Earth Space Science

Text in blue identifies Indicators from 7th and 8th grade science

The Universe

7.3.1Recognize/describe that the sun is a medium-sized star located near the edge of a disk-shaped galaxy of stars & that the universe contains many billions of galaxies & each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

7.3.2 Recognize/describe that the sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star, allowing light from the sun to reach Earth in a few minutes. Note that this may be compared to time spans of longer than a year for all other stars.

8.3.1 Explain that large numbers of chunks of rock orbit the sun & some of this rock interacts with Earth.

E.S.1.1 Understand and discuss the nebular theory concerning the formation of solar systems. Include in the discussion the roles of planetesimals and protoplanets.

E.S.1.2 Differentiate between the different types of stars found on the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. Compare and contrast the evolution of stars of different masses. Understand and discuss the basics of the fusion processes that are the source of energy of stars.

E.S.1.3 Compare and contrast the differences in size, temperature, and age between our sun and other stars.

E.S.1.4 Describe Hubble's law. Identify and understand that the ŇBig BangÓ theory is the most widely accepted theory explaining the formation of the universe.

E.S.1.5 Understand and explain the relationship between planetary systems, stars, multiple-star systems, star clusters, galaxies, and galactic groups in the universe.

E.S.1.6 Discuss how manned and unmanned space vehicles can be used to increase our knowledge and understanding of the universe.

E.S.1.7 Describe the characteristics and motions of the various kinds of objects in our solar system, including planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids. Explain that Kepler's laws determine the orbits of the planets.

E.S.1.8 Discuss the role of sophisticated technology, such as telescopes, computers, space probes, and particle accelerators, in making computer simulations and mathematical models in order to form a scientific account of the universe.

E.S.1.9 Recognize and explain that the concept of conservation of energy is at the heart of advances in fields as diverse as the study of nuclear particles and the study of the origin of the universe.

Earth & the Processes That Shape It.

7.3.3 Describe how climates sometimes have changed abruptly in the past as a result of changes in Earth's crust, such as volcanic eruptions or impacts of huge rocks from space.

7.3.4 Explain how heat flow & movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes & volcanic eruptions & creates mountains & ocean basins.

7.3.5 Recognize/explain that heat energy carried by ocean currents has a strong influence on climate around the world.

7.3.6 Describe how gas & dust from large volcanoes can change the atmosphere.

7.3.7 Give examples of some changes in Earth's surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes & volcanic eruptions, & some changes that happen very slowly, such as uplift & wearing down of mountains & the action of glaciers.

7.3.8 Explain that sedimentary rock, when buried deep enough, may be reformed by pressure & heat, perhaps melting & recrystallizing into different kinds of rock. Describe that these reformed rock layers may be forced up again to become land surface & even mountains, & subsequently erode.

7.3.9 Explain how the thousands of layers of sedimentary rock can confirm the long history of the changing surface of Earth & the changing life forms whose remains are found in successive layers, although the youngest layers are not always found on top, because folding, breaking, & uplifting layers.

8.3.2 Explain that the slow movement of material within Earth results from heat flowing out of the deep interior and the action of gravitational forces on regions of different density.

8.3.3 Explain that the solid crust of Earth, including both the continents & the ocean basins, consists of separate plates that ride on a denser, hot, gradually deformable layer of earth. Understand that the crust sections move very slowly, pressing against one another in some places, pulling apart in other places. Further understand that ocean-floor plates may slide under continental plates, sinking deep into Earth, & that the surface layers of these plates may fold, forming mountain ranges.

8.3.4 Explain that earthquakes often occur along the boundaries between colliding plates, & molten rock from below creates pressure that is released by volcanic eruptions, helping to build up mountains. Understand that under the ocean basins, molten rock may well up between separating plates to create new ocean floor. Further understand that volcanic activity along the ocean floor may form undersea mountains, which can thrust above the ocean's surface to become islands.

8.3.5 Explain that everything on or anywhere near Earth is pulled toward Earth's center by a gravitational force.

8.3.6 Understand/explain that the benefits of Earth's resources, such as fresh water, air, soil, & trees, are finite & can be reduced by using them wastefully or by deliberately or accidentally destroying them.

8.3.7 Explain that the atmosphere & the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes & recycle materials naturally.

E.S.1.10 Recognize and describe that earth sciences address planet-wide interacting systems, including the oceans, the air, the solid earth, and life on Earth, as well as interactions with the Solar System.

E.S.1.11 Examine the structure, composition, and function of Earth's atmosphere. Include the role of living organisms in the cycling of atmospheric gases.

E.S.1.12 Describe the role of photosynthetic plants in changing Earth's atmosphere.

E.S.1.13 Explain the importance of heat transfer between and within the atmosphere, land masses, and oceans.

