Return to PEPP Curriculum Page

**A PEPP
lesson plan developed during the 2001 IU
Summer workshop**
**Written to Indiana State Science,
English, and Mathematics Standards**

**Submitted by the following teachers:**
**Lowell
Bailey, Bedford-North Lawrence High School**
**Bob
Rollings, Floyd Central High School**
**Jeff
Sayers, Northview High School**
**Gail Schwoebel, Arlington High
School**

**Level:**

Grades 10 - 12 Earth Science, Geology,
Physics, or Integrated Physics/Chemistry

__Summary:__

**A student/class project using statistical analysis of PEPP data to
identify possible anomalies in predicted and actual data arrival times
along compass rose directions.**

Students will track direction of earthquakes, compare predicted times
of arrival with actual student picked arrival times and use a spreadsheet
to analyze data in order to identify compass directions of possible structures
which increase or decrease wave velocity, which in turn affect wave arrival
times.

__Materials needed:__

Computer with Internet access

Archived PEPP data files from the Princeton
PEPP web page

A spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel

SWAP software
(or other software with similar functions)

Links to download other software which may
be used in this activity are provided in the LINKS

section just below the activity.

Statistical methods and procedures (may have to be reviewed by the
teacher in class)

Notebook to use as a journal

__Time:__

Variable depending on the scope of the project
and student familiarity with picking P-wave arrival times and using spreadsheets.
The greater the number of files used in the study, the longer the time
needed to process the data. (How would this affect accuracy?) Minimum is
about 5 class periods for data retrieval and data input into the spreadsheet.
Analysis should take a minimum of 2 class periods. One to two class periods
will be necessary if the student must first do the COPEPP P-Wave activity
listed in the next section.

__Background:__

This is an inquiry based activity and intends to stimulate higher order thinking by having students do original research using data acquired by accessing an Internet database to compile, manipulate, and analyze data and locate possible anomalies in the structure of the Earth. This exercise is an attempt to make research more personal to the student and not just a word they say and will never actually do.

Special emphasis has been placed on using PEPP data since participants either have their own recording station or access to a station close to their location; other data sources/stations such as IRIS may be used at the discretion of the instructor, and it is suggested to specifically try IRIS in order to get data from historical earthquakes due to the relative brevity of PEPP data. Acquisition and manipulation of IRIS data requires knowledge beyond what is discussed on this web page, although it's use is by no means out of the question; It is only different. Future updates may delineate the procedure.

For an activity to develop necessary skills to accurately determine P-wave arrival times, the teacher may wish to have students do the P-Wave activity (Activity 3) on the following web site. Other exercises are listed there which the teacher may choose to require students to complete in addition to Activity 3.

COPEPP
Rocky Mountain High School P-Wave picking exercise

__Procedure:__

1. In
order to retrieve old data sets from PEPP files go to the Princeton web
site ìPEPPSN
Earthquake Databaseî at the following
URL: http://lasker.princeton.edu/SeismicDB/select_year.html

Once you are on the page, __select
a year__.

2.

3. Choose various stations in the direction you want to explore from the available stations for the selected event.

4a. A different method of getting arrival time information is to click on the link for ìStation information computed by SYCLOPS for this eventî listed undet the heading "For More Information" located just below the data request box which brings up the SYCLOPS generated information for all stations which sent data files, then print the page. The latter method might make data input into the spreadsheet easier.

5. Once the data has been retrieved, insert the data into a spreadsheet and identify whether the

6. Analyze differences and brainstorm possible reasons for any discrepancies.

7. Write
a lab report utilizing and including data to support any conclusions and
summarizing

limitations
of the study.

8. Present
study to the class.

__Assessment__

Assessment can be done in a number of ways. Inclusion
of several methods of assessment is suggested. Recommendations are, since
this IS an inquiry based activity, that emphasis is placed on the written
lab report, journal, and class presentation. Set up a rubric with which
you are comfortable __before__ the activity and give it to the students.
If you have a specific format for the report, give students a copy of an
example. They will then have a tool to use as a guide for the activity,
and one by which to judge their progress. Both teacher __and__ students
should be a part of the assessment process. Students could use a rubric
which has been set up for the class report part of the exercise to judge
reports by their peers. Testing over basic principles and methodology is
suggested; specific data sets or results should not be part of test material.
Lab reports could be passed on to English teachers to be graded for structure
and/or to Math teachers to check math processes and techniques if needed.

