Chemistry

Text in blue identifies Indicators from 7th and 8th grade science

Properties of Matter

8.3.11 Describe how groups of elements can be classified based on similar properties, including highly reactive metals, less reactive metals, highly reactive nonmetals, less reactive nonmetals, & some almost completely nonreactive gases.

C1.1 Differentiate between pure substances and mixtures based on physical properties such as density, melting point, boiling point, and solubility.

C1.2 Determine the properties and quantities of matter such as mass, volume, temperature, density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, solubility, color, numbers of moles, and pH (calculate pH from the hydrogen-ion concentration), and designate these properties as either extensive or intensive.

C1.3 Recognize indicators of chemical changes such as temperature change, the production of a gas, the production of a precipitate, or a color change.

C1.4 Describe solutions in terms of their degree of saturation.

C1.5 Describe solutions in appropriate concentration units (be able to calculate these units) such as molarity, percent by mass or volume, parts per million (ppm), or parts per billion,ppb.

C1.6 Predict formulas of stable ionic compounds based on charge balance of stable ions.

C1.7 Use appropriate nomenclature when naming compounds.

C1.8 Use formulas and laboratory investigations to classify substances as metal or nonmetal, ionic or molecular, acid or base, and organic or inorganic.

The Nature of Chemical Change

7.3.11 Investigate how the temperature & acidity of a solution influences reaction rates, such as those resulting in food spoilage.

7.3.12 Explain that many substances dissolve in water. Understand that the presence of these substances often affects the rates of reactions that are occurring in the water as compared to the same reactions occurring in the water in the absence of the substances.

8.3.12 Explain that no matter how substances within a closed system interact with one another, or how they combine or break apart, the total mass of the system remains the same. Understand that the atomic theory explains the conservation of matter: if the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same.

C1.9 Describe chemical reactions with balanced chemical equations.

C1.10 Recognize and classify reactions of various types such as oxidation-reduction.

C1.11 Predict products of simple reaction types including acid/base, electron transfer, and precipitation.

C1.12 Demonstrate the principle of conservation of mass through laboratory investigations.

C1.13 Use the principle of conservation of mass to make calculations related to chemical reactions. Calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic masses.

C1.14 Use Avogadro's law to make mass-volume calculations for simple chemical reactions.

C1.15 Given a chemical equation, calculate the mass, gas volume, and/or number of moles needed to produce a given gas volume, mass, and/or number of moles of product.

C1.16 Calculate the percent composition by mass of a compound or mixture when given the formula.

C1.17 Perform calculations that demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between molarity, volume, and number of moles of a solute in a solution.

C1.18 Prepare a specified volume of a solution of given molarity.

C1.19 Use titration data to calculate the concentration of an unknown solution.

C1.20 Predict how a reaction rate will be quantitatively affected by changes of concentration.

C1.21 Predict how changes in temperature, surface area, and the use of catalysts will qualitatively affect the rate of a reaction.

C1.22 Use oxidation states to recognize electron transfer reactions and identify the substance(s) losing and gaining electrons in an electron transfer reaction.

C1.23 Write a rate law for a chemical equation using experimental data.

C1.24 Recognize and describe nuclear changes.

C1.25 Recognize the importance of chemical processes in industrial and laboratory settings, e.g., electroplating, electrolysis, the operation of voltaic cells, and such important applications as the refining of aluminum.

The Structure of Matter

8.3.8 Explain that all matter is made up of atoms which are far too small to see directly through an optical microscope. Understand that the atoms of any element are similar but are different from atoms of other elements. Further understand that atoms may stick together in well-defined molecules or may be packed together in large arrays. Also understand that different arrangements of atoms into groups comprise all substances.

8.3.9 Demonstrate, using drawings & models, the movement of atoms in a solid, liquid, & gaseous state. Explain that atoms & molecules are perpetually in motion.

8.3.10 Explain that increased temperature means that atoms have a greater average energy of motion & that most gases expand when heated.

C1.26 Describe physical changes and properties of matter through sketches and descriptions of the involved materials.

C1.27 Describe chemical changes and reactions using sketches and descriptions of the reactants and products.

C1.28 Explain that chemical bonds between atoms in molecules such as H2, CH4, NH3, C2H4, N2, Cl2, and many large biological molecules are covalent.

C1.29 Describe dynamic equilibrium.

C1.30 Perform calculations that demonstrate an understanding of the gas laws. Apply the gas laws to relations between pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.

