The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

Recognize/explain that when similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to judge whether the differences are trivial or significant, which often takes further studies to decide.

 

Find what percentage one number is of another & figure any percentage of any number.

 

The Universe

Recognize/describe that the sun is a medium-sized star located near the edge of a disk-shaped galaxy of stars & that the universe contains many billions of galaxies & each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

 

Diversity of Life

Explain that similarities among organisms are found in external & internal anatomical features, including specific characteristics at the cellular level, such as the number of chromosomes. Understand that these similarities are used to classify organisms since they may be used to infer the degree of relatedness among organisms.

Demonstrate how a number line can be extended on the other side of zero to represent negative numbers & give examples of instances where this is useful.

 

Explain that the output from one part of a system, which can include material, energy, or information, can become the input to other parts & this feedback can serve to control what goes on in the system as a whole.

 

Understand /explain that throughout history, people have created explanations for disease. Note that some held that disease had spiritual causes, but that the most persistent biological theory over the centuries was that illness resulted from an imbalance in the body fluids. Realize that the introduction of germ theory by Louis Pasteur & others in the nineteenth century led to the modern understanding of how many diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, & parasites.

 

7

Explain that what people expect to observe often affects what they actually do observe & provide an example of a solution to this problem.

 

Use formulas to calculate the circumferences & areas of rectangles, triangles, & circles, & the volumes of rectangular solids.

 

Recognize/describe that the sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star, allowing light from the sun to reach Earth in a few minutes. Note that this may be compared to time spans of longer than a year for all other stars.

 

Describe that all organisms, including the human species, are part of & depend on two main interconnected global food webs, the ocean food web & the land food web.

Illustrate how lines can be parallel, perpendicular, or oblique.

 

Use different models to represent the same thing, noting that the kind of model and its complexity should depend on its purpose.

 

Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur wanted to find out what caused milk & wine to spoil. Note that he demonstrated that spoilage & fermentation occur when microorganisms enter from the air, multiply rapidly, & produce waste products, with some desirable results, such as carbon dioxide in bread dough, & some undesirable, such as acetic acid in wine. Understand that after showing that spoilage could be avoided by keeping germs out or by destroying them with heat, Pasteur investigated animal diseases & showed that microorganisms were involved in many of them. Also note that other investigators later showed that specific kinds of germs caused specific diseases.

7

Explain why it is important in science to keep honest, clear, & accurate records.

Critical to local biotech/health related industry.

 

Decide what degree of precision is adequate, based on the degree of precision of the original data, & round off the result of calculator operations to significant figures that reasonably reflect those of the inputs.  Required skill for future science classes (including post-secondary) and our own local industries.

 

Earth & the Processes That Shape It.

Describe how climates sometimes have changed abruptly in the past as a result of changes in EarthÕs crust, such as volcanic eruptions or impacts of huge rocks from space.

 

Explain how, in sexual reproduction, a single specialized cell from a female merges with a specialized cell from a male & this fertilized egg carries genetic information from each parent & multiplies to form the complete organism.

 

Demonstrate how the scale chosen for a graph or drawing determines its interpretation.

 

Describe how physical and biological systems tend to change until they reach equilibrium and remain that way unless their surroundings change.

 

Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur found that infection by disease organisms (germs) caused the body to build up an immunity against subsequent infection by the same organisms. Realize that Pasteur then demonstrated more widely what Edward Jenner had shown for smallpox w/o understanding the underlying mechanism: that it was possible to produce vaccines that would induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself.

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

Describe that different explanations can be given for the same evidence, & it is not always possible to tell which one is correct without further inquiry.

 

Estimate probabilities of outcomes in familiar situations, on the basis of history or the number of possible outcomes.

Predicting based on past data and/or observations.

 

Explain how heat flow & movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes & volcanic eruptions & creates mountains & ocean basins.

 

Explain that the basic functions of organisms, such as extracting energy from food & getting rid of wastes, are carried out within the cell & understand that the way which cells function is similar in all organisms.

 

Describe that the larger the sample, the more accurately it represents the whole. Understand, however, that any sample can be poorly chosen & this will make it unrepresentative of the whole.

