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E

E6.1.4

Understand unknown words in informational texts by using word, sentence, and paragraph clues to determine meaning.

E6.2.4

Clarify an understanding of texts by creating outlines, notes, diagrams, summaries, or reports.

E6.2.2

Analyze text that uses a compare-and-contrast organizational pattern.

E6.2.5

Follow multiple-step instructions for preparing applications.

 

E6.4.1

Discuss ideas for writing, keep a list or notebook of ideas, and use graphic organizers to plan writing.

 

E6.4.3

Write informational pieces of several paragraphs that:

-engage the interest of the reader.

-state a clear purpose.

-develop the topic with supporting details and precise language.

-conclude with a detailed summary linked to the purpose of the composition.

E6.4.4

Use a variety of effective organizational patterns, including comparison and contrast, organization by categories,

 

 

E

 

E6.4.5

Use note-taking skills.

E6.4.6

Use organizational features of electronic text (on computers), such as bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches, and e-mail addresses, to locate information.

E6.4.7

Use a computer to compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of design, including margins, tabs, spacing, columns, and page orientation.

E6.4.8

Review, evaluate, and revise writing for meaning and clarity.

E6.5.2

Write descriptions, explanations, comparison and contrast papers, and problem and solution essays that: -state the thesis (position on the topic) or purpose.

-explain the situation. -organize the composition clearly.

-offer evidence to support arguments and conclusions.

E6.5.3

Write research reports that:

-pose relevant questions that can be answered in the report.

-support the main idea or ideas with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources, such as speakers, newspapers and magazines, reference books, and online information searches.

-include a bibliography.

E6.7.3

Restate and carry out multiple-step oral instructions and directions.

 

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E6.7.6

Support opinions with researched, documented evidence and with visual or media displays that use appropriate technology.

 

 

 

 

 

 

E6.7.11

Deliver informative presentations that: -pose relevant questions sufficiently limited in scope to be completely and thoroughly answered.

-develop the topic with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources, including speakers, periodicals, and online information.

E6.7.14

Deliver presentations on problems and solutions that:

-theorize on the causes and effects of each problem.

 -establish connections between the defined problem and at least one solution.

-offer persuasive evidence to support the definition of the problem and the proposed solutions.

 

 

 

 

 

6

1.1 Explain that some scientific knowledge, such as the length of the year, is very old & yet is still applicable today. Understand, however, that scientific knowledge is never exempt from review & criticism.

 

2.1 Find the mean & median of a set of data.

M6.6.3

Compare the mean, median, and mode for a set of data and explain which measure is most appropriate in a given context.

3.1 Compare/contrast the size, composition, & surface features of the planets that comprise the solar system, as well as the objects orbiting them. Explain that the planets, except Pluto, move around the sun in nearly circular orbits.

E6.2.2

Analyze text that uses a compare-and-contrast organizational pattern.

E6.4.4

Use a variety of effective organizational patterns, including comparison and contrast, organization by categories,

 

4.1 Explain that one of the most general distinctions among organisms is between green plants, which use sunlight to make their own food, and animals, which consume energy-rich foods.

 

5.1 Demonstrate that the operations addition & subtraction are inverses & that multiplication & division are inverses of each other.

M6.2.1

Add and subtract positive and negative integers.

M6.2.2

Multiply and divide positive and negative integers.

6.1 Understand/explain that from the earliest times until now, people have believed that even though countless different kinds of materials seem to exist in the world, most things can be made up of combinations of just a few basic kinds of things. Note that there has not always been agreement, however, on what those basic kinds of things are, such as the theory of long ago that the basic substances were earth, water, air, & fire. Understand that this theory seemed to explain many observations about the world, but as we know now, it fails to explain many others.

7.1 Describe that a system, such as the human body, is composed of subsystems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

1.2 Give examples of different ways scientists investigate natural phenomena & identify processes all scientists use, such as collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning, & the application of imagination in devising hypotheses & explanations, in order to make sense of the evidence.

 

2.2 Use technology, such as calculators or computer spreadsheets, in analysis of data.

 

3.2 Observe/describe that planets change their position relative to the background of stars.

 

4.2 Give examples of organisms that cannot be neatly classified as either plants or animals, such as fungi and bacteria. (Rationale for different kingdoms…multi-ple systems for classification)

 

5.2 Evaluate the precision & usefulness of data based on measurements taken.

M6.5.6

Understand the concept of significant figures and round answers to an appropriate number of significant figures.

