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Biology

Text in blue identifies Indicators from 7th and 8th grade science

Molecules and Cells

7.4.1Explain that similarities among organisms are found in external & internal anatomical features, including specific characteristics at the cellular level, such as the number of chromosomes. Understand that these similarities are used to classify organisms since they may be used to infer the degree of relatedness among organisms.

7.4.3 Explain how, in sexual reproduction, a single specialized cell from a female merges with a specialized cell from a male & this fertilized egg carries genetic information from each parent & multiplies to form the complete organism.

7.4.4 Explain that the basic functions of organisms, such as extracting energy from food & getting rid of wastes, are carried out within the cell & understand that the way which cells function is similar in all organisms.

7.4.5 Explain how food provides the fuel & the building material for all organisms.

7.4.6 Describe how plants use the energy from light to make sugars from carbon dioxide & water to produce food that can be used immediately or stored for later use.

7.4.7 Describe how organisms that eat plants break down the plant structures to produce the materials & energy that they need to survive, & in turn, how they are consumed by other organisms.

7.4.12 Explain that white blood cells engulf invaders or produce antibodies that attack invaders or mark the invaders for killing by other white blood cells. Know that the antibodies produced will remain & can fight off subsequent invaders of the same kind.

8.4.5 Explain that energy can be transferred from one form to another in living things.

8.4.6 Describe how animals get their energy from oxidizing their food & releasing some of this energy as heat.

B1.1Recognize that and explain how the many cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions. Understand that different parts of the genetic instructions are used in different types of cells and are influenced by the cell's environment and past history.

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B.1.2 Explain that every cell is covered by a membrane that controls what can enter and leave the cell. Recognize that in all but quite primitive cells, a complex network of proteins provides organization and shape. In addition, understand that flagella and/or cilia may allow some Protista, some Monera, and some animal cells to move.

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B.1.3 Know and describe that within the cell are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, information feedback, and movement. In addition to these basic cellular functions common to all cells, understand that most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not.

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B.1.4 Understand and describe that the work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.

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B.1.5 Demonstrate that most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and acidity. Note that extreme changes may harm cells, modifying the structure of their protein molecules and therefore, some possible functions.

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B.1.6 Show that a living cell is composed mainly of a small number of chemical elements - carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur. Recognize that carbon can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules.

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B.1.7 Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Note that cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism, such as hormones.

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B.1.8 Understand and describe that all growth and development is a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products. Explain that cellular differentiation results from gene expression and/or environmental influence. Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis.

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B.1.9 Recognize and describe that both living and nonliving things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energy-containing bonds, such as those in ATP.

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B.1.10 Recognize and explain that macromolecules such as lipids contain high energy bonds as well.

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Developmental and Organismal Biology

7.4.10 Explain that the amount of food energy (calories) a person requires varies with body weight, age, sex, activity level, & natural body efficiency. Understand that regular exercise is important to maintain a healthy heart/lung system, good muscle tone, & strong bone structure.

7.4.11 Explain that viruses, bacteria, fungi, & parasites may infect the human body & interfere with normal body functions. Recognize that a person can catch a cold many times because there are many varieties of cold viruses that cause similar symptoms.

B.1.11 Describe that through biogenesis all organisms begin their life cycles as a single cell and that in multicellular organisms, successive generations of embryonic cells form by cell division.

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B.1.12 Compare and contrast the form and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

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B.1.13 Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts.

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B.1.14 Recognize and explain that communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities.

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B.1.15 Understand and explain that, in biological systems, structure and function must be considered together.

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B.1.16 Explain how higher levels of organization result from specific complexing and interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material.

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B.1.17 Understand that and describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life and explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions, as well as the presence of disease agents.

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B.1.18 Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.

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B.1.19 Recognize and describe that metabolism consists of the production, modification, transport, and exchange of materials that are required for the maintenance of life.

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B.1.20 Recognize that and describe how the human immune system is designed to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise within.

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Genetics

8.4.1 Differentiate between inherited traits, such as hair color or flower color, & acquired skills, such as manners.

8.4.2 Describe that in some organisms, such as yeast or bacteria, all genes come from a single parent, while in those that have sexes, typically half of the genes come from each parent.

8.4.3 Recognize/describe that new varieties of cultivated plants, such as corn & apples, & domestic animals, such as dogs & horses, have resulted from selective breeding for particular traits.

8.4.7 Recognize & explain that small genetic differences between parents & offspring can accumulate in successive generations so that descendants are very different from their ancestors.