 

Use symbolic equations to show how the quantity of something changes over time or in response to changes in other quantities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Understand/describe that changes in health practices have resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease. Realize that before germ theory, illness was treated by appeals to supernatural powers or by trying to adjust body fluids through induced vomiting or bleeding. Note that the modern approach emphasizes sanitation, the safe handling of food & water, the pasteurization of milk, quarantine, & aseptic surgical techniques to keep germs out of the body; vaccinations to strengthen the bodyÕs immune system against subsequent infection by the same kind of microorganisms; & antibiotics & other chemicals & processes to destroy

microorganisms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

Identify some important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology that have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times.

Read analog & digital meters on instruments used to make direct measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, or temperatures, & choose appropriate units.

 

Recognize/explain that heat energy carried by ocean currents has a strong influence on climate around the world.

 

Interdependence of Life & Evolution

Explain how food provides the fuel & the building material for all organisms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Provide examples of people who overcame bias and/or limited opportunities in education and employment to excel in the fields of science.

 

Incorporate circle charts, bar & line graphs, diagrams, scatter plots & symbols into writing, such as lab or research reports, to serve as evidence for claims and/or conclusions.

 

Describe how gas & dust from large volcanoes can change the atmosphere.

 

Describe how plants use the energy from light to make sugars from carbon dioxide & water to produce food that can be used immediately or stored for later use.

 

 

 

7

Explain how engineers, architects, & others who engage in design & technology use scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

 

Question claims based on vague attributes, such as ŅLeading doctors say...Ó or on statements made by celebrities or others outside the area of their particular expertise.

 

Give examples of some changes in EarthÕs surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes & volcanic eruptions, & some changes that happen very slowly, such as uplift & wearing down of mountains & the action of glaciers.

Describe how organisms that eat plants break down the plant structures to produce the materials & energy that they need to survive, & in turn, how they are consumed by other organisms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

Explain that technologies often have drawbacks as well as benefits. Consider a technology, such as the use of pesticides, which help some organisms but may hurt others, either deliberately or inadvertently.

 

 

Explain that sedimentary rock, when buried deep enough, may be reformed by pressure & heat, perhaps melting & recrystallizing into different kinds of rock. Describe that these reformed rock layers may be forced up again to become land surface & even mountains, & subsequently erode.

 

Understand & explain that as any population of organisms grows, it is held in check by one or more environmental factors. These factors could result in depletion of food or nesting sites and/or increased loss to increased numbers of predators or parasites. Give examples of some consequences of this.

 

 

 

7

Explain how societies influence what types of technology are developed & used in fields such as agriculture, manufacturing, sanitation, medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, & communication.

Current debate with stem cell research will impact biotech research.

 

Explain how the thousands of layers of sedimentary rock can confirm the long history of the changing surface of Earth & the changing life forms whose remains are found in successive layers, although the youngest layers are not always found on top, because folding, breaking, & uplifting layers.

 

Human Identity

Describe how technologies having to do with food production, sanitation, & disease prevention have dramatically changed how people live & work & have resulted in changes in factors that affect the growth of human population.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

Identify ways that technology has strongly influenced the course of history & continues to do so.  

 

 

 

Matter & Energy

Explain that the sun loses energy by emitting light. Note that only a tiny fraction of that light reaches Earth. Understand that the sun's energy arrives as light with a wide range of wavelengths, consisting of visible light, infrared, & ultraviolet radiation.

 

Explain that the amount of food energy (calories) a person requires varies with body weight, age, sex, activity level, & natural body efficiency. Understand that regular exercise is important to maintain a healthy heart/lung system, good muscle tone, & strong bone structure.

 

 

 

7

Illustrate how numbers can be represented using sequences of only two symbols, such as 1 and 0 or on and off, and how that affects the storage of information in our society.

 

Investigate how the temperature & acidity of a solution influences reaction rates, such as those resulting in food spoilage.

 

Explain that viruses, bacteria, fungi, & parasites may infect the human body & interfere with normal body functions. Recognize that a person can catch a cold many times because there are many varieties of cold viruses that cause similar symptoms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

 

 

Explain that many substances dissolve in water. Understand that the presence of these substances often affects the rates of reactions that are occurring in the water as compared to the same reactions occurring in the water in the absence of the substances.

