October 1995: Volume 9, Number 1
- The Gender Politics of Mentoring
Women faculty and graduate students agree that mentoring relationships must do more than merely replicate the "old boy network".
- A Look at the World Through Women's Eyes: A Report on the Fourth U.N. Conference on Women
Martha McCarthy, Chancellor's Professor of Education, and Terry Dworkin, Chairperson of Business Law in the School of Business, discuss their attendance at the 1995 international women's conference held in China.
- From the Dean
Julia Lamber, IUB's Dean for Women's Affairs, introduces new staff members and outlines OWA's various mentoring programs.
- Women in Science
The IU Chapter of the Association for Women in Science presents a mission statement and an overview of upcoming programs.
- IU Administration and CWA Join in Fair Treatment Statement
IU administration and CWA Local 4730 create an informal grievance process for instances of unfair treatment not addressed in the university's affirmative action plan.
- Latinos and Affirmative Action
Alberto Torchinsky, Dean for Latino Affairs and professor of mathematics, discusses the need for new affirmative action strategies designed to serve Latino minorities.
- OWA's Women's Partners Program
A mentoring program provides professional role models and encouragement by pairing undergraduate women students with professional women.
- New Women Faculty
These are brief profiles of six of the 23 women who joined the IUB faculty during the 1995-96 academic year.
The Gender Politics of Mentoring
The University is all about mentoring. Senior faculty mentor junior faculty; senior staff mentor junior staff; all faculty mentor graduate and undergraduate students; many campus groups have mentoring programs that reach into the local community and beyond. Ideally, mentoring provides general assistance and career guidance in an atmosphere of trust and confidentiality. The mentoring relationship offers an opportunity for the mentor and protege to demonstrate their skills and abilities and to learn from each other. However, contemporary gender politics tend to put a new spin on the traditional mentoring relationship. In this era when mentoring must do more than merely replicate the "old boy's network," several important questions arise that necessarily complicate the issue.
Do women mentor and need to be mentored differently from men? Since women, on the whole, tend to manage conflict, authority, teamwork, and delegation differently than men do, it makes sense that the mentoring they receive should not ignore those differences. And in this context, how important is it for women to have female mentors? Do those formal mentoring programs designed to increase the retention of women and/or minorities in fields where they have traditionally been underrepresented actually work, or is the mentoring relationship a more organic one that must naturally develop out of mutual interest?
The more "naturally" occurring mentoring relationships between faculty members and graduate students that provide guidance, encouragement, and role models are an essential part of graduate training. Researchers have discovered that "insufficient informal guidance and sponsorship have been cited as especially damaging for women graduate students who are at the point of transition between student and professional and must begin to build a professional identity." A second-year graduate student in IU's English department supports this claim: "As a woman aspiring to participate in a male-dominated, intellectually-driven field," says the student, "there is nothing like the reassurance one gathers from simply watching other women succeed in academic positions. Mentoring takes that reassurance to new heights."
A graduate student in the history department concurs, but points out the pitfalls inherent in seeking out women faculty mentors:I agree that having a female advisor/mentor is very important. I feel comfortable discussing with her concerns about childcare, family obligations, etc. that I might not talk about with male profs because I don't want to reinforce any pre-existing stereotypes. On the other hand, the value of female mentors for future job prospects is not as good. Female faculty are fewer in number and [generally] have lower status positions. If they don't have much pull, they might not be able to give their students the extra boost into the job market that male colleagues might have.
The facts certainly bear out this student's perceptions concerning the scarcity and relatively lower status of female faculty mentors. In the fall semester of 1995, 49% of the 7499 graduate and professional students enrolled at IUB were women. Yet, as of October 1994, only 12.5% of distinguished or named professors and 15% of full professors were women. A graduate student in business notes that while there are a number of women in her MBA program, female faculty members who are recognized and rewarded for their work, and who would thus make good mentors, are hard to find. Across the University, women faculty are clustered at the lower ranks: 33% of associate and 36% of assistant professors are female. A national study indicated that male students tended to avoid selecting female faculty mentors because female faculty were, on the whole, seen as having less power and status.