 

 

 

 

6.2 Understand/describe that scientists are still working out the details of what the basic kinds of matter are on the smallest scale, & of how they combine, or can be made to combine, to make other substances.

 

7.2 Use models to illustrate processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly, or are too vast to be changed deliberately, or are potentially dangerous.

 

 

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1.3 Recognize/explain that hypotheses are valuable, even if they turn out not to be true, if they lead to fruitful investigations.

 

2.3 Select tools, such as cameras & tape recorders, for capturing information.

 

3.3 Explain that Earth is one of several planets that orbit the sun, & that the moon, as well as many artificial satellites & debris, orbit around Earth.

 

4.3 Describe some of the great variety of body plans and internal structures animals & plants have that contribute to their being able to make or find food and reproduce.

 

5.3 Explain why shapes on a sphere like Earth cannot be depicted on a flat surface without some distortion.

M6.4.7 (related)

Visualize and draw two-dimensional views of three-dimensional objects made from rectangular solids.

6.3 Understand/explain that the experimental & theoretical work done by French scientist Antoine Lavoisier in the decade between the American & French Revolutions contributed crucially to the modern science of chemistry.

7.3 Identify examples of feedback mechanisms within systems that serve to keep changes within specified limits.

 

 

6

1.4 Give examples of employers who hire scientists, such as colleges & universities, businesses & industries, hospitals, & many government agencies. IU, Ivy Tech, Crane, Baxter, Cook, Cook Pharmica

 

2.4 Inspect, disassemble, & reassemble simple mechanical devices & describe what the various parts are for. Estimate what the effect of making a change in one part of a system is likely to have on the system as a whole.

 

3.4 Explain that we live on a planet which appears at present to be the only body in the solar system capable of supporting life.

 

4.4 Recognize and describe that a species comprises all organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring. (definition of a biological species…does not work for asexual organisms or extinct organisms)

 

5.4 Demonstrate how graphs may help to show patterns, such as trends, varying rates of change, gaps, or clusters, which can be used to make predictions.

M6.7.1

Analyze problems by identifying relationships, telling relevant from irrelevant information, identifying missing information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.

M6.7.8

Use graphing to estimate solutions and check the estimates with analytic approaches.

M6.6.1

Organize and display single-variable data in appropriate graphs and stem-and-leaf plots, and explain which types of graphs are appropriate for various data sets.

M6.6.2

Make frequency tables for numerical data, grouping the data in different ways to investigate how different groupings describe the data. Understand and find relative and cumulative frequency for a data set. Use histograms of the data and of the relative frequency distribution, and a broken line graph for cumulative frequency, to interpret the data.

M6.6.5

Use data to estimate the probability of future events.

 

 

 

6

1.5 Identify places where scientists work including offices, classrooms, laboratories, farms, factories, & natural field settings ranging from space to the ocean floor.

Local examples include DNR, IU, Baxter, Cook, Cook Pharmica, food inspection, soil specialist, etc.

2.5 Organize information in simple tables & graphs & identify relationships they reveal. Use tables & graphs as examples of evidence for explanations when writing essays or writing about lab work, fieldwork, etc.

M6.7.1

Analyze problems by identifying relationships, telling relevant from irrelevant information, identifying missing information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.

M6.7.8

Use graphing to estimate solutions and check the estimates with analytic approaches.

M6.6.1

Organize and display single-variable data in appropriate graphs and stem-and-leaf plots, and explain which types of graphs are appropriate for various data sets.

M6.6.2

Make frequency tables for numerical data, grouping the data in different ways to investigate how different groupings describe the data. Understand and find relative and cumulative frequency for a data set. Use histograms of the data and of the relative frequency distribution, and a broken line graph for cumulative frequency, to interpret the data.

3.5 Use models or drawings to explain that Earth has different seasons & weather patterns because it turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of Earth’s yearly orbit around the sun. Know that because of this, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of the Earth during the year (the accompanying greater length of days also has an effect) & the difference in heating produces seasons & weather patterns.

 

4.5 Investigate and explain that all living things are composed of cells whose details are usually visible only through a microscope.

 

5.5 Explain the strengths & weaknesses of using an analogy to help describe an event, object, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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6

1.6 Explain that computers have become invaluable in science because they speed up & extend people’s ability to collect, store, compile, & analyze data; prepare research reports; & share data & ideas with investigators all over the world.