B.1.21 Understand and explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes which are coded in DNA molecules.

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B.1.22 Understand and explain the genetic basis for Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.

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B.1.23 Understand that and describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter a gene. Recognize that an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it, and that the resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.

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B.1.24 Explain that gene mutations can be caused by such things as radiation and chemicals. Understand that when they occur in sex cells, the mutations can be passed on to offspring; if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only.

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B.1.25 Explain that gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division, called cancer. Also know that exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer.

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B.1.26 Demonstrate how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this is virtually the same mechanism for all life forms.

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B.1.27 Explain that the similarity of human DNA sequences and the resulting similarity in cell chemistry and anatomy identify human beings as a unique species, different from all others. Likewise, understand that every other species has its own characteristic DNA sequence.

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B.1.28 Illustrate that the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of any two parents. Recognize that genetic variation can occur from such processes as crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes.

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B.1.29 Understand that and explain how the actions of genes, patterns of inheritance, and the reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life, and give examples of how inherited characteristics can be observed at molecular and whole-organism levels - in structure, chemistry, or behavior.

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Evolution

8.4.9 Recognize & describe that fossil evidence is consistent with the idea that human beings evolved from earlier species.

B.1.30 Understand and explain that molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched off from one another.

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B.1.31  Describe how natural selection provides the following mechanism for evolution: Some variation in heritable characteristics exists within every species, and some of these characteristics give individuals an advantage over others in surviving and reproducing. Understand that the advantaged offspring, in turn, are more likely than others to survive and reproduce. Also understand that the proportion of individuals in the population that have advantageous characteristics will increase.

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B.1.32 Explain how natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for survival in particular environments, and discuss how natural selection provides scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.

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B.1.33 Describe how life on Earth is thought to have begun as simple, one-celled organisms about 4 billion years ago. Note that during the first 2 billion years, only single-cell microorganisms existed, but once cells with nuclei developed about a billion years ago, increasingly complex multicellular organisms evolved.

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B.1.34 Explain that evolution builds on what already exists, so the more variety there is, the more there can be in the future. Recognize, however, that evolution does not necessitate long-term progress in some set direction.

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B.1.35 Explain that the degree of kinship between organisms or species can be estimated from the similarity of their DNA sequences, which often closely matches their classification based on anatomical similarities. Know that amino acid similarities also provide clues to this kinship.

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B.1.36 Trace the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool, such as genetic drift and isolation of sub-populations.

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Ecology

7.4.2 Describe that all organisms, including the human species, are part of & depend on two main interconnected global food webs, the ocean food web & the land food web.

7.4.8 Understand & explain that as any population of organisms grows, it is held in check by one or more environmental factors. These factors could result in depletion of food or nesting sites and/or increased loss to increased numbers of predators or parasites. Give examples of some consequences of this.

7.4.9 Describe how technologies having to do with food production, sanitation, & disease prevention have dramatically changed how people live & work & have resulted in changes in factors that affect the growth of human population.

7.4.13 Explain that the environment may contain dangerous levels of substances that are harmful to human beings. Understand, therefore, that the good health of individuals requires monitoring the soil, air, & water as well as taking steps to keep them safe.

8.4.4 Describe how matter is transferred from one organism to another repeatedly & between organisms & their physical environment.

8.4.8 Describe how environmental conditions affect the survival of individual organisms & how entire species may prosper in spite of the poor survivability or bad fortune of individuals.

B.1.37 Explain that the amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organic materials. Recognize, therefore, that human activities and technology can change the flow and reduce the fertility of the land.

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B.1.38 Understand and explain the significance of the introduction of species, such as zebra mussels, into American waterways, and describe the consequent harm to native species and the environment in general.

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B.1.39 Describe how ecosystems can be reasonably stable over hundreds or thousands of years. Understand that if a disaster such as flood or fire occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages that eventually result in a system similar to the original one.

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B.1.40 Understand and explain that like many complex systems, ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium. However, also understand that ecosystems can always change with climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution.

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B.1.41 Recognize that and describe how human beings are part of EarthÕs ecosystems. Note that human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems.

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B.1.42 Realize and explain that at times, the environmental conditions are such that plants and marine organisms grow faster than decomposers can recycle them back to the environment. Understand that layers of energy-rich organic material thus laid down have been gradually turned into great coal beds and oil pools by the pressure of the overlying earth. Further understand that by burning these fossil fuels, people are passing most of the stored energy back into the environment as heat and releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide.