In fields such as mathematics and the physical sciences where women have been traditionally under-represented, women graduate students and junior faculty may avoid seeking out same-sex mentoring as a survival tactic because doing so is seen as admitting a special need or "deficiency." In highly male-dominated fields, sometimes not calling attention to the fact that she is not male like most everyone else is a woman's best shot at making it. This "psychology of tokenism" encourages women entering such professions to learn to fit into and thus replicate the existing structure. But in order for women to play sustained roles in these traditionally male professions, they must actively sponsor other women.
Research bears out the assumption that sponsored junior faculty women attain higher rank than those without mentors. We know that increasing the number of women faculty on campuses requires not only their successful recruitment, but also a welcoming environment where women can thrive. In studies about faculty retention, women faculty are more likely to cite personal reasons that include feelings of social and professional isolation for leaving an institution. Any comprehensive plan to retain women faculty members must also include a mechanism whereby women who have successful academic careers can share what they have learned with their new colleagues.
Several mentoring programs for new faculty exist at IUB. For instance, more than half of new faculty have mentors appointed by their departments. The Office of Academic Affairs and the Dean of Faculties conducts roundtable discussions for faculty members and their departmental mentors. OWA's New Women Faculty Mentoring Program provides a way for women to network with other women, feel less isolated, and ultimately be more likely to remain our colleagues. The OWA program matches new women faculty with tenured women faculty who have similar interests but teach in a different department.
A senior faculty member who participated in the OWA mentoring program last year says she would have loved to have had the benefits of such a program when she was untenured. Another senior faculty member points out that "there are certain problems unique to women in the academy that can be better tackled woman to woman. We can talk about teaching, about dealing with the expectations that we do more service than men, and be cheery about it...We have to work with men (as bell hooks would say) and we need to do it well. To be savvy, one should develop a broad network of support. Woman-to-woman is part of that network."
One of last year's junior faculty participants noted that she appreciated the opportunity to share feelings and personal information that pushes the bounds of more formal professional relationships. Clearly, assigned mentoring programs can provide real benefits and meet real needs.
Unfortunately, the subject of sexual harassment is a necessary part of any conversation about mentoring. One might say that the potential for sexual harassment exists in all mentoring relationships--that both men and women are potential victims and potential perpetrators of sexual harassment. Yet statistics show that the overwhelming number of sexual harassment victims in the academy are women with complaints against men. National studies conducted throughout the 1980s reveal that on average 30% of female undergraduates, 40% of female graduate students, and 50% of untenured female faculty members experience sexual harassment by a male professor during their time in higher education. The changing gender demographics of our graduate students and untenured faculty call for discussion of new models of collegiality and professional development that avoid such abuses of authority.
Research suggests that in contrast to the traditional model of mentoring in which a person hitches his future to that of a "star," women want mentoring from a number of mentors. Ideally, women are better off seeking many mentors, some of them being men. However, mentoring across genders can only be successful in an organization that equitably respects and rewards men's and women's professional performance.
A Look at the World Through Women's Eyes: A Report on the Fourth U.N. Conference on Women
Two IU faculty members attended the once-a-decade U.N. women's conference held in China. Martha McCarthy is a Chancellor's Professor in the School of Education who publishes and teaches in the area of school law and policy. Terry Dworkin is professor of business law and chair of the Business Law Department in the School of Business. Her research areas are employment law, specifically whistle blowing, privacy, and discrimination. Dworkin and McCarthy made a joint presentation at the conference.
M.R.: What influence did all the controversy surrounding the conference have on your experience of it?
McCarthy: It seemed like what made the press most here were the logistical problems--the mud when it rained, tents collapsing, and the government monitoring people. And that did happen. But I think it's a shame to have that overshadow the extremely positive ambience generated by having twenty thousand women from all these different countries gather together.
