants & animals, differ in their characteristics, & that sometimes these differences can give members of these groups (plants & animals) an advantage in surviving & reproducing.

5.7 Explain that predictions can be based on what is known about the past, assuming that conditions are similar.

 

 

 

5

 

2.8 Recognize when & describe that comparisons might not be accurate because some of the conditions are not kept the same.

 

Matter & Energy

3.8 Investigate, observe, & describe that heating & cooling cause changes in the properties of materials, such as water turning into steam by boiling & water turning into ice by freezing. Notice that many kinds of changes occur faster at higher temperatures.

4.8 Observe/describe how fossils can be compared to one another & to living organisms according to their similarities & differences.

 

5.8 Realize & explain that predictions may be more accurate if they are based on large collections of objects or events.

M5.6.3

Understand that probability can take any value between 0 and 1, events that are not going to occur have probability 0, events certain to occur have probability 1, and more likely events have a higher probability than less likely events.

 

 

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3.9 Investigate, observe, & describe that when warmer things are put with cooler ones, the warm ones lose heat & the cool ones gain it until they are all at the same temperature. Demonstrate that a warmer object can warm a cooler one by contact or at a distance.

 

Human Identity

4.9 Explain that like other animals, human beings have body systems.

H.5.1.4 Describe the basic structure and functions of the human body system.

 

5.9 Show how spreading data out on a number line helps to see what the extremes are, where they pile up, & where the gaps are.

M5.1.7

Identify on a number line the relative position of simple positive fractions, positive mixed numbers, and positive decimals.

 

 

5

 

 

3.10 Investigate that some materials conduct heat much better than others, & poor conductors can reduce heat loss.

 

 

5.10 Explain the danger in using only a portion of the data collected to describe the whole.

 

 

 

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Forces of Nature

3.11 Investigate/describe that changes in speed or direction of motion of an object are caused by forces. Understand that the greater the force, the greater the change in motion & the more massive an object, the less effect a given force will have.

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

3.12 Explain that objects move at different rates, with some moving very slowly & some moving too quickly for people to see them.

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

3.13 Demonstrate that Earth’s gravity pulls any object toward it without touching it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NATIONAL Research on Science Education...What does the research say?

 

*    The majority of lessons incorporate content that is significant and worthwhile.

*    Teachers seem confident in their ability to teach science and provide accurate content information.

*    Fewer than 1 in 5-science lessons …

-  Are strong in rigor.

-  Include teacher questioning that is likely to enhance student conceptual understanding

-  Provide "sense-making" appropriate for the needs of the student and the purposes of the lesson.

*    A drop in US international standing occurs between the 4th and 8th grade.

*    The best predictor of whether a student will complete a B.S./B.A. is the intensity & quality of that student's secondary school curriculum.

*    Accelerated curricular tracks receive clearer signals about college preparation.

*    Theory:  The brain is constantly searching for meaning and seeking patterns and connections, and adapts in response to external stimuli. 

*    Authentic learning situations increase the brain's ability to make connections and retain new information.

*    Brain-based teaching strategies:  manipulatives, active learning, field trips, guest speakers, & real-life projects (many learning styles and multiple intelligences), interdisciplinary curriculum

 

High-quality lessons share some common features...

*     Provide opportunities for students to grapple with content in meaningful ways.

*     Giving students experience with phenomena, making real-world connections, playing games that focus on important learning goals, and/or using contrived texts to motivate learners are all used effectively.

*     Start where the students are and provide opportunities for students to deepen their understanding.

*     Classroom learning environment that is both respectful and challenging of students.

*     Teachers make sure students are intellectually engaged, monitor student understanding with lesson progression and help students make sense of the concepts being addressed.

 

Low-quality lessons share some common features...

*     Learning environments that are lacking in respect and/or rigor.

*     Questioning that emphasizes getting the right answer and moving on w/o focusing on student understanding.

*     Just starting or ending with no particular motivation, w/o summarizing or other "sense-making."

 

Inquiry strategy that addresses some of the research...

 

1. What is the problem/issue/topic that you want to know about?

2. What do you already know about this topic?

3. Explore/Investigate/Collect Evidence (continuum of guided to open)

*     Labs

*     Activities

*     Demonstrations

*     Textual research

*     Expert/community contact

 4. Conclusion...what do you know now?

 5. What might be next questions?  What would you still like to know?  Unanswered questions?

 

 


INDIANA UNIVERSITY

107 S. Indiana Ave., Bloomington, IN 47405-7000

(812) 855-7074

Last updated: 05 December 2005

Comments: Jose Bonner, OSO

Copyright 2005, The Trustees of Indiana University

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