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B.1.43 Understand that and describe how organisms are influenced by a particular combination of living and nonliving components of the environment.

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B.1.44 Describe the flow of matter, nutrients, and energy within ecosystems.

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B.1.45 Recognize that and describe how the physical or chemical environment may influence the rate, extent, and nature of the way organisms develop within ecosystems.

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B.1.46 Recognize and describe that a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living things will survive in the face of large changes in the environment.

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B.1.47 Explain, with examples, that ecology studies the varieties and interactions of living things across space while evolution studies the varieties and interactions of living things across time.

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Historical

7.7.1 Understand /explain that throughout history, people have created explanations for disease. Note that some held that disease had spiritual causes, but that the most persistent biological theory over the centuries was that illness resulted from an imbalance in the body fluids. Realize that the introduction of germ theory by Louis Pasteur & others in the nineteenth century led to the modern understanding of how many diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, & parasites.

7.7.2 Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur wanted to find out what caused milk & wine to spoil. Note that he demonstrated that spoilage & fermentation occur when microorganisms enter from the air, multiply rapidly, & produce waste products, with some desirable results, such as carbon dioxide in bread dough, & some undesirable, such as acetic acid in wine. Understand that after showing that spoilage could be avoided by keeping germs out or by destroying them with heat, Pasteur investigated animal diseases & showed that microorganisms were involved in many of them. Also note that other investigators later showed that specific kinds of germs caused specific diseases.

7.7.3 Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur found that infection by disease organisms (germs) caused the body to build up an immunity against subsequent infection by the same organisms. Realize that Pasteur then demonstrated more widely what Edward Jenner had shown for smallpox w/o understanding the underlying mechanism: that it was possible to produce vaccines that would induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself.

7.7.4 Understand/describe that changes in health practices have resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease. Realize that before germ theory, illness was treated by appeals to supernatural powers or by trying to adjust body fluids through induced vomiting or bleeding. Note that the modern approach emphasizes sanitation, the safe handling of food & water, the pasteurization of milk, quarantine, & aseptic surgical techniques to keep germs out of the body; vaccinations to strengthen the body's immune system against subsequent infection by the same kind of microorganisms; & antibiotics & other chemicals & processes to destroy

microorganisms.

8.7.1 Understand/explain that Antoine Lavoisier's work was based on the idea that when materials react with each other, many changes can take place, but that in every case the total amount of matter afterward is the same as before. Note that Lavoisier successfully tested the concept of conservation of matter by conducting a series of experiments in which he carefully measured the masses of all the substances involved in various chemical reactions, including the gases used & those given off.

8.7.2 Understand/describe that the accidental discovery that minerals containing uranium darken photographic film, as light does, led to the discovery of radioactivity.

8.7.3 Understand that & describe how in their laboratory in France, Marie Curie & her husband, Pierre Curie, isolated two new elements that were the source of most of the radioactivity of the uranium ore. Note that they named one radium because it gave off powerful invisible rays, & the other polonium in honor of Madame Curie's country of birth, Poland. Also note that Marie Curie was the first scientist ever to win the Nobel Prize in two different fields, in physics, shared with her husband, & later in chemistry

8.7.4 Describe how the discovery of radioactivity as a source of Earth's heat energy made it possible to understand how Earth can be several billion years old & still have a hot interior.

B.2.1 Explain that prior to the studies of Charles Darwin, the most widespread belief was that all known species were created at the same time and remained unchanged throughout history. Note that some scientists at the time believed that features an individual acquired during a lifetime could be passed on to its offspring, and the species could thereby gradually change to fit an environment better.

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B.2.2 Explain that Darwin argued that only biologically inherited characteristics could be passed on to offspring. Note that some of these characteristics were advantageous in surviving and reproducing. Understand that the offspring would also inherit and pass on those advantages, and over generations the aggregation of these inherited advantages would lead to a new species.

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B.2.3 Describe that the quick success of Darwin's book Origin of Species, published in 1859, came from the clear and understandable argument it made, including the comparison of natural selection to the selective breeding of animals in wide use at the time, and from the massive array of biological and fossil evidence it assembled to support the argument.

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B.2.4 Explain that after the publication of Origin of Species, biological evolution was supported by the rediscovery of the genetics experiments of an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, by the identification of genes and how they are sorted in reproduction, and by the discovery that the genetic code found in DNA is the same for almost all organisms.

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