There was such a sense of camaraderie. The overriding feeling was, "we're here to learn from each other." And yes, some of the logistical problems made it harder, and we felt a little paranoid because we were being watched all the time, but all that was overshadowed by this very positive attitude. And I wish that had made the press more. Over there, of course, none of those logistical problems made the press, but our press was skewed as well because we seemed to focus only on the problems.
The first day, when we arrived, I was moved by seeing the streets lined with women, by seeing all of these people who had to go through some real hurdles to get there.
Dworkin: The government had been very effective in keeping at least half of the number who wanted to come away.
M.R.: What were the most important issues addressed at the conference?
Dworkin: Violence against women, I think, is probably the most important. It was addressed in a variety of ways--from discussions about female circumcision to wife beating, which is a common practice in some societies and is not frowned on.
M.R.: Were women from those societies speaking out against wife beating?
Dworkin and McCarthy: Yes, most definitely.
Dworkin: And then there were discussions about certain rights that were more individual, but also transcended national boundaries, for instance, disabled women's rights to have children and keep custody of their children.
McCarthy: And the whole reproductive rights debate was a major theme that was addressed in a lot of different ways. There were several subgroups there advocating for specific rights and concerns.
Dworkin: There were also some very strong advocates for lesbian rights.
McCarthy: Yes, this was one of the areas of contention at the U.N. Conference. They could not reach consensus and so they did not include in the U.N. platform a statement on lesbian rights.
M.R.: Would you talk a little about your presentations at the conference?
Dworkin: We were part of a four-person panel on sexual harassment. I presented on sexual harassment in employment, and Martha presented on sexual harassment in schools.
McCarthy: We had a very diverse group, most of them English speaking, because the program identified the language of the sessions. We organized the presentation to give information about the status of sexual harassment [in the workplace and in schools] in the United States, but also to give them a chance to talk about what is happening in their countries.
Dworkin: That was the exciting part, I think. There were two women there from Japan who had been part of the official support group for the woman who won a Japanese sexual harassment suit. There's only been one successful case, and she won a large damage award. This official support group has continued to exist to further the notion that women don't have to put up with sexual harassment in Japan. One of the things I learned that I had not known was that in Japan now, a third of the women work.
M.R.: And the admission of sexual harassment as a problem in the workplace is a relatively new development in Japan, isn't it?
Dworkin: The case was 1992 or 1993. So, yes, this recognition is very new.
McCarthy: We had a couple of people in our session from Australia--one who works in corporate training programs who had some wonderful suggestions. In fact, they've developed a videotape that she is going to send to us. We had a couple people there who had been or were currently victims who really wanted help. The group tried to respond. We had one women from London tell about several cases she had been involved in.
Dworkin: This woman said it had gotten so bad that she felt her life was threatened. She was one of two women working for the British Railways in a maintenance job and was highly resented by the men who worked with her. And she did receive threats. But she had handled it successfully outside of the court system. So, as Martha said, it was a really exciting session.
M.R.: And you were the only people from IU to attend the conference?
McCarthy: It is surprising that from an institution as large as ours, we were the only representation. I think it would have enriched the University to have more people go and bring back ideas. We decided to do this on our own. There was no official urging at all.
Dworkin: However we did, I would like to note, get some travel funds from the University. There is a fund that supports faculty going to international conferences.
M.R.: How do you think people perceived Hilary Clinton at the conference?
Dworkin: Unfortunately, we left the day that Hilary gave her speech at the NGO conference. She was scheduled to speak earlier and then she got moved back. So we were not able to hear her or to hear reactions after she spoke at that conference. But what was interesting was that she was very critical of the Chinese government when she spoke at the opening of the U.N. Conference in Beijing, which we tried to get near, but couldn't. The China Daily, the national English-language Chinese newspaper, reported on the opening and didn't report that she was there at all. Anyone in China who did not get CNN would not know that she gave a speech, or much less, that it was critical of the Chinese government.