C1.31 Use kinetic molecular theory to explain changes in gas volumes, pressure, and temperature (Solve problems using pV=nRT).

C1.32 Describe the possible subatomic particles within an atom or ion.

C1.33 Use an element's location in the Periodic Table to determine its number of valence electrons, and predict what stable ion or ions an element is likely to form in reacting with other specified elements.

C1.34 Use the Periodic Table to compare attractions that atoms have for their electrons and explain periodic properties, such as atomic size, based on these attractions.

C1.35 Infer and explain physical properties of substances, such as melting points, boiling points, and solubility, based on the strength of molecular attractions.

C1.36 Describe the nature of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds and give examples of how they contribute to the formation of various types of compounds.

C1.37 Describe that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck's relationship (E=hv).

The Nature of Energy and Change

7.3.13 Explain that energy in the form of heat is almost always one of the products of an energy transformation, such as in the examples of exploding stars, biological growth, the operation of machines, & the motion of people.

C1.38 Distinguish between the concepts of temperature and heat. Distinguish between the concepts of temperature and heat.

C1.39 Solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.

C1.40 Classify chemical reactions and/or phase changes as exothermic or endothermic.

C1.41 Describe the role of light, heat, and electrical energies in physical, chemical, and nuclear changes.

C1.42 Describe that the energy release per gram of material is much larger in nuclear fusion or fission reactions than in chemical reactions. The change in mass (calculated by E=mc2) is small but significant in nuclear reactions.

C1.43 Calculate the amount of radioactive substance remaining after an integral number of half-lives have passed.

The Basic Structures and Reactions of Organic Chemicals

C1.44 Convert between formulas and names of common organic compounds.

C1.45 Recognize common functional groups and polymers when given chemical formulas and names.

Historical

8.7.1 Understand/explain that Antoine Lavoisier's work was based on the idea that when materials react with each other, many changes can take place, but that in every case the total amount of matter afterward is the same as before. Note that Lavoisier successfully tested the concept of conservation of matter by conducting a series of experiments in which he carefully measured the masses of all the substances involved in various chemical reactions, including the gases used & those given off.

8.7.2 Understand/describe that the accidental discovery that minerals containing uranium darken photographic film, as light does, led to the discovery of radioactivity.

8.7.3 Understand that & describe how in their laboratory in France, Marie Curie & her husband, Pierre Curie, isolated two new elements that were the source of most of the radioactivity of the uranium ore. Note that they named one radium because it gave off powerful invisible rays, & the other polonium in honor of Madame Curie's country of birth, Poland. Also note that Marie Curie was the first scientist ever to win the Nobel Prize in two different fields, in physics, shared with her husband, & later in chemistry

8.7.4 Describe how the discovery of radioactivity as a source of Earth's heat energy made it possible to understand how Earth can be several billion years old & still have a hot interior.

C.2.1 Explain that Antoine Lavoisier invented a whole new field of science based on a theory of materials, physical laws, and quantitative methods, with the conservation of matter at its core. Recognize that he persuaded a generation of scientists that his approach accounted for the experimental results better than other chemical systems.

C.2.2 Describe how LavoisierÕs system for naming substances and describing their reactions contributed to the rapid growth of chemistry by enabling scientists everywhere to share their findings about chemical reactions with one another without ambiguity.

C.2.3 Explain that John DaltonÕs modernization of the ancient Greek ideas of element, atom, compound, and molecule strengthened the new chemistry by providing physical explanations for reactions that could be expressed in quantitative terms.

C.2.4 Explain how Frederich WohlerÕs synthesis of the simple organic compound urea from inorganic substances made it clear that living organisms carry out chemical processes not fundamentally different from inorganic chemical processes. Describe how this discovery led to the development of the huge field of organic chemistry, the industries based on it, and eventually to the field of biochemistry.

C.2.5 Explain how ArrheniusÕ discovery of the nature of ionic solutions contributed to the understanding of a broad class of chemical reactions.

C.2.6 Explain that the application of the laws of quantum mechanics to chemistry by Linus Pauling and others made possible an understanding of chemical reactions on the atomic level.

C.2.7 Describe how the discovery of the structure of DNA by James D. Watson and Francis Crick made it possible to interpret the genetic code on the basis of a sequence of Ņletters.Ó

 

 

 


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Last updated: 05 December 2005

Comments: Jose Bonner, OSO

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