B.1.18 Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.

 

Molecules and Cells

B.1.3 Know and describe that within the cell are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, information feedback, and movement. In addition to these basic cellular functions common to all cells, understand that most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not.

B.1.4 Understand and describe that the work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.

B.1.5 Demonstrate that most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and acidity. Note that extreme changes may harm cells, modifying the structure of their protein molecules and therefore, some possible functions.

B.1.8 Understand and describe that all growth and development is a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products. Explain that cellular differentiation results from gene expression and/or environmental influence. Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis.

B.1.9 Recognize and describe that both living and nonliving things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energy-containing bonds, such as those in ATP.

B.1.10 Recognize and explain that macromolecules such as lipids contain high energy bonds as well.

Developmental and Organismal Biology

7.4.10 Explain that the amount of food energy (calories) a person requires varies with body weight, age, sex, activity level, & natural body efficiency. Understand that regular exercise is important to maintain a healthy heart/lung system, good muscle tone, & strong bone structure.

B.1.14 Recognize and explain that communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities.

B.1.15 Understand and explain that, in biological systems, structure and function must be considered together.

B.1.16 Explain how higher levels of organization result from specific complexing and interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material.

B.1.17 Understand that and describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life and explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions, as well as the presence of disease agents.

B.1.19 Recognize and describe that metabolism consists of the production, modification, transport, and exchange of materials that are required for the maintenance of life.

B.1.20 Recognize that and describe how the human immune system is designed to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within.

Genetics

B.1.26 Demonstrate how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this is virtually the same mechanism for all life forms.

Evolution

Ecology

7.4.13 Explain that the environment may contain dangerous levels of substances that are harmful to human beings. Understand, therefore, that the good health of individuals requires monitoring the soil, air, & water as well as taking steps to keep them safe.

8.4.8 Describe how environmental conditions affect the survival of individual organisms & how entire species may prosper in spite of the poor survivability or bad fortune of individuals.

B.1.37 Explain that the amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organic materials. Recognize, therefore, that human activities and technology can change the flow and reduce the fertility of the land.

B.1.43 Understand that and describe how organisms are influenced by a particular combination of living and nonliving components of the environment.

B.1.44 Describe the flow of matter, nutrients, and energy within ecosystems.

Historical

7.7.1 Understand /explain that throughout history, people have created explanations for disease. Note that some held that disease had spiritual causes, but that the most persistent biological theory over the centuries was that illness resulted from an imbalance in the body fluids. Realize that the introduction of germ theory by Louis Pasteur & others in the nineteenth century led to the modern understanding of how many diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, & parasites.

7.7.4 Understand/describe that changes in health practices have resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease. Realize that before germ theory, illness was treated by appeals to supernatural powers or by trying to adjust body fluids through induced vomiting or bleeding. Note that the modern approach emphasizes sanitation, the safe handling of food & water, the pasteurization of milk, quarantine, & aseptic surgical techniques to keep germs out of the body; vaccinations to strengthen the bodys immune system against subsequent infection by the same kind of microorganisms; & antibiotics & other chemicals & processes to destroy microorganisms.

 

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