If the exercise is used as an individual research
project, it might prove useful to have an expert in the field review the
preliminary report and make suggestions. Revisions could then be made and
a final report then turned in within a time frame set by the teacher. Making
the connection to outside experts could also lead to further ideas for
research projects.

**Ideas, suggestions, and afterthoughts**

Other software programs, such as Winquake and a few others, can generate results which can be used to check or verify results, or can be used instead of SWAP. Each program has its own positives and negatives in terms of what it will and will not do. Try them and see which program you or the students feel is most useful.

The teacher may choose to divide compass directions between groups of
students; this also means students must determine the compass direction
of each quake to assure correct data sets are used.

The teacher may also decide to set this activity up as an independent
research project or as a science fair project.

Another option would be to download stations other than PEPP stations; this would allow both teachers and students greater flexibility in research.

Most PEPP seismometers record only the Z axis; how will this affect observable waveforms? What waveforms will or will not be seen? They also have limitations; specifications can be found on the Guralp PEPP instrument web page.

This page is considered by the authors to be a
work in progress and should not become a dead link. There ** will**
be updates and revisions from time to time.

One last note; this study can and should logically lead to many other
student projects and can have many variations of the procedures described
above. Any new ideas or new takes on old ideas are gladly accepted and
__will__
be acknowledged.

**Extremely Useful Links:**

Princeton PEPP home page Indiana PEPP home page

PEPP Seismogram Archive Colorado PEPP Activities

Humor! (Possibly useful)

Geology
Cartoons from Lite Geology

**PEPP Software Links**

SWAP One program used in this exercise.

Carolina Earthquake
Explorer Click on the link that says "You need to
install java web start

please go to....." That will install the Java webstart program.
After the Java webstart program is

installed, go back to the above link and the java link should
be replaced with a program link to

CEE if you installed java webstart correctly.

Seismic
Eruption The link to download is within the page.

The PEPP program is supported by the following:

Indiana University - PEPP Home page

Click on the images to go to the
home pages of these organizations.

Indiana State Science Standards Lesson Correlation

Both Earth/Space Science and Physics
Supporting Themes
**Nature of Science and Technology**

Scientific investigation through
inquiries, fieldwork, lab work

Students experiment, observe,
and formulate theories based on evidence
**Scientific Thinking**

Mathematical and logic skills,
oral and written communication
**Mathematical World**

Thinking that involves building
and applying logically connected ideas

Students solve problems, make
decisions, understand the world around them
**Common Themes**

Systems, models, constancy,
change, the role of change over time

Earth and Space Science Standards

**ES
1.23** Explain motions and transformations in the Earthís lithosphere
and interior.

**ES 1.24**
Plate tectonics: include evidence that supports the movement of plates.

**ES 1.28**
Discuss geologic evidenceÖ in relation to the Earthís past.

**ES 1.29**
Recognize and explain that in geologic change, the present arises from
the materials of

the past and in ways that can be explained according to physical laws.

Physics Standards

**P
1.2** Measure/determine physical quantities.

**P 1.5**
Use appropriate vector/scalar quantities.

**P 1.22**
Describe waves in terms of their fundamental characteristics.

**P 1.23**
Use the principle of superposition to describe interference.

**P 1.24**
Use concepts of reflection, refractionÖ transmission Ö to predict the motion
of waves

through matter.

**Indiana State English/Language
Arts Standards Lesson Correlation**

**10th Grade**
**Standard 1 Reading: Word
recognition, Fluency, and vocabulary development**

Vocabulary and concept development:
Understand technical vocabulary in subject area reading.
**Standard 2 Reading: Reading
comprehension**

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text:
Demonstrate use of sophisticated

technology by following technical directions
**Standard 4 Writing: Writing Process**

Research and Technology
**Standard 5 Writing: Writing Applications
(different types of writing and their characteristics)**

Write technical document (lab report)
**Standard 6 Writing: Written English Language
Conventions**

Grammar and Mechanics of Writing
**Standard 7 Listening and Speaking: Listening
and Speaking Skills, Strategies, and Applications**

Comprehension

Speaking Applications

**11th Grade**
**Standard 4 Writing: Writing Process**

Research and Technology

Develop presentations by using clear research questions and creative
and critical research strategies,

such as field studies, oral histories, interviews, experiments, and
Internet sources.

Use a computer to integrate databases, pictures and graphics, and spreadsheets
into word-processed documents.
**Standard 5 Writing: Writing Applications
(Different Types of Writing and Their Characteristics)**

Use varied and extended vocabulary, appropriate for specific forms
and topics.