McCarthy: But the people we talked to at the NGO conference who did hear her speech were very positive toward her.
M.R.: How would you evaluate the success of the Conference?
McCarthy: I think it was successful. Just the fact of getting that many women to go was wonderful. So many women made such an effort to get there and to learn from and share with each other.
Dworkin: The other thing, I think, is that even though the Chinese government did not want this to happen, what they did caused so much publicity, at least in our country, that this is the first international women's conference that's gotten this kind of coverage. Ever. And I think that focus of attention, even though it didn't focus exactly on what we wanted, made the conference important in the eyes of a lot of people who would otherwise not have paid any attention to it. It gave the conference some additional legitimacy that it would not have gotten without that publicity. And so I think that the next one is likely to be seen as more important because of this last one.
McCarthy: I think the U.S. press sometimes bordered on saying "Well, this was a silly thing to do." I think they focused more on the issues in their coverage of the U.N. conference. They reported on the platform and on the general consensus. But I would bill both the U.N. conference and the Non-Governmental Forum conference as successes. I think if we were starting over, they wouldn't be held in China.
Dworkin: On a personal level, I think it was a success. I now have contacts with women from many different countries that I am going to pursue for more information about what's going on in terms of sexual harassment. We are going to exchange information, teaching materials. I am going to be in England in the spring, and I am going to get in touch with the woman we met who works for British Railways to learn more about what's going on in England.
I am sure that we are not unique in having this experience. I think that on a grassroots level, you are going to see a lot of these sorts of exchanges.
McCarthy: Yes, I was amazed by how open and friendly and warm people were. I'm very glad that we went.
M.R.: Would you want to go to the next one?
Dworkin: Yes, definitely. Even if it were also in China.
From the Dean
We began the year at the Office for Women's Affairs by welcoming three new women to our staff. Sheryl Rader is the new senior secretary for the office. Before joining OWA, Sheryl worked at the Institute for the Study of Developmental Disabilities; she is a single mother with two sons: Joshua, age 5 and Justin, age 3. We also have two new graduate assistants. Cyndi Bauerly is a second year student in the Law School where she is the Director of the Protective Order Project and Vice President of the Women's Law Caucus. At OWA, Cyndi will coordinate the Women Partners Program, co-chair the Teachable Moments Committee of the Commission on Multicultural Understanding, and work with several networks for graduate students. Our third new staff member, Julie Thomas, is a graduate student in history who spent her summer in Russia teaching, doing library research, and practicing her Russian language skills. Julie will direct the Peer Presenter Program, serve on the Communication and Policy Committee of the Commission on Personal Safety, and work with several undergraduate groups.
One of our goals for the year at OWA includes expanding and improving mentoring opportunities for women. Our formal mentoring programs--the Women Faculty Mentoring Program and the Women Partners Program--bring together new matches each year as well as, in the case of the faculty program, maintaining matches from previous years. In addition to the formal programs, we offer a number of opportunities for informal mentoring and networking such as women faculty lunches; faculty and staff receptions; and workshops for students, staff, and faculty women. Several years ago we worked with interested women graduate students to establish a Graduate Women in Science Network. Last year we responded to a similar request from women graduate students in education; their group, Graduate Women in Education Network, meets monthly and is open to all women graduate students and women faculty members in Education. For more information, contact Cyndi at OWA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
We believe these mentoring and networking efforts build, encourage, and strengthen the sense of community among women on campus. Maintaining that community is one of the essential missions of the Office for Women's Affairs.
Women in Science
Are you interested in:
- Science, mathematics, engineering, or related disciplines?
- Meeting women scientists and mathematicians at IU, as well as from other universities?
- Helping to enhance the educational and professional opportunities for women in science and math at IU?
- Learning about ways to improve your student and professional career?
