B.1.20 Recognize that and describe how the human immune system is designed to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within.

 

Molecules and Cells

7.4.12 Explain that white blood cells engulf invaders or produce antibodies that attack invaders or mark the invaders for killing by other white blood cells. Know that the antibodies produced will remain & can fight off subsequent invaders of the same kind.

B1.1Recognize that and explain how the many cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions. Understand that different parts of the genetic instructions are used in different types of cells and are influenced by the cellÕs environment and past history.

B.1.4 Understand and describe that the work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.

B.1.7 Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Note that cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism, such as hormones.

Developmental and Organismal Biology

7.4.11 Explain that viruses, bacteria, fungi, & parasites may infect the human body & interfere with normal body functions. Recognize that a person can catch a cold many times because there are many varieties of cold viruses that cause similar symptoms.

B.1.14 Recognize and explain that communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities.

B.1.15 Understand and explain that, in biological systems, structure and function must be considered together.

B.1.16 Explain how higher levels of organization result from specific complexing and interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material.

B.1.17 Understand that and describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life and explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions, as well as the presence of disease agents.

B.1.18 Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.

Genetics

B.1.26 Demonstrate how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this is virtually the same mechanism for all life forms.

Evolution

B.1.32 Explain how natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for survival in particular environments, and discuss how natural selection provides scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.

Ecology

7.4.8 Understand & explain that as any population of organisms grows, it is held in check by one or more environmental factors. These factors could result in depletion of food or nesting sites and/or increased loss to increased numbers of predators or parasites. Give examples of some consequences of this.

7.4.9 Describe how technologies having to do with food production, sanitation, & disease prevention have dramatically changed how people live & work & have resulted in changes in factors that affect the growth of human population.

B.1.40 Understand and explain that like many complex systems, ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium. However, also understand that ecosystems can always change with climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution.

B.1.41 Recognize that and describe how human beings are part of EarthÕs ecosystems. Note that human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems.

Historical

7.7.1 Understand /explain that throughout history, people have created explanations for disease. Note that some held that disease had spiritual causes, but that the most persistent biological theory over the centuries was that illness resulted from an imbalance in the body fluids. Realize that the introduction of germ theory by Louis Pasteur & others in the nineteenth century led to the modern understanding of how many diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, & parasites.

7.7.2 Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur wanted to find out what caused milk & wine to spoil. Note that he demonstrated that spoilage & fermentation occur when microorganisms enter from the air, multiply rapidly, & produce waste products, with some desirable results, such as carbon dioxide in bread dough, & some undesirable, such as acetic acid in wine. Understand that after showing that spoilage could be avoided by keeping germs out or by destroying them with heat, Pasteur investigated animal diseases & showed that microorganisms were involved in many of them. Also note that other investigators later showed that specific kinds of germs caused specific diseases.

7.7.3 Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur found that infection by disease organisms (germs) caused the body to build up an immunity against subsequent infection by the same organisms. Realize that Pasteur then demonstrated more widely what Edward Jenner had shown for smallpox w/o understanding the underlying mechanism: that it was possible to produce vaccines that would induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself.

7.7.4 Understand/describe that changes in health practices have resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease. Realize that before germ theory, illness was treated by appeals to supernatural powers or by trying to adjust body fluids through induced vomiting or bleeding. Note that the modern approach emphasizes sanitation, the safe handling of food & water, the pasteurization of milk, quarantine, & aseptic surgical techniques to keep germs out of the body; vaccinations to strengthen the bodyÕs immune system against subsequent infection by the same kind of microorganisms; & antibiotics & other chemicals & processes to destroy

microorganisms.

B.2.1 Explain that prior to the studies of Charles Darwin, the most widespread belief was that all known species were created at the same time and remained unchanged throughout history. Note that some scientists at the time believed that features an individual acquired during a lifetime could be passed on to its offspring, and the species could thereby gradually change to fit an environment better.

B.2.2 Explain that Darwin argued that only biologically inherited characteristics could be passed on to offspring. Note that some of these characteristics were advantageous in surviving and reproducing. Understand that the offspring would also inherit and pass on those advantages, and over generations the aggregation of these inherited advantages would lead to a new species.

B.2.4 Explain that after the publication of Origin of Species, biological evolution was supported by the rediscovery of the genetics experiments of an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, by the identification of genes and how they are sorted in reproduction, and by the discovery that the genetic code found in DNA is the same for almost all organisms.

 

 

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