 

2.6 Read simple tables & graphs produced by others & describe in words what they show.

MATH graphs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.6 Use models or drawings to explain that the phases of the moon are caused by the moon’s orbit around Earth, once in about 28 days, changing what part of the moon is lighted by the sun & how much of that part can be seen from Earth, both during the day & night.

 

4.6 Distinguish the main differences between plant and animal cells, such as the presence of chlorophyll & cell walls in plant cells & their absence in animal cells.

 

5.6 Predict the frequency of the occurrence of future events based on data.

M6.6.5

Use data to estimate the probability of future events.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

1.7 Explain that technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space & other remote locations, sample collection & treatment, measurement, data collection & storage, computation, & communication of information.

 

2.7 Locate information in reference books, back issues of newspapers & magazines, CD-ROMs, & computer databases.

 

3.7 Understand/describe the scales involved in characterizing Earth & its atmosphere. Describe that Earth is mostly rock, that three-fourths of its surface is covered by a relatively thin layer of water, & that the entire planet is surrounded by a relatively thin blanket of air.

 

4.7 Explain that about two-thirds of the mass of a cell is accounted for by water. Understand that water gives cells many of their properties.

 

5.7 Demonstrate how probabilities & ratios can be expressed as fractions, percentages, or odds.

M6.1.4

Convert between any two representations of numbers (fractions, decimals, and percents) without the use of a calculator.

M6.1.5

Recognize decimal equivalents for commonly used fractions without the use of a calculator.

M6.6.6

Understand and represent probabilities as ratios, measures of relative frequency, decimals between 0 and 1, and percentages between 0 and 100 and verify that the probabilities computed are reasonable.

 

 

 

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1.8 Describe instances showing that technology cannot always provide successful solutions for problems or fulfill every human need.

 

2.8 Analyze & interpret a given set of findings, demonstrating that there may be more than one good way to do so.

 

3.8 Explain that fresh water, limited in supply & uneven in distribution, is essential for life & also for most industrial processes. Understand that this resource can be depleted or polluted, making it unavailable or unsuitable for life.

 

LIFE & EVOLUTION

4.8 Explain that in all environments, such as freshwater, marine, forest, desert, grassland, mountain, & others, organisms with similar needs may compete with one another for resources, including food, space, water, air, & shelter. Note that in any environment, the growth & survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

 

 

 

 

6

1.9 Explain how technologies can influence all living things.

H.6.4.4.  Describe that due to the increase amount of TV, movies, video games that adolescents are physically moving less and eating more, increasing childhood obesity.

2.9 Compare consumer products, such as generic & brand-name products, & consider reasonable personal trade-offs among them on the basis of features, performance, durability, & costs.

H.6.2.2.  Demonstrate the ability to utilize resources from home, school and community that provide valid health information.

3.9 Illustrate that the cycling of water in & out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns.

 

4.9 Recognize & explain that two types of organisms may interact in a competitive or cooperative relationship, such as producer /consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host.

 

 

 

 

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3.10 Describe the motions of ocean waters, such as tides, & identify their causes.

4.10 Describe how life on Earth depends on energy from the sun.

 

 

 

 

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3.11 Identify/explain the effects of oceans on climate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HUMAN IDENTITY

4.11 Describe that human beings have body systems for obtaining & providing energy, defense, reproduction, & the coordination of body functions.

H.6.1.4 Review the functions of the various systems and how they each work together to function as a whole.

 

 

 

 

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3.12 Describe ways human beings protect themselves from adverse weather conditions.

 

4.12 Explain that human beings have many similarities & differences & that the similarities make it possible for human beings to reproduce & to donate blood & organs to one another.

H.6.1.8  Describe how pathogens are related to the cause or prevention of disease.

 

 

 

 

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3.13 Identify, explain, & discuss some effects human activities, such as the creation of pollution, have on weather & the atmosphere.

4.13 Give examples of how human beings use technology to match or exceed many of the abilities of other species.

 

 

 

 

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3.14 Give examples of some minerals that are very rare & some that exist in great quantities. Explain how recycling & the development of substitutes can reduce the rate of depletion of minerals.