If the answer is yes, then AWIS is for you! The Association for Women in Science (AWIS) is a national organization founded in 1971 to improve the educational and employment opportunities for women in all scientific fields. Our local, Bloomington chapter was started in 1992. Our activities are primarily in the areas of education, networking and outreach. Membership is open to anyone who supports the goals of AWIS, but one need not be a member to attend our monthly program meetings. Previous programs have focused on such topics as interviewing skills, research opportunities for undergraduates, and scientific research ethics.
Upcoming Programs for AWIS:
- College and Beyond: How to Get There from Here (A program with an undergraduate emphasis. Thursday, November 9, 6:30-7:30pm, Swain West 113.
- Brownie Math and Science Days. Saturday and Sunday, November 18-19, 1:00-4:00pm, Swain West.
- End-of-Semester Stress-Buster Activity. Thursday, December 7, TBA.
- Grants: What the Reviewers are Looking For; How to Write a Good Application. Thursday, January 18, 6:30-7:30pm, Swain West 113.
Future programs will include a Computer Workshop; Male-Female Communication Styles and Their Impact on the Workplace; Women's Health: A Discussion for Scientists.
Graduate and undergraduate students interested in science and/or mathematics have the opportunity to get together monthly for lunch in the Indiana Memorial Union.
For more information, please contact Rosemary Hart (email@example.com), Anne Marie Moore (anmmoore@ indiana.edu) or Karen Muskavitch (firstname.lastname@example.org). To be included on our electronic mailing list, send the following message to email@example.com (or po%"firstname.lastname@example.org" on aqua, gold, etc.): subscribe ejohnson_awis. If you have problems subscribing, send mail to ejohnson.
IU Administration and CWA Join in Fair Treatment Statement
CWA president Barbara Lentz says Local 4730 has polled its members for three successive years to discover what issues should be brought to the bargaining table. CL/TEs have consistently identified workplace problems such as favoritism, unfair treatment, humiliation in front of co-workers, and unprofessional behavior in supervisors as important concerns. This sort of unfair treatment is not always covered by the University's affirmative action plan. "In some instances," notes Lentz, "workers have had to quit their jobs because of intolerable stress levels caused by hostile work environments, and the University has lost some excellent employees." Consequently, the IU administration and CWA have made a joint effort to create an informal process that addresses cases such as those described above.
Maurice Smith, Director of Human Resources, points out that the policy's special feature is that "the process starts and stays within the unit. If it is resolved there, the parties can feel a level of pride that they faced and resolved the problem themselves." The Fair Treatment Policy applies to all clerical and technical employees regardless of their union affiliation. Here is a paraphrase of the policy.
Indiana University Responsibilities
The IU Administration acknowledges its ongoing responsibility for insuring fair, equitable treatment of all of its employees and for eliminating offensive behavior from the workplace. This responsibility involves maintaining a work environment that is free of discrimination based on race, gender, religion, color, age, national origin, ancestry, disability, or other characteristics that are unrelated to an individual's ability to perform her or his job. This includes any characteristics that are inconsistent with the Indiana University Affirmative Action Non-discrimination Policy.
What Qualifies as Offensive Behavior?
Behavior perceived as offensive by some may not offend others. Although a single incident can be sufficient, a pattern of deliberate actions by a co-worker or supervisor that are solely intended to harm an employee is generally necessary to support a claim of offensive behavior. The appropriate department administrators will promptly investigate all complaints of offensive behavior or unfair, unequitable treatment, regardless of whether such complaints are submitted as a formal grievance. Employees who report offensive behavior will be protected against retaliation.
Employee and CWA Responsibilities
Employees have the responsibility of working cooperatively with co-workers to create and maintain a positive work environment, to respect the individual rights of others, and to abide by reasonable standards of conduct. CWA has the responsibility of cooperating with the appropriate department administrators to promptly resolve employee concerns using non-adversarial techniques that are based on consensus.
