B.1.9 Recognize and describe that both living and nonliving things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energy-containing bonds, such as those in ATP.

 

Molecules and Cells

7.4.5 Explain how food provides the fuel & the building material for all organisms.

7.4.6 Describe how plants use the energy from light to make sugars from carbon dioxide & water to produce food that can be used immediately or stored for later use.

7.4.7 Describe how organisms that eat plants break down the plant structures to produce the materials & energy that they need to survive, & in turn, how they are consumed by other organisms.

8.4.5 Explain that energy can be transferred from one form to another in living things.

8.4.6 Describe how animals get their energy from oxidizing their food & releasing some of this energy as heat.

B.1.3 Know and describe that within the cell are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, information feedback, and movement. In addition to these basic cellular functions common to all cells, understand that most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not.

B.1.4 Understand and describe that the work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.

B.1.6 Show that a living cell is composed mainly of a small number of chemical elements - carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur. Recognize that carbon can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules.

B.1.7 Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Note that cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism, such as hormones.

B.1.10 Recognize and explain that macromolecules such as lipids contain high energy bonds as well.

Developmental and Organismal Biology

B.1.16 Explain how higher levels of organization result from specific complexing and interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material.

B.1.19 Recognize and describe that metabolism consists of the production, modification, transport, and exchange of materials that are required for the maintenance of life.

Genetics

B.1.21 Understand and explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes which are coded in DNA molecules.

B.1.22 Understand and explain the genetic basis for MendelÕs laws of segregation and independent assortment.

B.1.26 Demonstrate how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this is virtually the same mechanism for all life forms.

Evolution

B.1.30 Understand and explain that molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched off from one another.

B.1.34 Explain that evolution builds on what already exists, so the more variety there is, the more there can be in the future. Recognize, however, that evolution does not necessitate long-term progress in some set direction.

Ecology

7.4.2 Describe that all organisms, including the human species, are part of & depend on two main interconnected global food webs, the ocean food web & the land food web.

8.4.4 Describe how matter is transferred from one organism to another repeatedly & between organisms & their physical environment.

B.1.37 Explain that the amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organic materials. Recognize, therefore, that human activities and technology can change the flow and reduce the fertility of the land.

B.1.44 Describe the flow of matter, nutrients, and energy within ecosystems.

B.1.45 Recognize that and describe how the physical or chemical environment may influence the rate, extent, and nature of the way organisms develop within ecosystems.

Historical

8.7.1 Understand/explain that Antoine LavoisierÕs work was based on the idea that when materials react with each other, many changes can take place, but that in every case the total amount of matter afterward is the same as before. Note that Lavoisier successfully tested the concept of conservation of matter by conducting a series of experiments in which he carefully measured the masses of all the substances involved in various chemical reactions, including the gases used & those given off.

 

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