 

Explain that white blood cells engulf invaders or produce antibodies that attack invaders or mark the invaders for killing by other white blood cells. Know that the antibodies produced will remain & can fight off subsequent invaders of the same kind.

 

 

 

7

 

 

Explain that energy in the form of heat is almost always one of the products of an energy transformation, such as in the examples of exploding stars, biological growth, the operation of machines, & the motion of people.

 

Explain that the environment may contain dangerous levels of substances that are harmful to human beings. Understand, therefore, that the good health of individuals requires monitoring the soil, air, & water as well as taking steps to keep them safe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

 

 

Describe how electrical energy can be produced from a variety of energy sources & can be transformed into almost any other form of energy, such as light or heat.

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

Recognize/explain that different ways of obtaining, transforming, & distributing energy have different environmental consequences.

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

Forces of Nature

Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, & know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves, the objectÕs path may curve into an orbit around the center.

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

Describe that light waves, sound waves, & other waves move at different speeds in different materials.

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

7

 

 

Explain that human eyes respond to a narrow range of wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum.

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

Describe that something can be "seen" when light waves emitted or reflected by it enter the eye just as something can be "heard" when sound waves from it enter the ear.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

8

Recognize that & describe how scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 

Ex. Cells, atoms

 

Estimate distances & travel times from maps & the actual size of objects from scale drawings.

Creation of models to scale.

 

The Universe

Explain that large numbers of chunks of rock orbit the sun & some of this rock interacts with Earth.

 

Diversity of Life

Differentiate between inherited traits, such as hair color or flower color, & acquired skills, such as manners.

 

Understand & explain that a number must be written with an appropriate number of significant figures (determined by the measurements from which the number is derived).

 

Explain that a system usually has some properties that are different from those of its parts but appear because of the interaction of those parts.

 

Understand/explain that Antoine LavoisierÕs work was based on the idea that when materials react with each other, many changes can take place, but that in every case the total amount of matter afterward is the same as before. Note that Lavoisier successfully tested the concept of conservation of matter by conducting a series of experiments in which he carefully measured the masses of all the substances involved in various chemical reactions, including the gases used & those given off.

8

Recognize/explain that some matters cannot be examined usefully in a scientific way.

Bioethics

 

Determine in what unit, such as seconds, meters, grams, etc., an answer should be expressed based on the units of the inputs to the calculation.

Very important to include, not only the appropriate unit, but a unit with all measurements.

Earth & the Processes That Shape It

Explain that the slow movement of material within Earth results from heat flowing out of the deep interior and the action of gravitational forces on regions of different density.

 

Describe that in some organisms, such as yeast or bacteria, all genes come from a single parent, while in those that have sexes, typically half of the genes come from each parent.

 

Show that an equation containing a variable may be true for just one value of the variable.

 

Explain that even in some very simple systems, it may not always be possible to predict accurately the result of changing some part or connection.

 

Understand/describe that the accidental discovery that minerals containing uranium darken photographic film, as light does, led to the discovery of radioactivity.

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

8

Recognize/describe that if more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be attributable to any one of the variables.

 

Use proportional reasoning to solve problems.

Let the units guide the math.

 

Explain that the solid crust of Earth, including both the continents & the ocean basins, consists of separate plates that ride on a denser, hot, gradually deformable layer of earth. Understand that the crust sections move very slowly, pressing against one another in some places, pulling apart in other places. Further understand that ocean-floor plates may slide under continental plates, sinking deep into Earth, & that the surface layers of these plates may fold, forming mountain ranges.

Recognize/

describe that new varieties of cultivated plants, such as corn & apples, & domestic animals, such as dogs & horses, have resulted from selective breeding for particular traits.

 

Demonstrate that mathematical statements can be used to describe how one quantity changes when another changes.

 

Use technology to assist in graphing and with simulations that compute and display results of changing factors in models.

 

 

Understand that & describe how in their laboratory in France, Marie Curie & her husband, Pierre Curie, isolated two new elements that were the source of most of the radioactivity of the uranium ore. Note that they named one radium because it gave off powerful invisible rays, & the other polonium in honor of Madame CurieÕs country of birth, Poland. Also note that Marie Curie was the first scientist ever to win the Nobel Prize in two different fields, in physics, shared with her husband, & later in chemistry

8

Explain why accurate record keeping, openness, & replication are essential for maintaining an investigatorÕs credibility with other scientists & society.