 

 

 

 

 

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3.15 Explain that although weathered rock is the basic component of soil, the composition and texture of soil and its fertility and resistance to erosion are greatly influenced by plant roots & debris, bacteria, fungi, worms, insects, & other organisms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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3.16 Explain that human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount & variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere, & farming intensively, have changed the capacity of the environment to support some life forms.

 

 

 

 

 

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3.17 Recognize/describe that energy is a property of many objects & is associated with heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, & sound.

 

 

 

 

 

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3.18 Investigate/describe that when a new material, such as concrete, is made by combining two or more materials, it has properties that are different from the original materials.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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3.19 Investigate that materials may be composed of parts that are too small to be seen without magnification.

 

 

 

 

 

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3.20 Investigate that equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses as well as different densities.

 

 

 

 

 

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3.21 Investigate, using a prism for example, that light is made up of a mixture of many different colors of light, even though the light is perceived as almost white.

 

 

 

 

 

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3.22 Demonstrate that vibrations in materials set up wavelike disturbances, such as sound & earthquake waves, that spread away from the source.

 

 

 

 

 

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3.23 Explain that electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy from sources such as generators to devices in which heat, light, sound, & chemical changes are produced.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

Recognize/explain that when similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to judge whether the differences are trivial or significant, which often takes further studies to decide.

 

Find what percentage one number is of another & figure any percentage of any number.

 

The Universe

Recognize/describe that the sun is a medium-sized star located near the edge of a disk-shaped galaxy of stars & that the universe contains many billions of galaxies & each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

 

Diversity of Life

Explain that similarities among organisms are found in external & internal anatomical features, including specific characteristics at the cellular level, such as the number of chromosomes. Understand that these similarities are used to classify organisms since they may be used to infer the degree of relatedness among organisms.

Demonstrate how a number line can be extended on the other side of zero to represent negative numbers & give examples of instances where this is useful.

 

Explain that the output from one part of a system, which can include material, energy, or information, can become the input to other parts & this feedback can serve to control what goes on in the system as a whole.

 

Understand /explain that throughout history, people have created explanations for disease. Note that some held that disease had spiritual causes, but that the most persistent biological theory over the centuries was that illness resulted from an imbalance in the body fluids. Realize that the introduction of germ theory by Louis Pasteur & others in the nineteenth century led to the modern understanding of how many diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, & parasites.

 

7

Explain that what people expect to observe often affects what they actually do observe & provide an example of a solution to this problem.

 

Use formulas to calculate the circumferences & areas of rectangles, triangles, & circles, & the volumes of rectangular solids.

 

Recognize/describe that the sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star, allowing light from the sun to reach Earth in a few minutes. Note that this may be compared to time spans of longer than a year for all other stars.

 

Describe that all organisms, including the human species, are part of & depend on two main interconnected global food webs, the ocean food web & the land food web.

Illustrate how lines can be parallel, perpendicular, or oblique.

 

Use different models to represent the same thing, noting that the kind of model and its complexity should depend on its purpose.

 

Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur wanted to find out what caused milk & wine to spoil. Note that he demonstrated that spoilage & fermentation occur when microorganisms enter from the air, multiply rapidly, & produce waste products, with some desirable results, such as carbon dioxide in bread dough, & some undesirable, such as acetic acid in wine. Understand that after showing that spoilage could be avoided by keeping germs out or by destroying them with heat, Pasteur investigated animal diseases & showed that microorganisms were involved in many of them. Also note that other investigators later showed that specific kinds of germs caused specific diseases.

7

Explain why it is important in science to keep honest, clear, & accurate records.

Critical to local biotech/health related industry.

 

Decide what degree of precision is adequate, based on the degree of precision of the original data, & round off the result of calculator operations to significant figures that reasonably reflect those of the inputs.  Required skill for future science classes (including post-secondary) and our own local industries.

 

Earth & the Processes That Shape It.

Describe how climates sometimes have changed abruptly in the past as a result of changes in Earth’s crust, such as volcanic eruptions or impacts of huge rocks from space.

 

Explain how, in sexual reproduction, a single specialized cell from a female merges with a specialized cell from a male & this fertilized egg carries genetic information from each parent & multiplies to form the complete organism.

 

Demonstrate how the scale chosen for a graph or drawing determines its interpretation.

 

Describe how physical and biological systems tend to change until they reach equilibrium and remain that way unless their surroundings change.