Use precise technical or scientific language when appropriate for topic
and audience.
**Standard 6 Writing: Written English Language
Conventions**

Standard English Conventions
**Standard 7 Listening and Speaking: Listening
and Speaking Skills, Strategies, and Applications**

Comprehension

Speaking Applications

**12th Grade**
**Standard 2 Reading: Reading Comprehension**

Structural Features of Informational and Technical Materials
**Standard 4 Writing: Writing Process**

Research and Technology
**Standard 5 Writing: Writing Applications (Different
Types of Writing and Their Characteristics)**

Use precise technical or scientific language when appropriate for topic
and audience.

**Indiana State Mathematics Standards
Lesson Correlation**

**Learning Skills Throughout All
Mathematics Courses**

**Communication**

The ability to read, write, listen, ask questions, think, and communicate
about math will deepen studentsí understanding of mathematical concepts.
Students should read text, data, tables, and graphs with comprehension
and understanding. Their writing should be detailed and coherent,
and they should use correct mathematical vocabulary. Students should
write to ex[lain answers, justify mathematical reasoning, and describe
problem-solving strategies.
**Representation**

The language of mathematics is expressed in words, symbols, formulas,
equasions, graphs, and data displays. The concepst of one-fourth
may be described as a quarter, ¼, one divided by four, 0.25, 1/8
+ 1/8, twenty-five percent, or an appropriately shaded portion of a pie
graph. Higher-level mathematics involves the use of more powerful
representations: exponents, logarithms, p, unknowns, statistical
representation, algebraic and geometric expressions. Mathematical
operations are expressed as representations: +, =, divide, square.
Representations are dynamic tools for solving problems and communicating
and expressing mathematical ideas and concepts.
** Connections**

Connecting mathematical concepts includes linking new ideas to
related ideas learned previously, helping students to see mathematics as
a unified body of knowledge whose concepts build upon each other.
Major emphasis should be given to ideas and cincepts across mathematical
content areas that help students see that mathematics is a web of closely
connected ideas (algebra, geometry, the entire number system). Mathematics
is also the common language of many other disciplines (science, technology,
finance, social science, geography) and students should learn mathematical
concepts used in those disciplines. Finally, students should connect
their mathematical learning to appropriate real-world contexts.

**Algebra I**
**Standard 1**

Operations with real numbers.
**Standard 2**

Linear Equations and Inequalities.
**Standard 3**

Relations and Functions
**Standard 4**

Graphing Linear Equations and Inequalities.
**Standard 9**

Mathematical Reasoning and Problem Solving

**Algebra II**
**Standard 1**

Relations and Functions
**Standard 7**

Logarithmitic and Exponential Functions.
**Standard 9**

Counting Principles and Probability
**Standard 10**

Mathematical Reasoning and Problem Solving.

**Discrete Math**
**Standard 1**

Counting Techniques
**Standard 3**

Recursion
**Standard 4**

Graph Theory

**Geometry**
**Standard 1**

Points, Lines, Angles, and Planes
**Standard 6**

Circles
**Standard 8**

Mathematical reasoning

Problem Solving

**Pre-calculus**
**Standard 1**

Relations and functions
**Standard 2**

Logarithmic and Exponential functions
**Standard 8**

Data analysis
**Standard 9**

Mathematical reasoning

Problem Solving

**Probability and Statistics**
**Standard 1**

Descriptive Statistics
**Standard 2**

Probability
**Standard 4**

Mathematical reasoning

Problem Solving

**Terms of use: **All
information found on this web page is meant for free use in the classroom.
Intellectual property in part or whole remains in ownership by the authors.
__Links to this web site are encouraged.
See below!__ Page content may not be used
on other web sites or published in any format without the expressed permission
of the page authors and must be acknowledged. Contact information can be
found by clicking on any of the names at the beginning of this web page
and can also be found below. Contact information for pages accessed by
links from this page can be found on their appropriate web sites.

LINKS! If
you would like to link to this web page, permission will generally be granted
with one requirement: E-mail one of the authors and let us know if or how
you are using this activity in the classroom, with comments. In other words,
we would like feedback about the activity. __Please
write us!!!! __

**Lowell
Bailey, Bedford-North Lawrence High School**
**Bob
Rollings, Floyd Central High School**
**Jeff
Sayers, Northview High School**
**Gail Schwoebel, Arlington High
School**

**©2001 Lowell
Bailey, Bob Rollings, Jeff Sayers, and Gail Schwoebel.**