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Complex behavioral reactions can also be controlled by steps that fit the classical conditioning paradigm: pairing two stimuli, a CS and a US, regardless of the subject's actions. "Auto-shaping" (also called sign tracking) is very well-studied example, especially in the pigeon, of Pavlovian conditioning acting on a more complex behavior. (The name refers to its apparent similarity to a process called shaping, described in exercise asgn3e on instrumental conditioning.)

In the basic auto-shaping experiment, a hungry animal, like a pigeon, sees a key light up for several seconds before food appears, regardless of what it does. It soon begins to peck at the lighted key as if it were food. The lighted key serves as a CS; initially it elicits (triggers) only an orienting reaction. The appearance of food acts as a US; it reliably elicits eating. The two stimuli are presented regardless of what the bird does. Figure 1 summarizes what happens on the first few presentations of CS followed by US

The same process occurs when a rod inserted in a thirsty rat's cage, predicts access to water. The rat starts licking the predictive rod as if it were the tube from which it got water. Auto-shaping also occurs in humans. (Pithers. 1985).

Q. The child's patting the lighted panel (see preceding paragraphs) fits the paradigm (rules) for Pavlovian (classical) conditioning if A. the marble rewards patting the light B. you tell the child to pat the lighted panel to earn a marble C. lighting the panel reliably predicts delivery of marble D. the two events (light, marble) are paired regardless of what child does E. A and B are both correct F. C and D are both correct

The answer to the question is F. E10_20b,c