Critical to our local biotech industries soliciting patents, FDA approval,  etc.

 

Use technological devices, such as calculators & computers, to perform calculations.

 

Explain that earthquakes often occur along the boundaries between colliding plates, & molten rock from below creates pressure that is released by volcanic eruptions, helping to build up mountains. Understand that under the ocean basins, molten rock may well up between separating plates to create new ocean floor. Further understand that volcanic activity along the ocean floor may form undersea mountains, which can thrust above the oceanÕs surface to become islands.

Interdependence of Life & Evolution

Describe how matter is transferred from one organism to another repeatedly & between organisms & their physical environment.

 

Illustrate how graphs can show a variety of possible relationships between two variables.

 

Explain that as the complexity of any system increases, gaining an understanding of it depends on summaries, such as averages and ranges, and on descriptions of typical examples of that system.

 

Describe how the discovery of radioactivity as a source of EarthÕs heat energy made it possible to understand how Earth can be several billion years old & still have a hot interior.

 

8

Explain why research involving human subjects requires potential subjects to be fully informed about the risks & benefits associated with the research & that they have the right to refuse to participate.

Ex. Trial studies

Use computers to store & retrieve information in topical, alphabetical, numerical, & keyword files & create simple files of studentsÕ own devising.

Organizational skills throughout our lives, (receipts for taxes, assignments, employee documentation).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Explain that everything on or anywhere near Earth is pulled toward EarthÕs center by a gravitational force.

 

Explain that energy can be transferred from one form to another in living things.

 

Illustrate that it takes two numbers to locate a point on a map or any other two-dimensional surface.

 

Observe and describe that a system may stay the same because nothing is happening or because things are happening that counteract one another

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

8

Identify the constraints that must be taken into account as a new design is developed, such as gravity & the properties of the materials to be used.

Can the new design withstand the environment in which it will be used? (Temp, solubility, etc.)

Write clear, step-by-step instructions (procedural summaries) for conducting investigations, operating something, or following a procedure.

Known as industrial/business ŅSOPÓ-standard operating procedure.

Understand/explain that the benefits of EarthÕs resources, such as fresh water, air, soil, & trees, are finite & can be reduced by using them wastefully or by deliberately or accidentally destroying them.

 

Describe how animals get their energy from oxidizing their food & releasing some of this energy as heat.

 

Explain that a single example can never prove that something is always true, but it could prove that something is not always true.

 

Recognize that and describe how symmetry may determine properties of many objects, such as molecules, crystals, organisms, and designed structures.

 

 

8

Explain why technology issues are rarely simple & one-sided because contending groups may have different values & priorities.

 

Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, & expressing alternative positions.

Group work-few jobs are in isolationÉindivid-ual and group accountability.

 

 

 

 

 

Explain that the atmosphere & the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes & recycle materials naturally.

 

Recognize & explain that small genetic differences between parents & offspring can accumulate in successive generations so that descendants are very different from their ancestors.

 

Recognize & describe the danger of making over-generalizations when inventing a general rule based on a few observations.

 

Illustrate how things, such as seasons or body temperature, occur in cycles.

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

8

Explain that humans help shape the future by generating knowledge, developing new technologies, & communicating ideas to others.

Professional scientific journals, Internet postings, etc.

 

Use tables, charts, & graphs in making arguments & claims in, for example, oral & written presentations about lab or fieldwork.

 

Matter & Energy

Explain that all matter is made up of atoms which are far too small to see directly through an optical microscope. Understand that the atoms of any element are similar but are different from atoms of other elements. Further understand that atoms may stick together in well-defined molecules or may be packed together in large arrays. Also understand that different arrangements of atoms into groups comprise all substances.

Describe how environmental conditions affect the survival of individual organisms & how entire species may prosper in spite of the poor survivability or bad fortune of individuals.

 

Explain how estimates can be based on data from similar conditions in the past or on the assumption that all the possibilities are known.

 

 

 

8

 

Explain why arguments are invalid if based on very small samples of data, biased samples, or samples for which there was no control sample.

 

Demonstrate, using drawings & models, the movement of atoms in a solid, liquid, & gaseous state. Explain that atoms & molecules are perpetually in motion.