 

Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur found that infection by disease organisms (germs) caused the body to build up an immunity against subsequent infection by the same organisms. Realize that Pasteur then demonstrated more widely what Edward Jenner had shown for smallpox w/o understanding the underlying mechanism: that it was possible to produce vaccines that would induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself.

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

Describe that different explanations can be given for the same evidence, & it is not always possible to tell which one is correct without further inquiry.

 

Estimate probabilities of outcomes in familiar situations, on the basis of history or the number of possible outcomes.

Predicting based on past data and/or observations.

 

Explain how heat flow & movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes & volcanic eruptions & creates mountains & ocean basins.

 

Explain that the basic functions of organisms, such as extracting energy from food & getting rid of wastes, are carried out within the cell & understand that the way which cells function is similar in all organisms.

 

Describe that the larger the sample, the more accurately it represents the whole. Understand, however, that any sample can be poorly chosen & this will make it unrepresentative of the whole.

 

Use symbolic equations to show how the quantity of something changes over time or in response to changes in other quantities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Understand/describe that changes in health practices have resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease. Realize that before germ theory, illness was treated by appeals to supernatural powers or by trying to adjust body fluids through induced vomiting or bleeding. Note that the modern approach emphasizes sanitation, the safe handling of food & water, the pasteurization of milk, quarantine, & aseptic surgical techniques to keep germs out of the body; vaccinations to strengthen the body’s immune system against subsequent infection by the same kind of microorganisms; & antibiotics & other chemicals & processes to destroy

microorganisms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

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Historical

7

Identify some important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology that have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times.

Read analog & digital meters on instruments used to make direct measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, or temperatures, & choose appropriate units.

 

Recognize/explain that heat energy carried by ocean currents has a strong influence on climate around the world.

 

Interdependence of Life & Evolution

Explain how food provides the fuel & the building material for all organisms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Provide examples of people who overcame bias and/or limited opportunities in education and employment to excel in the fields of science.

 

Incorporate circle charts, bar & line graphs, diagrams, scatter plots & symbols into writing, such as lab or research reports, to serve as evidence for claims and/or conclusions.

 

Describe how gas & dust from large volcanoes can change the atmosphere.

 

Describe how plants use the energy from light to make sugars from carbon dioxide & water to produce food that can be used immediately or stored for later use.

 

 

 

7

Explain how engineers, architects, & others who engage in design & technology use scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

 

Question claims based on vague attributes, such as “Leading doctors say...” or on statements made by celebrities or others outside the area of their particular expertise.

 

Give examples of some changes in Earth’s surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes & volcanic eruptions, & some changes that happen very slowly, such as uplift & wearing down of mountains & the action of glaciers.

Describe how organisms that eat plants break down the plant structures to produce the materials & energy that they need to survive, & in turn, how they are consumed by other organisms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

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Common Themes

Historical

7

Explain that technologies often have drawbacks as well as benefits. Consider a technology, such as the use of pesticides, which help some organisms but may hurt others, either deliberately or inadvertently.

 

 

Explain that sedimentary rock, when buried deep enough, may be reformed by pressure & heat, perhaps melting & recrystallizing into different kinds of rock. Describe that these reformed rock layers may be forced up again to become land surface & even mountains, & subsequently erode.

 

Understand & explain that as any population of organisms grows, it is held in check by one or more environmental factors. These factors could result in depletion of food or nesting sites and/or increased loss to increased numbers of predators or parasites. Give examples of some consequences of this.

 

 

 

7

Explain how societies influence what types of technology are developed & used in fields such as agriculture, manufacturing, sanitation, medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, & communication.

Current debate with stem cell research will impact biotech research.

 

Explain how the thousands of layers of sedimentary rock can confirm the long history of the changing surface of Earth & the changing life forms whose remains are found in successive layers, although the youngest layers are not always found on top, because folding, breaking, & uplifting layers.

 

Human Identity

Describe how technologies having to do with food production, sanitation, & disease prevention have dramatically changed how people live & work & have resulted in changes in factors that affect the growth of human population.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

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Historical

7

Identify ways that technology has strongly influenced the course of history & continues to do so.  

 

 

 

Matter & Energy

Explain that the sun loses energy by emitting light. Note that only a tiny fraction of that light reaches Earth. Understand that the sun's energy arrives as light with a wide range of wavelengths, consisting of visible light, infrared, & ultraviolet radiation.