E.S.1.14 Understand and explain the role of differential heating and the role of Earth's rotation on the movement of air around the planet.

E.S.1.15 Understand and describe the origin, life cycle, behavior, and prediction of weather systems.

E.S.1.16 Investigate the causes of severe weather and propose appropriate safety measures that can be taken in the event of severe weather.

E.S.1.17 Describe the development and dynamics of climatic changes over time, such as the cycles of glaciation.

E.S.1.18 Demonstrate the possible effects of atmospheric changes brought on by things such as acid rain, smoke, volcanic dust, greenhouse gases, and ozone depletion.

E.S.1.19 Identify and discuss the effects of gravity on the waters of Earth. Include both the flow of streams and the movement of tides.

E.S.1.20 Describe the relationship among ground water, surface water, and glacial systems.

E.S.1.21 Identify the various processes that are involved in the water cycle.

E.S.1.22 Compare the properties of rocks and minerals and their uses.

E.S.1.23 Explain motions, transformations, and locations of materials in Earth's lithosphere and interior. For example, describe the movement of the plates that make up Earth's crust of and the resulting formation of earthquakes, volcanoes, trenches, and mountains.

E.S.1.24 Understand and discuss continental drift, sea-floor spreading, and plate tectonics. Include evidence that supports the movement of the plates such as magnetic stripes on the ocean floor, fossil evidence on separate continents, and the continuity of geological features.

E.S.1.25 Investigate and discuss the origin of various landforms, such as mountains and rivers, and how they affect and are affected by human activities.

E.S.1.26 Differentiate among the processes of weathering, erosion, transportation of materials, deposition, and soil formation.

E.S.1.27 Illustrate the various processes that are involved in the rock cycle and discuss how the total amount of material stays the same through formation, weathering, sedimentation, and reformation.

E.S.1.28 Discuss geologic evidence, including fossils and radioactive dating, in relation to Earth's past.

E.S.1.29 Recognize and explain that in geologic change, the present arises from the materials of the past in ways that can be explained according to the same physical and chemical laws.


7.7.1 Understand /explain that throughout history, people have created explanations for disease. Note that some held that disease had spiritual causes, but that the most persistent biological theory over the centuries was that illness resulted from an imbalance in the body fluids. Realize that the introduction of germ theory by Louis Pasteur & others in the nineteenth century led to the modern understanding of how many diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, & parasites.

7.7.2 Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur wanted to find out what caused milk & wine to spoil. Note that he demonstrated that spoilage & fermentation occur when microorganisms enter from the air, multiply rapidly, & produce waste products, with some desirable results, such as carbon dioxide in bread dough, & some undesirable, such as acetic acid in wine. Understand that after showing that spoilage could be avoided by keeping germs out or by destroying them with heat, Pasteur investigated animal diseases & showed that microorganisms were involved in many of them. Also note that other investigators later showed that specific kinds of germs caused specific diseases.

7.7.3 Understand & explain that Louis Pasteur found that infection by disease organisms (germs) caused the body to build up an immunity against subsequent infection by the same organisms. Realize that Pasteur then demonstrated more widely what Edward Jenner had shown for smallpox w/o understanding the underlying mechanism: that it was possible to produce vaccines that would induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself.

7.7.4 Understand/describe that changes in health practices have resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease. Realize that before germ theory, illness was treated by appeals to supernatural powers or by trying to adjust body fluids through induced vomiting or bleeding. Note that the modern approach emphasizes sanitation, the safe handling of food & water, the pasteurization of milk, quarantine, & aseptic surgical techniques to keep germs out of the body; vaccinations to strengthen the body's immune system against subsequent infection by the same kind of microorganisms; & antibiotics & other chemicals & processes to destroy


8.7.1 Understand/explain that Antoine Lavoisier's work was based on the idea that when materials react with each other, many changes can take place, but that in every case the total amount of matter afterward is the same as before. Note that Lavoisier successfully tested the concept of conservation of matter by conducting a series of experiments in which he carefully measured the masses of all the substances involved in various chemical reactions, including the gases used & those given off.

8.7.2 Understand/describe that the accidental discovery that minerals containing uranium darken photographic film, as light does, led to the discovery of radioactivity.

8.7.3 Understand that & describe how in their laboratory in France, Marie Curie & her husband, Pierre Curie, isolated two new elements that were the source of most of the radioactivity of the uranium ore. Note that they named one radium because it gave off powerful invisible rays, & the other polonium in honor of Madame Curie's country of birth, Poland. Also note that Marie Curie was the first scientist ever to win the Nobel Prize in two different fields, in physics, shared with her husband, & later in chemistry

8.7.4 Describe how the discovery of radioactivity as a source of Earth's heat energy made it possible to understand how Earth can be several billion years old & still have a hot interior.





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