Human Identity

Recognize & describe that fossil evidence is consistent with the idea that human beings evolved from earlier species.

 

 

Compare the mean, median, and mode of a data set.

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

8

 

Identify & criticize the reasoning in arguments in which fact & opinion are intermingled or the conclusions do not follow logically from the evidence given, an analogy is not apt, no mention is made of whether the control group is very much like the experimental group, or all members of a group are implied to have nearly identical characteristics that differ from those of other groups.

Explain that increased temperature means that atoms have a greater average energy of motion & that most gases expand when heated.

 

 

Explain how the comparison of data from two groups involves comparing both their middles & the spreads.

 

 

 

8

 

 

Describe how groups of elements can be classified based on similar properties, including highly reactive metals, less reactive metals, highly reactive nonmetals, less reactive nonmetals, & some almost completely nonreactive gases.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Explain that no matter how substances within a closed system interact with one another, or how they combine or break apart, the total mass of the system remains the same. Understand that the atomic theory explains the conservation of matter: if the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same.

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Explain that energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form into another.

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Describe how heat can be transferred through materials by the collision of atoms, or across space by radiation, or if the material is fluid, by convection currents that are set up in it that aid the transfer of heat.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nature of Science & Technology

Scientific Thinking

Physical Setting

Living Environment

Mathematical World

Common Themes

Historical

8

 

 

Identify different forms of energy that exist in nature.

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Forces of Nature

Explain that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object & that the force depends on how much mass the objects have & how far apart they are.

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Explain that the sunÕs gravitational pull holds Earth & the other planets in their orbits, just as the planetsÕ gravitational pull keeps their moons in orbit around them.

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Investigate/explain that electric currents & magnets can exert force on each other.

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Investigate/compare series & parallel circuits.

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Compare the differences in power consumption in different electrical devices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NATIONAL Research on Science Education...What does the research say?

 

*    The majority of lessons incorporate content that is significant and worthwhile.

*    Teachers seem confident in their ability to teach science and provide accurate content information.

*    Fewer than 1 in 5-science lessons É

-  Are strong in rigor.

-  Include teacher questioning that is likely to enhance student conceptual understanding

-  Provide "sense-making" appropriate for the needs of the student and the purposes of the lesson.

*    A drop in US international standing occurs between the 4th and 8th grade.

*    The best predictor of whether a student will complete a B.S./B.A. is the intensity & quality of that student's secondary school curriculum.

*    Accelerated curricular tracks receive clearer signals about college preparation.

*    Theory:  The brain is constantly searching for meaning and seeking patterns and connections, and adapts in response to external stimuli. 

*    Authentic learning situations increase the brain's ability to make connections and retain new information.

*    Brain-based teaching strategies:  manipulatives, active learning, field trips, guest speakers, & real-life projects (many learning styles and multiple intelligences), interdisciplinary curriculum

 

High-quality lessons share some common features...

*     Provide opportunities for students to grapple with content in meaningful ways.

*     Giving students experience with phenomena, making real-world connections, playing games that focus on important learning goals, and/or using contrived texts to motivate learners are all used effectively.

*     Start where the students are and provide opportunities for students to deepen their understanding.

*     Classroom learning environment that is both respectful and challenging of students.

*     Teachers make sure students are intellectually engaged, monitor student understanding with lesson progression and help students make sense of the concepts being addressed.

 

Low-quality lessons share some common features...

*     Learning environments that are lacking in respect and/or rigor.

*     Questioning that emphasizes getting the right answer and moving on w/o focusing on student understanding.

*     Just starting or ending with no particular motivation, w/o summarizing or other "sense-making."

 

Inquiry strategy that addresses some of the research...

 

1. What is the problem/issue/topic that you want to know about?

2. What do you already know about this topic?

3. Explore/Investigate/Collect Evidence (continuum of guided to open)

*     Labs

*     Activities

*     Demonstrations

*     Textual research

*     Expert/community contact

 4. Conclusion...what do you know now?

 5. What might be next questions?  What would you still like to know?  Unanswered questions?

 

 


INDIANA UNIVERSITY

107 S. Indiana Ave., Bloomington, IN 47405-7000

(812) 855-7074

Last updated: 05 December 2005

Comments: Jose Bonner, OSO

Copyright 2005, The Trustees of Indiana University

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