 

Explain that the amount of food energy (calories) a person requires varies with body weight, age, sex, activity level, & natural body efficiency. Understand that regular exercise is important to maintain a healthy heart/lung system, good muscle tone, & strong bone structure.

 

 

 

7

Illustrate how numbers can be represented using sequences of only two symbols, such as 1 and 0 or on and off, and how that affects the storage of information in our society.

 

Investigate how the temperature & acidity of a solution influences reaction rates, such as those resulting in food spoilage.

 

Explain that viruses, bacteria, fungi, & parasites may infect the human body & interfere with normal body functions. Recognize that a person can catch a cold many times because there are many varieties of cold viruses that cause similar symptoms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

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7

 

 

Explain that many substances dissolve in water. Understand that the presence of these substances often affects the rates of reactions that are occurring in the water as compared to the same reactions occurring in the water in the absence of the substances.

 

Explain that white blood cells engulf invaders or produce antibodies that attack invaders or mark the invaders for killing by other white blood cells. Know that the antibodies produced will remain & can fight off subsequent invaders of the same kind.

 

 

 

7

 

 

Explain that energy in the form of heat is almost always one of the products of an energy transformation, such as in the examples of exploding stars, biological growth, the operation of machines, & the motion of people.

 

Explain that the environment may contain dangerous levels of substances that are harmful to human beings. Understand, therefore, that the good health of individuals requires monitoring the soil, air, & water as well as taking steps to keep them safe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

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Historical

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Describe how electrical energy can be produced from a variety of energy sources & can be transformed into almost any other form of energy, such as light or heat.

 

 

 

 

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Recognize/explain that different ways of obtaining, transforming, & distributing energy have different environmental consequences.

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

Forces of Nature

Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, & know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves, the object’s path may curve into an orbit around the center.

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

Describe that light waves, sound waves, & other waves move at different speeds in different materials.

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

 

 

Explain that human eyes respond to a narrow range of wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum.

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

Describe that something can be "seen" when light waves emitted or reflected by it enter the eye just as something can be "heard" when sound waves from it enter the ear.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NATIONAL Research on Science Education...What does the research say?

 

*    The majority of lessons incorporate content that is significant and worthwhile.

*    Teachers seem confident in their ability to teach science and provide accurate content information.

*    Fewer than 1 in 5-science lessons …

-  Are strong in rigor.

-  Include teacher questioning that is likely to enhance student conceptual understanding

-  Provide "sense-making" appropriate for the needs of the student and the purposes of the lesson.

*    A drop in US international standing occurs between the 4th and 8th grade.

*    The best predictor of whether a student will complete a B.S./B.A. is the intensity & quality of that student's secondary school curriculum.

*    Accelerated curricular tracks receive clearer signals about college preparation.

*    Theory:  The brain is constantly searching for meaning and seeking patterns and connections, and adapts in response to external stimuli. 

*    Authentic learning situations increase the brain's ability to make connections and retain new information.

*    Brain-based teaching strategies:  manipulatives, active learning, field trips, guest speakers, & real-life projects (many learning styles and multiple intelligences), interdisciplinary curriculum

 

High-quality lessons share some common features...

*     Provide opportunities for students to grapple with content in meaningful ways.

*     Giving students experience with phenomena, making real-world connections, playing games that focus on important learning goals, and/or using contrived texts to motivate learners are all used effectively.

*     Start where the students are and provide opportunities for students to deepen their understanding.

*     Classroom learning environment that is both respectful and challenging of students.

*     Teachers make sure students are intellectually engaged, monitor student understanding with lesson progression and help students make sense of the concepts being addressed.

 

Low-quality lessons share some common features...

*     Learning environments that are lacking in respect and/or rigor.

*     Questioning that emphasizes getting the right answer and moving on w/o focusing on student understanding.

*     Just starting or ending with no particular motivation, w/o summarizing or other "sense-making."

 

Inquiry strategy that addresses some of the research...

 

1. What is the problem/issue/topic that you want to know about?

2. What do you already know about this topic?

3. Explore/Investigate/Collect Evidence (continuum of guided to open)

*     Labs

*     Activities

*     Demonstrations

*     Textual research

*     Expert/community contact

 4. Conclusion...what do you know now?

 5. What might be next questions?  What would you still like to know?  Unanswered questions?

 

 


INDIANA UNIVERSITY

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Last updated: 05 December 2005

Comments: Jose Bonner, OSO

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