Under this new policy, complaints that are not subject to existing complaint procedures may be brought to the attention of the dean, director, or administrator of the operating unit who bears the responsibility for investigating and resolving complaints. The employee must submit a written request for a special conference which clearly identifies the problem and provides the administrator with all the relevant facts. This request must be provided at least five working days before any meeting can be scheduled. Within ten working days of a written request, the dean, director, or administrator must hold a special conference with the employee with a union steward in attendance if the employee so requests. At such a conference, the employee, administrator, and union steward (if requested) will discuss the issue and arrive at a mutually satisfactory resolution.
The informal procedure described above is intended to provide employees with additional means for resolving workplace problems. "A non-adversarial meeting between all of the parties and a genuine effort to resolve differences and restore a pleasant work environment is the goal of both the administration and CWA," says Barb Lentz. Maurice Smith adds, "Communications about the policy itself can also help create a positive atmosphere for working at the University."
Policies such as these are of special interest to the Office for Women's Affairs. As of October 1, 1994, 92% of IUB's 1324 clerical employees and 38% of IUB's 272 technical employees were women. Fair treatment policies and procedures for redress are important steps toward insuring hospitable work environments for these employees.
Latinos and Affirmative Action
The eighties, dubbed by some "the decade of the Hispanics," have come and gone. Yet the increasingly important role forecasted for Latinos in shaping the nation's politics and policies has faltered, and has done so at a time when Latinos are the youngest and fastest growing major population group in the U.S. Today Latinos are learning the hard lesson that although they are ready and willing to take center stage, the nation perceives their contribution to be little more than the thump of Southwestern music or the salsa of urban discos and trendy restaurants.
And now the nineties have brought us to the verge of dismantling affirmative action programs. It would thus seem that Latinos, who are in the process of reevaluating their strategies for the furtherance of the new American society that will recognize them as equals, have one less tool with which to attain that goal.
Or, perhaps not. The non-partisan federally commissioned Glass Ceiling Commission recently asked CEOs from all over the country--who presumably have well-meaning Affirmative Action programs in place--about their perceptions of minorities in the workplace. According to the report, "Even though most of the CEOs were in states with high concentration of Hispanics, almost all interpreted `minorities' solely as African Americans. In fact, only two of the non-minority CEOs mentioned Hispanics without being reminded of the existence of minority groups other than African Americans." Hispanics are the invisible minority, even forgotten, to an overwhelming degree, by the very programs meant to help them.
Latinos espouse the ideal of equality and fairness, and recognize that Affirmative Action has often been an effective means of remedying the intolerable exclusion of disadvantaged minorities and women from opportunities to train and apply for better jobs. While affirmative action programs may level the field for those who are capable of taking advantage of opportunities denied them because of race or gender, very little has been done to enable access to such opportunities to the underclass and the poor, a segment represented disproportionately by Latinos: Latinos have lower per capita income than either whites or African American, and Latino families have a median income less than two-thirds as high as the rest of the population.
Thus, Latinos cannot but ask whose playing field has been leveled. We look apprehensively towards the next century, when access, acquisition and distribution of education will play a basic role in the training of America's workforce. Education will become the basis in the configuration of our new society, and schools and universities the key institutions. Latinos, who continue to make up a high proportion of the student population in the elementary grades while declining, due to the highest dropout rate of any major group, in the upper grades, question who will gain access to jobs through formal instruction.
Therefore, Latinos must favor a new strategy, or affirmative action program, that once and for all raises awareness about their critical concerns. Such a strategy would address the fact that the typical Latino is disadvantaged to begin with, from nutrition to educational opportunities. This strategy should also compensate for the lack of access to vital networks and other social opportunities which others take for granted, and be built upon the strength of the blend of nationalities and cultures which united shape the Latino character: strong regard for family, close kinship across the generations, high aspirations for the education of the children and deep concern for community affairs.
Unless this happens, the lingering effects of past discrimination will condemn Latinos to becoming a shadow within a phantom, a subculture within a subculture, and the latest chapter in the perpetually unfinished story of American pluralism will end a tragic one for us.
Contributed by Alberto Torchinsky, Dean for Latino Affairs and Professor of Mathematics. Editor's note: For the 1995-96 year various people will contribute columns that comment on the current debate over affirmative action. In recognition of Hispanic Heritage Month, we asked Dean Torchinsky to write for our fall issue of the newsletter.
OWA's Women's Partners Program
Women Partners, a mentoring program offered by the Office for Women's Affairs, matches undergraduate women in their junior year with women professional in the Bloomington community. Now in its fourth year, the program serves more than 100 students each year by matching the student's career and personal interests as closely as possible with those of a professional woman in the community. The information on the junior partner's application (and not grade point averages) is used to make these decisions. Each year we plan a number of events for the participants including lunches, plays, lectures, but the student and her partner decide for themselves what they will do. Partners tell us their best time together is spent just talking over a meal, attending social and professional functions, visiting at the senior partner's office, and networking with the Senior Partner's colleagues. After shadowing her partner for the day, one student noted, "It is one thing to provide a positive environment and quite another to make sure their 'observer' is an important part of that environment. I am very confident of my newly found skills."
What students value most is the ability to make a personal connection in their chosen field. "She has not only given me her advice, support, and expertise," says one junior partner, "but most importantly, she has been a mentor to me and become a dear friend." And in this era when lack of time is everyone's complaint, students appreciate their senior partner's time commitment. A student notes, "She has inspired me and guided me. She is insightful and understanding. She has given me so much of her time to advise me on many factors in my life." Of course, the professional women who volunteer for the program are pretty special people. As one student said of her senior partner, "She is certainly a model of the kind of professional woman I hope to become."
New Women Faculty
This year twenty-three women joined the IU-B faculty. In this and subsequent issues of the Majority Report, we will present brief profiles of newly hired women faculty.
Assistant Professor of Anthropology Gracia Clark (Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge) is a specialist in African women, economic anthropology, and the anthropology of development. Dr. Clark previously taught at the University of Michigan and has also worked for the United Nations Development Fund for Women and the International Labor Office. She spent the 1994-95 academic year in Ghana recording life histories of Asante traders.
Assistant Professor of Speech Communication Nicola Evans (Ph.D. in Communication Theory and Research at the Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California) has just finished a post-doctoral fellowship in the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Evans' interest in communication theory focuses on cultural studies, including critical theory, textual analysis of film and literature, and gender studies.
Mary Benson McMullen (Ph.D. from Florida State University) is Assistant Professor of Early Childhood Education and Curriculum Instruction. Her research investigates the effects of pre-school curricula on children's future school success, infant childcare, and the use of technology in undergraduate teacher education. Dr. McMullen served as director of the local Parents' Day Out program. She has also served as adjunct/visiting professor in Education, Psychology, and Applied Health Sciences.
Associate Professor of English Alyce Miller (M.F.A. in Creative Writing from Vermont College) has published more than thirty short stories, which have appeared in such journals as Kenyon Review, New England Review, Harvard Review, and Southern Review. Her short story collection, The Nature of Longing (1994), received the Flannery O'Connor Award for Short Fiction. Professor Miller previously taught at Santa Clara University and at Ohio University in Athens. (Professor Miller received tenure in 1999.)
Anne Dopkins Stright (Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison) joins the IU faculty as Assistant Professor of Counseling and Educational Psychology in the School of Education. Since 1990, she has served as Project Director for the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Stright's dissertation examined marital quality as a predictor of family interaction patterns during children's infancy. She was a counselor in the University of Wisconsin's Counseling Service and a psychologist in a K-12 American school in Kuwait.
Chalmer Thompson (Ph.D. from the University of Maryland-College Park), Associate Professor of Counseling and Educational Psychology, previously served as Assistant Professor in the Division of Counseling and Educational Psychology at the University of Southern California. She was also Assistant Professor in the Counseling Psychology Program in the University of Southern California at Santa Barbara. Her research addresses therapeutic interactions involving racial/ethnic minority clients. She is a licensed psychologist in California.
May 9, 1997
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Copyright 1996, The Trustees of Indiana University